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“熟能生巧” – 译学馆
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“熟能生巧”

How to practice effectively...for just about anything - Annie Bosler and Don Greene

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Light up the world
掌握任何一项体育技能
Mastering any physical skill,
比如 跳芭蕾舞
be it performing a pirouette,
演奏乐器
playing an instrument,
打棒球
or throwing a baseball,
都需要勤加练习
takes practice.
练习是抱着提高水平的信念而进行的不断重复
Practice is the repetition of an action with the goal of improvement,
它能使我们表现得更轻松 更快 更自信
and it helps us perform with more ease, speed, and confidence.
练习对大脑做了什么 才使我们把事情做得更好呢
So what does practice do in our brains to make us better at things?
我们的大脑有两种神经组织
Our brains have two kinds of neural tissue:
灰质
grey matter
和白质
and white matter.
灰质负责处理大脑的信息
The grey matter processes information in the brain,
指示信号 传递感觉以刺激神经元
directing signals and sensory stimuli to nerve cells,
白质则大多由脂肪组织和神经元组成
while white matter is mostly made up of fatty tissue and nerve fibers.
为了使我们的身体动起来
In order for our bodies to move,
信息需要从大脑灰质中穿行
information needs to travel from the brain’s grey matter,
向下直达脊髓
down the spinal cord,
经过一连串被称作轴突的神经元
through a chain of nerve fibers called axons
到达我们的肌肉
to our muscles.
那么练习或重复是怎样影响大脑的内部运作的呢
So how does practice or repetition affect the inner workings of our brains?
轴突存在于白质中
The axons that exist in the white matter
被一层厚厚的称作髓磷脂的脂肪性物质所包裹
are wrapped with a fatty substance called myelin.
这个髓鞘或叶鞘会在练习中不断改变
And it’s this myelin covering, or sheath, that seems to change with practice.
髓磷脂类似于电缆的绝缘体
Myelin is similar to insulation on electrical cables.
它能在大脑耗用电信号时阻止神经冲动的损失
It prevents energy loss from electrical signals that the brain uses,
以便它们更有效地 沿着神经通路传导
moving them more efficiently along neural pathways.
最近 一项对老鼠的研究显示 物理运动的重复
Some recent studies in mice suggest that the repetition of a physical motion
能够增加髓磷脂的膜 隔离轴突
increases the layers of myelin sheath that insulates the axons.
并且膜越多 效果就越好
And the more layers, the greater the insulation around the axon chains,
为信息能够由大脑传导至肌肉
forming a sort of superhighway for information
形成一个超级通道
connecting your brain to your muscles.
很多运动员和表演者
So while many athletes and performers
把他们的成功归功于肌肉记忆
attribute their successes to muscle memory,
尽管肌肉本身并没有记忆力
muscles themselves don’t really have memory.
当然了 可能是神经通路的髓鞘
Rather, it may be the myelination of neural pathways
给这些运动员和表演者提供了
that gives these athletes and performers their edge
更快 更有效的神经通路这个优势
with faster and more efficient neural pathways.
有很多理论试图
There are many theories that attempt
以量化小时数 天数 甚至是经年的练习
to quantify the number of hours, days, and even years of practice
来掌握技巧
that it takes to master a skill.
虽然并不存在一个神奇的数字
While we don’t yet have a magic number,
我们也知道技艺的精湛不单在于练习时间的叠加
we do know that mastery isn’t simply about the amount of hours of practice.
同时还需要有实践的质量和效果
It’s also the quality and effectiveness of that practice.
有效实践就是持之以恒
Effective practice is consistent,
专注于
intensely focused,
横亘在自己面前的
and targets content or weaknesses
内容和薄弱环节
that lie at the edge of one’s current abilities.
如果高效实践是关键
So if effective practice is the key,
那么 如何在实践中 使效率最大化呢
how can we get the most out of our practice time?
试试这些小窍门
Try these tips:
专注于手头的工作
Focus on the task at hand.
关上电脑或电视 尽量减少干扰
Minimize potential distractions by turning off the computer or TV
把手机调成飞行模式
and putting your cell phone on airplane mode.
在一项研究中 研究者对正在学习的260名学生进行观察
In one study, researchers observed 260 students studying.
平均来看
On average,
那些学生做作业时 只能保持六分钟的注意力
those students were able to stay on task for only six minutes at a time.
电脑 智能手机 尤其是脸书
Laptops, smartphones, and particularly Facebook
是主要干扰的源头
were the root of most distractions.
出手慢一点或动作慢一点
Start out slowly or in slow-motion.
无论恰当与否 协调性都可以通过重复锻炼实现
Coordination is built with repetitions, whether correct or incorrect.
如果你能在这种高质量的重复下逐渐加速
If you gradually increase the speed of the quality repetitons,
就更容易做到得心应手
you have a better chance of doing them correctly.
接下来 频繁的有侧重的重复训练是优秀的演奏者
Next, frequent repetitions with allotted breaks are common practice habits
普遍的练习习惯
of elite performers.
研究表明很多顶尖运动员 音乐家 舞蹈家
Studies have shown that many top athletes, musicians, and dancers
每周花在专业上的运动时间为50-60小时
spend 50-60 hours per week on activities related to their craft.
很多人会把他们有限的时间分隔开
Many divide their time used for effective practice
每天勤加练习
into multiple daily practice sessions of limited duration.
最终 实践会在脑中留下鲜明的细节
And finally, practice in your brain in vivid detail.
有点出乎意料 但一系列研究显示
It’s a bit surprising, but a number of studies suggest
一旦一项物理运动形成了
that once a physical motion has been established,
仅仅通过想象就能加强印记
it can be reinforced just by imagining it.
在一项研究中 把144名篮球运动员分成两组
In one study, 144 basketball players were divided into two groups.
A组训练单手自由投篮
Group A physically practiced one-handed free throws
B组只是想象自己在投篮
while Group B only mentally practiced them.
两周后 对他们进行测试时
When they were tested at the end of the two week experiment,
两组中 中等和老练的球员
the intermediate and experienced players in both groups
差不多提高了相同的水平
had improved by nearly the same amount.
科学家距离揭开我们大脑的秘密更近一步了
As scientists get closer to unraveling the secrets of our brains,
我们对有效实践的理解力将会提高
our understanding of effective practice will only improve.
同时 有效实践是
In the meantime, effective practice is the best way we have
挖掘个人潜能
of pushing our individual limits,
达到新高度
achieving new heights,
并把我们的潜能发挥到极致的最好方式
and maximizing our potential.

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视频概述

古人云:勤能补拙,熟能生巧。这话不是没有道理的,今天我们就来了解一下勤奋的妙用。

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