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如何记忆得更快更好

How to Memorize Way Faster and Easier

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点击简介链接获得免费试用名额和首次购买九折优惠
Meet Billy.
跟比利打个招呼
He wants to go to Allstar Academy: the best college in his country.
他想考上明星学院也就是他们国家里最好的大学
The Academy is home to the world’s greatest overachievers.
学院是世界上培养杰出人士们的摇篮
To get in, Billy needs to ace his next exam.
为了考进明星学院 比利需要在他下个考试中取得优异成绩
The problem?
那么问题在哪呢?
The exam requires a lot of memorization which he is terrible at.
这场考试需要记很多东西 但是他不擅长记忆
but he watched my last video on the growth mindset
但是他看了我上个关于成长型思维的视频
and knows that he can improve his ability to memorize.
并了解到他可以提高记忆的能力
With that said, let’s help Billy get into Allstar Academy.
因此 我们就来帮助比利考上明星学院吧
How to memorize way faster and easier.
如何记得又快又好
Before we discuss the tactical advice,
在我们开始讨论这个策略方法之前
we need to understand some basics about memory.
我们需要先了解关于记忆的一些基础知识
The act of memorization can be thought of as a collection of smaller processes.
记忆行为可以视为许多精细过程的联合作用
We’re going to focus on two in particular: encoding and retrieval.
我们要关注其中两个比较特别的环节:编码和检索
Encoding is the process of creating new memories
编码是创造新记忆的过程
and retrieval is the process of accessing them.
检索则是回忆这些记忆
If Billy wants to ace his exam,
如果比利想在考试中摘得桂冠
he has to optimize both of these processes.
他必须充分利用这两个过程
So, let’s start by taking a look at the process of encoding.
让我们先来看看编码的过程
One way Billy can improve his ability to encode information is
比利可以提高编码信息能力的一个方法就是
is by using a Dual Coding process.
使用双重编码程序
Initially coined by Allan Paivio,
这个理论程序的创始人是艾伦·佩维奥
the term “ refers to the creation of both a visual
专业术语为“对于同一样信息要同时回顾
and a verbal memory for the same information.”
创造记忆时产生的口头信息和书面信息”
While the theory of Dual Coding is still controversial,
尽管双重编码理论现在仍有争议
the process is quite promising.
但其过程却很有效果
One study found that students were able to improve their ability
一项研究表明学生能够通过画出的图画辅助
to memorize a piece of information by drawing a complimentary image.
从而提高他们记忆碎片信息的能力
A more elaborate form of dual coding,
双重编码的另一更精细的方式就是记忆宫殿
the memory palace is used by competitive memory champions
记忆竞赛中使用记忆宫殿
to encode large volumes of information.
来编码记住大量信息
The memory palace requires the user to imagine a palace full of weird objects.
记忆宫殿要求使用者想象出一个装满了稀奇古怪物品的宫殿
Each object is a symbol of something the user is trying to memorize.
其中每一个物品都是记忆者所试图记住信息的标志
By walking through the palace in their mind and examining these objects,
通过在大脑中穿梭记忆宫殿并检查这些物品
the user can recall the related information.
让使用者可以回想相互关联的信息
As impressive as the memory palace is,
我建议比利使用一些更简单实用
I’d suggest something less complex and more pragmatic for Billy.
且记忆效果与记忆宫殿一样的方法
Construct a mind map.
即思维导图
A mind map combines verbal and visual information
思维导图所包含的书面和口头信息的方式
in a way that is easily digestible.
更容易让人消化
It has the added benefit of allowing Billy
思维导图能够让比利
to see how all of the information he’s gathered relates to each other
去看到他所搜集的信息之间相互的联系
and where there are gaps in his knowledge.
以及他知识缺漏的地方
As we discussed in the Feynman Technique video,
正如我们在费曼技巧视频里说过的一样
identifying gaps in our knowledge is key for learning effectively
检查知识缺漏是高效学习的关键
Let’s take a closer look at constructing a mind map.
让我们细看思维导图
I often hear people say they have trouble
我经常听到有人说他们
remembering what they read in a book.
很难记住他们所看书的内容
The reason for this is simple:
原因其实很简单
they aren’t encoding or retrieving the information effectively.
因为他们并没有有效的编码并检索这些信息
Readers will often highlight or underline passages they want to recall in a book.
读者经常会在书上用荧光笔加亮或者划线他们想回顾的段落
This is mostly useless.
这个其实是最没用的方法
The reader would be better off constructing a mind map.
建造思维导图的方式会更好
Place the title of the book in the middle.
在中央写上书的标题
Make a branch for each chapter.
给每个章节都分出一枝
Read the chapter and make an additional branch
阅读章节然后再继续
for each argument in that chapter.
给该章节的内容概要分出一枝
Every author is trying to convey a message to the reader,
每个作者都在试图向读者传达某种信息
they are trying to make an argument.
他们设法做出一个内容概要
Actively reconstruct the author’s argument as you read along
当你一个人看书时 积极地重建作者的内容概要
and you will remember the book a lot better.
你就能更好的记住这本书的内容
The mind map is one of the best ways to do this.
使用思维导图是重建故事内容概要最好的方法之一
It forces you to take the verbal information, and organize it visually.
思维导图要求你记住口头信息 然后再整合成书面信息
Visually representing the information will help
书面重现这些信息能够帮助你
you see how all the bits of information
了解所有碎片化信息之间是如何相互联系的
connect to each other, and where there might be gaps in your understanding.
以及在理解中可能存在的缺漏
As a result, you’ll have a greater comprehension
最后你就会拥有一个强大的素材理解力
of the material which will make it easier to remember.
从而能够帮助你记忆的更轻松
Of course, encoding is just one-half of the puzzle.
当然了 编码只是谜题的一半
The other and arguably more important half is retrieval.
另一半 或许是比编码还重要的另一半就是检索
Studies show that we can retain information
研究表明当我们反复检索记忆时
for much longer when we repeatedly retrieve it from our memory.
我们就能够将记忆保存得更长久
A memory is strengthened with each subsequent retrieval.
一项记忆能通过后面的检索而加强
Studies show that our memories are strongest
研究显示当我们隔出一段时间
when our retrieval sessions are spaced apart.
检索记忆周期时 记忆最为稳固
For example, it’s better to study a piece
例如学习一些碎片信息时
of information for 1 hour a day over 3 days
每天花一小时学习三天
than 3 hours in 1 day.
比一天内学习三小时的效率更好
Let’s call each retrieval session a study session.
让我们把检索周期成为学习周期
A common question is,
一个普遍的问题就是
how far apart should these study sessions be?
学习周期究竟要隔多久才好呢?
The answer really comes down to the individual,
这个答案主要因个人情况而不同
how far away the test is, if there is one,
比如 还有多久考试 如果马上就有一个
the difficulty of the material, and how much time is available.
那么材料的难度是多大 以及有多长时间可以复习
But, a good system to use is the Leitner system.
莱特纳系统正好可以应对这种情况
The intervals between each successful study session should be increasing.
在两个成功学习周期之间的间隔应该越来越大
In this case,
在这种情况下
successful means you correctly recalled the information
成功指的是你能正确回忆出
you were trying to memorize.
你试图记忆的信息
For example, you may want to recall some information after 1 day and,
比如 你需要在一天后复习
and if you’re successful, try again after 2 days.
如果你复习成功 两天后再复习一次
Then 3, then 5, then 9 and so on.
然后三天后 五天后 接着九天后诸如此类
Let’s call this the Leitner hierarchy.
让我们将这个周期称为莱特纳等级
Everyone’s hierarchy will look different depending on many factors
每个人的莱特纳等级都会因为许多因素而不同
and it really comes down to the individual to optimize their own.
实际是靠个人自身情况来发挥最大效果的
But if you fail to recall a piece of information on the 9th day, for example,
但是比如你第九天没有复习碎片信息
you have to reset its position in the hierarchy.
你就必须在等级里重置该信息的位置
You have to bring it back to the beginning.
你必须重新开始记忆
If I fail to recall it on the 9th day,
如果我第九天没有复习
I will have to try again after 1 day, then 2, then 5, and so on.
我就必须在一天后再复习一遍 然后 两天后 五天后这样下去
Each successful movement up the hierarchy will strengthen that memory.
每次成功记忆提升记忆等级都会加强那个记忆
If you start this spaced and repeated retrieval at the beginning of a semester,
如果你在新学期一开始就这样间隔学习复习
you probably won’t have to study much at the end.
你到后面可能就不需要学习很多知识
Most of the information will already be solidified in your memory.
大部分知识早就已经被你记牢了
Naturally, I know a lot of people are going to be watching this
当然了 我知道大部分看我视频的观众
in preparation for an upcoming exam.
都是为了准备马上到来的考试
This system still works for cramming:
这个系统也适用填鸭式学习
you just have to use much shorter intervals.
你只要极大压缩学习间隔
When I’ve had to cram 100s of flashcards overnight,
当我必须在一晚上记忆100张闪记卡时
I would use intervals of 1 minute,
我就会把时间间隔为一分钟
10 minutes, 30 minutes, an hour, 5 hours, then 24 hours.
10分钟 30分钟 1小时 5小时 然后是24小时
Of course, cramming isn’t recommended
当然了我并不推荐死记硬背
but using spaced and repeated retrieval can make it more efficient.
但是短时间内间隔时间复习能让背记更有效率
You won’t waste time going over the same information over and over again.
你不会想浪费时间一直重复记忆同一样东西
We’ve optimized the processes of encoding and retrieval, independently.
我们尽量自主充分利用编码和检索程序
Now, let’s look at optimizing them together.
现在让我看看编码和检索同时被充分使用的情况
Our ability to recall information is state-dependent.
我们回想信息的能力的状态依赖的
We benefit by being in the same state for recall as we were for encoding.
当我们在与最初编码时相同的经验下更容易提取记忆
This includes mood, environment, and caffeine levels.
这包括了情绪 环境和自身兴奋状态
One study found that students who studied
一项研究发现
in an intoxicated state were able to recall the information better
兴奋状态下学习的学生 兴奋时比清醒时
when they were intoxicated than when they were sober!
回忆信息的能力更强
So, state really matters.
因此 状态十分关键
For this reason, I suggest Billy studies
由此 我建议比利
in the room he’s actually going to write the exam if possible.
如果有可能的话在他要考试的考场中学习
Also, since he drinks coffee while studying,
并且因为他在学习时会喝咖啡
he needs to drink coffee for the exam as well.
他在考试的时候也需要喝杯咖啡
This will keep Billy’s state as equivalent
这样可以尽可能的保证和比利学习时的状态相同
as possible and improve his ability to recall
并在考试中
information during the test.
提高他回忆知识的能力
Using these 3 tricks, there’s no way that Billy won’t get into allstar academy.
用了这三个方法 比利不可能考不上明星学院
Oh……
哦……
Thanks squarespace, anyone who click the link in the description will get a free trial
感谢方形空间 点击简介链接就能得免费试用名额
and 10% off first purchase.
并且九折购买优惠
Squarespace allow you to make beautiful website with all in one platform.
方形空间能让你只用一个平台就能制作出一个精美网站
you don’t need to know any coding at all to get started
你不需要任何编码基础
and they have beautiful award-winning templates
并且他们拥有精美的获奖模板
when I first started freedom in thought
当我开始制作《放飞思想》系列时
it began as a blog for engineering students
起初只是面向工程学学生们的博客
and the platform I used to set up that blog with Squarespace
然后我用方形空间这个平台创建博客
they made it easy for me to get a good looking website up and
这个平台能让我很简单的就建立出一个好看的网站
and just get started with the writing and publishing.
并且可以直接开始写作并发布
I now use them to run three of my websites.
我已经用方形空间运营了三家网站
Engineering worth for engineering students,
适合工程学学生们的《放飞思想》
freedom in thought and my own personal and professional website,
我自己的个人网站以及专业网站
whether you’re a musician, designer, entrepreneur or student,
不论你是一个音乐家 设计师 企业家还是学生
a good professional web site is a must,
都必须要有一个专业的网页
and Squarespace can help you set one up easily.
方形空间能帮助你制作网页更加简单
Again click the link in the description to get a free trial and 10% off your first purchase.
再一次 点击简介链接获得试用名额首次购买享受九折优惠
As always, thanks watching and I’ll see you next time.
感谢观看 下次见

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视频概述

介绍三种记忆方法,帮助学习记忆

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rWhzH07UG0s

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