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我们该怎样更高效的管理时间(和机器相比)

How to manage your time more effectively (according to machines) - Brian Christian

In the summer of 1997,
1997年夏天
NASA’s Pathfinder spacecraft landed on the surface of Mars,
NASA的探路者飞船降落在火星表面
and began transmitting incredible, iconic images back to Earth.
开始向地球传送令人惊奇的 形象的图像
But several days in, something went terribly wrong.
但没几天 就出现了严重的错误
The transmissions stopped.
传送停止了
Pathfinder was, in effect, procrastinating:
实际上探路者是延时了:
keeping itself fully occupied but failing to do its most important work.
它让自己高速运转 却无法完成最重要的工作
What was going on?
发生了什么?
There was a bug, it turned out, in its scheduler.
事实是 它的调度程序出现了故障
Every operating system has something called the scheduler
每个操作系统都有调度程序
that tells the CPU how long to work
它会告诉CPU每个任务需要
on each task before switching,
做多久再切换到下一个
and what to switch to.
以及下一个任务是什么
Done right, computers move so fluidly between their various responsibilities,
如果正常运行 电脑能在多个指令间流畅切换
they give the illusion of doing everything simultaneously.
让人觉得它们是同时在处理所有的任务
But we all know what happens when things go wrong.
但我们都知道出错时发生了什么
This should give us, if nothing else, some measure of consolation.
如果没别的事 这也理应让人们得到一点安慰
Even computers get overwhelmed sometimes.
即使是电脑 有时候也会不知所措
Maybe learning about the computer science of scheduling
也许学习计算机科学中的时间安排
can give us some ideas about our own human struggles with time.
也能让我们了解那些被时间所困扰的人们
One of the first insights is
其一就是
that all the time you spend prioritizing your work
你为安排工作的轻重缓急所花的时间
is time you aren’t spending doing it.
并没有用于做这件事
For instance, let’s say when you check your inbox,
比如 当你查看收件箱时
you scan all the messages,
你会浏览所有的信息
choosing which is the most important.
选择最重要的
Once you’ve dealt with that one, you repeat.
一旦完成了这条 你就会重复处理下一条
Seems sensible, but there’s a problem here.
听起来很合理 但这儿有个问题
This is what’s known as a quadratic-time algorithm.
就是我们所知的二次时间算法
With an inbox that’s twice as full,
如果收件箱两倍满
these passes will take twice as long
这个过程就会花两倍时间
and you’ll need to do twice as many of them!
并且你需要做两倍的排序工作
This means four times the work.
这就意味着四倍工作量
The programmers of the operating system Linux
Linux操作系统的开发人员
encountered a similar problem in 2003.
在2003年遇到了一个类似的问题
Linux would rank every single one
Linux会把每个任务
of its tasks in order of importance,
按重要性排序
and sometimes spent more time ranking tasks than doing them.
并且有时候排序的时间要多于做任务的时间
The programmers’ counterintuitive solution was to replace this full ranking
开发人员违反直觉的解决方案是以一串有限的
with a limited number of priority “buckets.”
优先“存储桶”来代替原来的整个排序列表
The system was less precise about what to do next
这个系统对下一步做什么更含糊
but more than made up for it by spending more time making progress.
但起码弥补了原来没时间完成任务的问题
So with your emails,
那么对于邮件
insisting on always doing the very most important thing first
坚持从最重要的任务开始完成
could lead to a meltdown.
可能会导致全盘崩溃
Waking up to an inbox three times fuller than normal
眼前出现一个比平时3倍满的收件箱
could take nine times longer to clear.
需要花9倍的时间来清理
You ’ d be better off replying in chronological order, or even at random!
按时间先后甚至按任意顺序回复 可能都会更舒服!
Surprisingly, sometimes giving up on doing things in the perfect order
让人惊讶地 有时放弃以最优顺序处理任务
may be the key to getting them done.
可能才是完成它们的关键
Another insight that emerges from computer scheduling
另一个从电脑时间安排中显现的见解
has to do with one of the most prevalent features of modern life: interruptions.
与现代生活一个最流行的特色有关:中断
When a computer goes from one task to another,
当电脑从一个任务切换到另一个
it has to do what’s called a context switch,
它需要进行被称为“环境切换”的工作
bookmarking its place in one task,
把一个任务的进度记下
moving old data out of its memory and new data in.
从存储中移除旧数据 装入新数据
Each of these actions comes at a cost.
每个动作都需要成本
The insight here is that there’s a fundamental tradeoff
这里的见解就是在生产力
between productivity and responsiveness.
和响应能力之间需要有个基本的权衡
Getting serious work done means minimizing context switches.
完成重要人物意味着最小化环境切换的时间
But being responsive means reacting anytime something comes up.
反应快意味着有事发生时随时反应
These two principles are fundamentally in tension.
这两个选择本质上是相互制约的
Recognizing this tension allows us
意识到这种制约让我们可以
to decide where we want to strike that balance.
自主决定在哪里儿打破平衡
The obvious solution is to minimize interruptions.
明显的解决方案是缩小间隔
The less obvious one is to group them.
另一个不那么明显的方案就是将它们组合
If no notification or email requires a response
如果没有通知或者邮件需要
more urgently than once an hour, say,
比如 在1个小时内回应
then that’s exactly how often you should check them. No more.
那其实你1小时检查一次邮箱就好 不需要更频繁
In computer science, this idea goes by the name of interrupt coalescing.
在计算机科学中 这个观点叫做中断结合
Rather than dealing with things as they come up – Oh,
并非在事情出现时再处理
the mouse was moved?
鼠标被移动了?
A key was pressed?
键盘被敲击了?
More of that file downloaded?
过多的文件被下载了?
– the system groups these interruptions together
系统会根据中断能等多久处理
based on how long they can afford to wait.
把它们组合在一起
In 2013, interrupt coalescing
2013年 中断结合
triggered a massive improvement in laptop battery life.
引起笔记本电脑电池寿命的大幅提升
This is because deferring interruptions lets
这是因为推迟中断让
a system check everything at once,
系统能马上查看所有事项
then quickly re-enter a low-power state.
之后马上重新进入低耗电状态
As with computers, so it is with us.
我们和电脑是一个道理
Perhaps adopting a similar approach
也许和电脑使用类似的方法
might allow us users to reclaim our own attention,
会让我们用户重拾自己的注意力
and give us back one of the things that feels so rare in modern life: rest.
让我们重新收获在现代生活中极其缺少的:休息

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视频概述

不仅人会在时间管理上犯错误 机器也会 人们也许可以和机器、程序的任务安排机制学学时间管理

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

可可天使

审核员

审核员V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDbdXTMnOmE

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