ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

怎么利用星空确定方位? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

怎么利用星空确定方位?

How To Navigate Using the Stars

在没有云的夜空下 不管在哪儿
Without clouds, about 6,000 stars are visible
都可以看到大约六千颗星星
in the night sky, from anywhere on Earth.
在光污染严重的地区 这个数目更小
This number is lower in areas of heavy light pollution,
然而 在人类历史上
but for the most of human history,
这就是我们的星空
this is what we had to look up to.
在远古时期 人们对“星星是什么”产生了很多猜想
In earlier times, there were many ideas as to what the stars were.
希腊人看出了星座 把星座当成有知觉的神明
The Greeks saw constellations,who were sentient, divine beings,
这些神明因很久以前的某个壮举
awarded with the place among the stars,
而被赐予了星海中的一席之位
for some great deed done long ago.
对住在北美大盆地的派尤特族人来说
To the Paiute tribe, who lived in the Great Basin of North America,
星星的父亲是太阳 母亲是月亮
stars were the children of the Father Sun and the Mother Moon,
星星每天被太阳的光线所吞噬
eaten everyday by the light of the Sun,
并在月亮的呵护下恢复了生命
and nursed back to life by the love of the Moon.
在中国神话中 一些星星代表着确切的人物
In Chinese mythology, some stars represented actual people.
一个是织云的女孩织女
One is Jīn Yú -“the girl who weaves the clouds”.
另一个是牛郎
And another is Nu Lang –
在天上放牛的牧人
” the herdsman, who cares for the cattle of the Heavens”.
他们两人相爱了
The two were in love,
因此天神将他们用银河分隔开来
so the Gods places them on either side of the Milky Way,
以确保他们能够尽职尽责
to make sure, they were never distracted from their duties.
仅仅在每年的七月初七这天
Only once a year, on the 7th day of the 7th month,
这两位有情人才得以相见
the two lovers are allowed to meet,
那时候 天上的鸟儿们都会在银河之上为他们搭桥
when the birds in the sky will form a bridge across the Milky Way.
对于西伯利亚的雅酷特部落来说 星星是水晶眼镜
To the Yakut tribe of Siberia, the stars are crystal lenses,
神仙用它们来观测地球
used by the Gods to watch the Earth.
而对于中亚的土耳其人来说
And for the Turk people of central Asia,
天空就如一个大帐篷
the sky was one big tent,
星星只是它的小裂口
and the stars were nothing more, than small rips in it.
当然 我们现在都知道那些故事都是错误的
Of course, we know now that all of these stories are wrong.
实际上 星星是巨大的气体云
And in fact, stars are giant gas clouds,
通过几十亿英里外的核聚变发光
glowing from the process of nuclear fusion, billions of miles away.
但在古人对星星的理解中
But of these ancient understandings of the stars,
有一点至今仍然是真实的
one remains true to this day.
它不是用来解读星座运势 而是用来导航
And no, it isn’t Zodiac readings – but navigation.
古代的旅行者 现代的水手 还有飞行员
Ancient travelers, and modern sailors, and pilots alike,
都会利用星星
would use the stars,
在他们的土地上航行 发现新的土地
to voyage through their lands, and to discover new ones. So,
所以他们是怎么做到的?
how did they do it?
那么星星是如何用来导航的?
How do you navigate using the stars?
首先 只要看下一些缩时摄影
Well first, a quick look at some time-lapse photography
我们就会发现 星星在天空中并不是静止的
will show that the stars are not static in our skies.
随着地球自转 它们在空中显出轨迹
But instead, they streak across the sky, as the Earth revolves.
用一颗移动的恒星作为参考点是有问题的
Using a moving star as a reference point is problematic,
特别是对于长途旅行来说
especially for long journeys,
所以你不能随便选择天空中的任何一颗恒星
so you can’t just pick any star in they sky,
然后沿着它的方向前进
and follow in its direction.
在使用太阳和月亮导航时
The same problem is present
也存在着相同的问题
for the Sun and Moon for navigation,
因为它们将以相似的方式穿越天空
as they will move across the sky in a similar way.
虽然许多人认为 他们可以利用太阳
And while many think, they may be able to
至少太阳会在东方升起
use the Sun, at the very least to rise
在西方落下
in the East and set in the West,
但是由于地球的季节性倾斜
due to the Earth’s seasonal tilts, it’s rare,
太阳也很少在正东方升起
that the Sun ever rises in true East,
或在正西方落下
or sets in true West.
只有在昼夜平分点的赤道
Only on the equinoxes, at the equator,
才会发生这种情况 一年只发生两次
does this occur – just twice a year. So,
因此我们需要的是一个参考点
what’s needed is a reference point, that
无论是哪一年 哪一月 哪一周 还是哪一天
no mater the year, month, week or day,
都会把你引向同一个方向
will always lead you in the same direction.
在我们开始之前 先补充一下
One last thing before we get started, is
用来导航的星星 取决于
the stars used for navigation vary, depending on
你在哪个半球 北半球还是南半球
which hemisphere you’re in, north or south;
因为北半球上的星星在南半球上是看不见的
as the stars in the northern hemisphere can’t be seen from the southern hemisphere,
反之亦然
and the other way around.
既然这样 我们就开始吧
So – knowing that, let’s get into it. First,
首先 我们从北半球开始
we’ll start in the northern hemisphere,
在这里 我们会找到北极星
and here, we’ll find perhaps the most
它或许就是人们用来导航的最著名的星星
well-known star for navigation – Polaris, the North Star.
实际上 北极星刚巧位于正北方的上方
By random chance, Polaris sits virtually on top of true North,
仅仅偏离一度
just a fraction of a degree off.
正因为如此 它几乎不在天空中移动
And because of this, it barely moves in the sky,
而所有其他恒星都围绕着它旋转
while all the other stars spin around it.
这在长曝光照片中可以看得最清楚
This can be seen best in long-exposure photographs,
所有移动的星星
where all the moving stars
在天空中留下长长的条纹
make long streaks through the sky,
但中间的北极星几乎没有移动
but at the center is Polaris, hardly moved at all.
找到北极星也很简单
Finding the North Star is fairly simple, too.
它是小熊座中最亮的星星
It’s the brightest star in the constellation Ursa minor,
小熊座也叫小北斗(是的 我也没看出有熊)
the Little Dipper, or the Little Bear(yeah, I don’t see it either).
北极星是把手上的最后一颗星
Polaris is the last star in the handle.
如果你找不到它
If you’re having trouble spotting it,
你可以去找大熊座 又称北斗七星
you can look for Ursa major, the Big Dipper, or the Big Bear,
我觉得大熊座更容易找到
which I find much easier to spot.
一旦你找到了北斗七星
Once you found the Big Dipper,
你就可以用它的末端恒星 天枢星和天璇星
you can use its end stars, called the Dubhe and Merak,
沿着它们走的路径 直达北极星
and follow the path they make, straight to Polaris.
如果北极星被云遮住 而北斗七星没有 那么
If clouds are covering Polaris, but not the Big Dipper, know,
北极星与天枢星的距离
that Polaris lays roughly 5 lengths
是天枢星与天璇星距离的五倍
of the distance between Dubhe and Merak away.
还要注意 虽然北极星相对静止
Also be aware, that while Polaris stays relatively still,
北斗七星和其他星星一样会移动
the Big Dipper, like the rest of the stars, will move,
有时会被地平线上的物体覆盖
and sometimes may be covered by objects on the horizon,
比如山脉或树木
like mountains or trees.
所以最好在高地上寻找北极星
So it’s best to look for Polaris on high ground.
那么要往南走该怎样?
Okay, so what about for going South?
我们能不能找到北极星
Can we just find the North Star,
然后朝相反的方向航行?
and sail in the opposite direction?
不行 如果没有瞄准点
Well, no. without a point to aim your ship at,
就没有真正的方法来确保你的航向是正确的
there’s no real way to ensure you’re sailing in the right direction.
你需要找的是另一个著名的星座 猎户座
Instead, you’ll need to find another well-known constellation, Orion.
如果它看起来像一堆随机排列的星星 先别担心
And if that just looks like a bunch of random stars, don’t worry.
你只需要找到他的腰带
All you need to know is his belt.
也就是这三颗紧密地排成直线的恒星
These three close stars in a straight line:
参宿一 参宿二和参宿三
Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka.
参宿三稍后会再次出现 所以试着记住它
Mintaka comes up again later, so try to remember it.
但是从这里 你需要找到所谓的猎户座之剑
But from here, you’ll need to find what’s called Orion’s sword,
它挂在他的腰带上
which hangs from his belt.
就是这三颗星 由一颗暗淡的星
It’s these three stars here, made from a dim star,
一颗模糊的星和一颗明亮的星组成
a fuzzy star, and a bright star.
“模糊星”实际上不是一颗恒星
That”fuzzy star” isn’t actually a star,
而是一团叫做猎户座星云的巨大气体云
but a huge gas cloud called the Orion nebula,
那里正在形成新的恒星
where new stars are actually being made.
如果你沿着这把剑的方向走到地平线
If you follow the direction of this sword down to the horizon,
这一点应该会指向南方
this point should lead south.
如果星座在天空中较低 这就有点不准确
This gets a little inaccurate, when the constellation is lower in the sky,
不过你还是能往南走
but should still bring you south.
好了 现在我们身处南半球
Okay, now we’re in the southern hemisphere,
我要说的从这开始有些难了
and this is where things start getting a little tough.
但是考虑到地球上大部分的海洋
But considering most of the Earth’s oceans are
都处于南半球 这仍然是非常值得学习的
in the southern hemisphere, it’s still very much worth learning.
除了北极星 这是人们利用星星来导航的
Here, we’ll find probably the second most popular method
第二种流行的方法
of using stars for directions, right after Polaris.
如果你来自澳大利亚 新西兰 巴布亚新几内亚 巴西
If you’re Australian, Kiwi, Papua-New Guinean, Brazilian,
或者萨摩亚 你可能已经很熟悉这种方法了
or Samoan, you’re likely familiar with it already.
那就是南十字星 官方称为Crux
And that’s the Southern Cross,more officially known as Crux.
它可以被看作
It can be seen as a cross,
有一颗多余星星的十字
with an extra blemish star right here.
对一些人来说 它在天空中比较难找
Some may find this one a bit harder to find in the sky,
因为任意四颗星星都能在天空中画出十字
as just about any 4 stars can make a cross in the sky.
但有个办法可以帮你找到它
But there’s a way to help you find the right one.
在南十字星的一侧
To the side of the Crux, there
总会有两颗明亮的恒星
will always be two bright stars, sometimes
有时它们比南十字星更易辨别
easier to spot than the Crux itself.
它们叫做指针星 稍后还会需要它们
These are called the Pointer Stars, and you’ll need them again later.
指针星总是指向南十字星
The Pointer Stars always point towards the Crux,
它们可以使你确定
and can confirm for you, if you are unsure,
你要用来确定方向的是真的南十字星
that you are in fact using the proper stars.
确定了南十字星和指针星位置之后
After you’ve located the Crux and its pointers,
你需要在头脑中画更多的线条
you’re going to need to do some more line-drawing in your head.
假设你的天空是这样的
Say your sky looks like this.
利用南十字星顶部和底部的星星
Using the top and bottom stars of the Crux,
从南十字星底部画一条线
draw a line out from the bottom of the Cross.
然后 从两个指针星开始
Then, from the two Pointer Stars,
画出一条垂直于它们的直线
draw a line out that is perpendicular to them,
沿着与南十字星相同的方向前行
going in the same direction, as the line from the Cross.
这两条线交汇的地方 就是南
Where these two lines meet, is South.
接下来画一条垂直地平线的线
So just draw a line straight down to the horizon
它与地平线的交点就是南
from there, and you should be good.
再说一遍 用这一方法找正南方并不完全准确
Again, this is not 100% absolutely perfect South,
但在一定程度上
but within a degree or so,
这是最完美的
and it’s as perfect as things get.
不幸的是 在南半球很难找到正北方
Unfortunately, there’s no good way of finding North in the southern hemisphere,
因为北极星被地球挡住了……
as Polaris is blocked by… well, the Earth.
但这里也有一些可以在任一半球
But there are a few more tricks, that
使用的技巧 它们取决于
you can use in either hemisphere, depending on
一年中你所在的时间点
what time of year it is.
如果你在赤道附近
If you’re near the equator –
或着说天赤道附近
or the celestial equator, I should say,
而你必须区分东和西
and you need to know East and West,
你就要再次找到猎户座的腰带
you’ll again have to find Orion’s belt.
特别是最前面的星星
Particularly, the leading star,
也就是从地平线上升起的第一颗星
meaning the first one that will rise above the hirizon.
如果你还记得的话 这颗星叫做参宿三
This star is called Mintaka, if you remember.
它从地平线升起时
And the point on the horizon, where it rises,
总是指向正东方
is always true East.
它从地平线落下时
And the point on the horizon, where it sets,
总是指向正西方
is always true West.
还有另一个简单的技巧
And then there’s one more easy trick,
不管你在地球的什么地方
no matter where you are on Earth.
首先 找两根木棍 将它们插在地上
First, take two sticks and plant them in the ground,
两者相距约一米
roughly a yard or a meter apart.
然后 选择天上的一颗星
Then, pick a star in the sky,
调整你自己的位置 让它们重合成一条线
and adjust yourself, so that the stakes align
并和星星对齐
and line up with the star.
你最好选一颗明亮的 这样有利于追踪
It helps to pick a bright star, that’s easy to keep track of.
之后你唯一要做的
Then all you need to do,
就是等待这颗星星在与木棍排成的直线上移动
is wait for the star to move out of alignment with the two sticks.
根据它移动的方向
Depending on which way it moved,
你大概就会知道你面对着什么方向
you’ll know one or two details about the way you face.
如果星星升起 你就面朝东方
If the star rose, you’re facing East.
沉了 就是面朝西方
If it sank, the West.
如果它向左移动 你就是面朝北
If it moved to the left, you’re facing North.
如果它向右 你就是面朝南
And if it went to the right, you’re facing South.
如果它是斜对着往左上升
If it rose diagonally to the left,
那么你就是面朝西北 以及其他一些情况等等
then you’re facing North-West, and et cetera.
当然 利用星星的方法还有很多
Of course, there are many more ways to use the stars,
但我想我们现在知道的够用了
but I think we’re good for now.
我希望你学到了一些有用的东西
I hope you learned something useful, and please leave
如果你想看到更多这样的视频
a like and subscribe, if you’d like to see
请留下赞和订阅
more videos like this in the future.
如果你知道任何关于星星的很酷的技巧
And if you know any cool tricks with stars,
即使它们与导航无关
even if they’re not related to navigation,
请在评论中告诉我
let me know in the comments.
谢谢!
Thanks!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

如何利用星星导航?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

一千九

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bh5kHTBr0gU

相关推荐