Light up the world
Mastering any physical skill,
be it performing a pirouette,
playing an instrument,
or throwing a baseball,
Practice is the repetition of an action with the goal of improvement,
它能使我们表现得更轻松 更快 更自信
and it helps us perform with more ease, speed, and confidence.
So what does practice do in our brains to make us better at things?
Our brains have two kinds of neural tissue:
and white matter.
The grey matter processes information in the brain,
directing signals and sensory stimuli to nerve cells,
while white matter is mostly made up of fatty tissue and nerve fibers.
In order for our bodies to move,
information needs to travel from the brain’s grey matter,
down the spinal cord,
through a chain of nerve fibers called axons
to our muscles.
So how does practice or repetition affect the inner workings of our brains?
The axons that exist in the white matter
are wrapped with a fatty substance called myelin.
And it’s this myelin covering, or sheath, that seems to change with practice.
Myelin is similar to insulation on electrical cables.
It prevents energy loss from electrical signals that the brain uses,
moving them more efficiently along neural pathways.
最近 一项对老鼠的研究显示 物理运动的重复
Some recent studies in mice suggest that the repetition of a physical motion
increases the layers of myelin sheath that insulates the axons.
And the more layers, the greater the insulation around the axon chains,
forming a sort of superhighway for information
connecting your brain to your muscles.
So while many athletes and performers
attribute their successes to muscle memory,
muscles themselves don’t really have memory.
Rather, it may be the myelination of neural pathways
that gives these athletes and performers their edge
with faster and more efficient neural pathways.
There are many theories that attempt
以量化小时数 天数 甚至是经年的练习
to quantify the number of hours, days, and even years of practice
that it takes to master a skill.
While we don’t yet have a magic number,
we do know that mastery isn’t simply about the amount of hours of practice.
It’s also the quality and effectiveness of that practice.
Effective practice is consistent,
and targets content or weaknesses
that lie at the edge of one’s current abilities.
So if effective practice is the key,
那么 如何在实践中 使效率最大化呢
how can we get the most out of our practice time?
Try these tips:
Focus on the task at hand.
Minimize potential distractions by turning off the computer or TV
and putting your cell phone on airplane mode.
In one study, researchers observed 260 students studying.
those students were able to stay on task for only six minutes at a time.
电脑 智能手机 尤其是脸书
Laptops, smartphones, and particularly Facebook
were the root of most distractions.
Start out slowly or in slow-motion.
Coordination is built with repetitions, whether correct or incorrect.
If you gradually increase the speed of the quality repetitons,
you have a better chance of doing them correctly.
Next, frequent repetitions with allotted breaks are common practice habits
of elite performers.
研究表明很多顶尖运动员 音乐家 舞蹈家
Studies have shown that many top athletes, musicians, and dancers
spend 50-60 hours per week on activities related to their craft.
Many divide their time used for effective practice
into multiple daily practice sessions of limited duration.
And finally, practice in your brain in vivid detail.
It’s a bit surprising, but a number of studies suggest
that once a physical motion has been established,
it can be reinforced just by imagining it.
In one study, 144 basketball players were divided into two groups.
Group A physically practiced one-handed free throws
while Group B only mentally practiced them.
When they were tested at the end of the two week experiment,
the intermediate and experienced players in both groups
had improved by nearly the same amount.
As scientists get closer to unraveling the secrets of our brains,
our understanding of effective practice will only improve.
In the meantime, effective practice is the best way we have
of pushing our individual limits,
achieving new heights,
and maximizing our potential.