未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

如何为病毒命名(例如COVID-19)

How To Name A Disease (Like COVID-19)

Hi, this is Julián from MinuteEarth.
嗨 我是《分钟地球》的Julián
In 2009, a disease swept across the globe and infected millions,
2009年 一种疾病席卷全球并感染了数百万人
and before it was officially named 2009 H1N1 Flu,
在被正式命名为2009年H1N1流感前
it was popularly dubbed “swine flu”
它俗称“猪流感”
Panicking countries banned sales of pigs and pig products,
陷入恐慌的国家禁止了猪肉及其加工产品的销售
turning the pork industry on its snout
这使得猪肉行业陷入了困境
and Egypt even went so far as to slaughter all 300,000 of the country’s pigs
埃及甚至不惜屠宰了全国30万头猪
to stop the virus in its tracks.
来阻止病毒的蔓延
The problem?
这真是问题所在吗?
While the virus likely evolved from one that did infect pigs,
虽然病毒可能源于感染猪的那种病毒
the 2009 version was almost exclusively transmitted person-to-person
但2009年的病毒几乎完全是人传人
rather than porcine-to-person.
而不是猪传人
Regardless the name alone triggered a pig-induced pandemonium,
不管怎样 这个名字本身触发了由猪引起的恐慌
but pigs aren’t in any way the only victims of the poorly-named disease
但猪绝不是疾病错误命名事件中的唯一受害者
Historically, we’ve also named viruses after groups of people or places where people live
历史上还曾用过感染人群或居住地来命名病毒
which can direct all that disease-associated fear and stigma onto people,
这导致所有与疾病相关的恐惧和污名都指向了相关人群
and not only is that incredibly dangerous for those people,
这不仅给那些人带来了极大的危险
but prejudice does not actually prevent the spread of disease
而且偏见并不能阻止疾病的蔓延
To help protect people, places,
为了保护感染人群 地点
and.. . well, pigs from such stigma,
好吧 还有猪群 不用背负莫须有的污名
In 2015 the World Health Organization penned guidelines
2015年 世界卫生组织制定了
for naming new infectious diseases soon after they’re discovered.
关于新发现传染病的命名指南
No people, places, animals, foods, or occupations.
名称禁止出现人群 地点 动物 食物以及职业
And avoid fear-mongering with terms like “unknown” or “fatal”.
且要避免使用会引起恐慌的字眼 如“未知”或“致命”
Instead, use descriptive qualities of the disease itself,
而应有疾病的可描述性特征
like symptoms, severity or seasonality
比如症状 严重程度或者季节性特点
and, if known, the actual bug behind the disease,
也可用已知的引发该疾病的真正病毒来命名
oh, and definitely keep the name easily pronounceable,
对了 疾病的名字一定要便于发音
which is how are our latest pandemic was named Coronavirus Disease 2019,
当下的流行病 2019新型冠状病毒 就是这样命名的
abbreviated COVID-19
简称COVID-19
for the crown-shaped coronavirus that causes the disease that emerged in 2019.
因为这个病毒是冠状的 导致的疾病出现于2019年
Of course, some people will still be racist or misinformed
当然 有些人仍然是种族主义者 也有些人仍被误导
and turn their fear on the nearest scapegoat,
他们把恐惧转移到最容易误解的替罪羊身上
but at least we’re trying to head off the spread of stigma by providing standardized names
但在有害的名字如病毒般扩散之前 我们至少
before the harmful ones can go viral.
应该给出标准的命名 来努力阻止污名的蔓延
These days, the world needs all the generosity it can get.
如今 世界需要每个人都伸出援助之手
And one really easy and free way to donate to worthy cause is Tap For A Cause,
一种简单免费又有价值的捐款办法便是使用Tab For A Cause
which donates money to a charity each time you open a new browser tab.
每次你打开一个新的浏览器标签 它就会自动捐款给慈善组织
I’ve been using Tab for a Cause for at least six years and,
我使用这个插件至少六年了
according to my Tab for a Cause stats page,
根据我的网站页面统计
I’ve opened over – holy tab-moly – 37,000 tabs in that time,
在那段时间内我居然打开过37000多个标签页
which I’ve turned it to real donations to my favourite charities
这些已变成真实的捐款 捐给了我最喜欢的慈善组织
including their current COVID-19 response fund.
其中包括目前的COVID-19应急基金
If you like me–open way too many tabs,
如果你和我一样 会打开很多标签页
you can feel good about it by going to tab for a cause.org/MinuteEarth2
那么tabforacause.org/MinuteEarth2正适合你
and downloading the extension now.
现在就下载扩展插件吧
That’s tab for a cause.org/MinuteEarth2.
网址是tabforacause.org/MinuteEarth2
And there is one more way you can help the world from the comfort of your couch,
还有一种舒服躺在沙发上就能帮助世界的方法
stay there, at least for now
待在家里 至少现阶段如此
We’re putting this video out in the midst of a pandemic
在疫情大流行期间我们发布了这段视频
and according to the World Health Organization
据世界卫生组织表示
– the best way to make sure you don’t become a carrier of the virus
确保自己不成为病毒携带者
or infect vulnerable people like, say, your grandparents,
或传染给像你祖父母的易感人群的最佳方法
is to stay home
就是待在家里
-or if you absolutely have to go out, stay far away from other people.
如果你真的不得不外出 与他人保持足够远的距离
Let’s help each other out in the comments
让我们大家一起在评论区提议
by suggesting some awesome things to do while you are housebound
在家可以做哪些有意思的事
other than watching minuteearth, of course
当然 收看《分钟地球》就不必说了
And for a much-needed moment of distraction
现在有必要打断一下
here’s our latest caption contest winner.
这是我们最新一期的看图配文大赛冠军
The next image is ready for awesome caption suggestions from all levels of patrons
下张图片已准备就绪 各方观众可以在patreon.com/minuteearth上
at patreon.com/minuteearth
留下最出色的配文

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本视频从“猪流感”讲起,到19年的新冠病毒,在讲命名的同时还告诉了我们如何防御疾病

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Marie

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6xsQwTgwcFM

相关推荐