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如何让西红柿尝起来更好

How to make tomatoes taste awesome again — Speaking of Chemistry

传统的成熟的西红柿一定是摸起来软软的 吃起来多汁的 看上去颜色鲜艳的 闻起来香香的
A ripe heirloom tomato can be an epiphany–soft, juicy, colorful, flavorful.
所以为什么好多超市的西红柿却是没什么味道的而且摸起来像石头一样硬呢
So why are so many supermarket tomatoes tasteless and rock hard?
由于科学 我们才知道这些超市的西红柿为什么这么硬
Thanks to science, we know why these supermarket shams are so darn miserable.
做些什么才能让超市的西红柿完全变好呢?
And what can be done to make supermarket tomatoes totally terrific.
所以你需要了解的第一件事就是西红柿需要经过成长期
So the first thing you need to know it that tomatoes go through puberty
就像我们一样
just like the rest of us.
成熟的过程是这样的:这是一个激素刺激的过程 激素把未成熟的绿色的西红柿
That’s what ripening is: A hormone driven process that turns juvenile green tomatoes
变成成熟的果实 以准备好散播自己的种子然后在下一代身上继续发挥作用
into mature fruits ready to spread their seeds and get cracking on the next generation.
西红柿成熟过程由乙烯引导
Tomato puberty kicks off with the simple molecule ethylene.
这种激素激发酶分化出一种色素混合物 例如番茄红素
This hormone activates enzymes that build pigment compounds, such as red lycopene.
它激发酶分化出一种香味分子例如β紫罗酮 这种东西可以让西红柿
And it activates enzymes that build flavor molecules such as β-ionone, which gives tomatoes
产生一种诱人的玫瑰花和紫罗兰似的香味 香叶基丙酮提供叶子的香味
a pleasantly floral odor of roses and violets, geranyl-acetone which adds leafy notes, and
甲基庚烯酮可以让其产生柑橘的香味
6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, which gives a citrus kick.
发育期的西红柿也可以产生酶 这种酶可以把淀粉转变成糖 然后使果实产生甜味
Teenage tomatoes also produce enzymes that convert starch to sugar to sweeten the flesh,
也可以分解纤维素和果胶 让果实变得柔软而多汁
and enzymes that break down cellulose and pectin to make the fruit soft and juicy.
记住 这种化学物质制造的神奇的现象都是乙烯引导的
Remember, this wonderful cascade of chemistry all begins with ethylene.
超市西红柿出现这种问题的根本在于:很久以前
Herein lies the root of the problem with supermarket tomatoes: Long ago, the produce industry began
制造厂为了让西红柿在长途运输和长时间运输的情况
messing with tomato puberty by breeding tomatoes to survive long-distance shipping and still
看起来仍然新鲜把未成熟的西红柿和成熟的掺杂起来
look good despite the jetlag.
在90年代 西红柿培育者宣布了一项重大突破一个新品种诞生了
In the 90s, tomato breeders announced a breakthrough: A variety that remained hard during shipping
这种西红柿在运输过程中是硬的 后来到我们碗里的和超市货架上的西红柿已经熟了
and then ripened on supermarket shelves or in your fruit bowl.
这种运输过程中保持坚硬的新品种发生了突变
This travel hardy variety has a mutation that curtails the production of ethylene,
这种突变基因抑制了乙烯(也就是催熟素)的产生
the ripening hormone.
结果 突变植物中强行催熟的生物化学物质(乙烯)是
As a result, the biochemical drive to ripen in mutant plants is roughly half of what you’d
发现的野生西红柿的这种物质的一半
find in wild tomatoes.
乙烯少了意味着果蔬变硬更适合运输
Less ethylene means harder fruit and easier shipping, but it also means that there are
但也意味着产生的香味和糖的酶更少了
fewer enzymes to produce flavor and sugar.
这种突变本质上是一种欺骗 超市中受人们欢迎的西红柿新品种都是半路经历成熟期来的
This mutation essentially traps the popular supermarket tomato variety midway through adolescence.
这是我不希望在任何生命形式中发生的现象
This is a fate I would not wish on any life form.
还有很多不好的新闻
There’s more bad news.
十年前 西红柿培育者宣布西红柿应该有
Decades ago tomato breeders also decided that tomatoes should have a uniform red color—
统一的颜色标准所以他们在农场繁殖出了
so they bred out the mottled green splotches you see in wild tomatoes and the heirlooms varieties
和野生西红柿一样的有斑点的西红柿
at farmers’ markets.
不幸地是 在果实发展过程中 这种完美的颜色
Unfortunately, this perfect complexion comes from a mutation in a gene essential for churning
由于大量叶绿体的产生
out chloroplasts in the developing fruit.
叶绿体是植物里的一种细胞器 它通过光合作用产生糖
Chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells that harness light energy to produce sugar.
它们也承担着使西红柿产生令人愉快的香味的责任
They are also responsible for the very many pleasurable flavor aromas found in tomatoes.
这就意味着漂亮的基因突变西红柿含糖量少 香味小
That means the beautiful mutant tomatoes have less sugar and less fragrance.
这就证明了漂亮是要伴随着付出相应的代价的
Turns out that beauty does really come with a price.
好了 现在有一些好消息:中国和佛罗里达的研究者
OK, so here’s the good news: Researchers in Florida and China recently sequenced the genome of
列出了野生西红柿 传统西红柿和超市骗子西红柿(我们这样叫它)
398 different varieties of tomatoes—wild varieties, heirloom tomatoes, supermarket
398对不同的基因组的不同
charlatans, you name it.
用人类西红柿探测器 科学家们搞清楚了
Using human tomato-testers, the scientists figured out which flavor and odor chemicals
产生顾客们喜欢的口味和气味的化学物质
customers liked.
然后他们追踪到了产生这种物质的西红柿中28个最重要的遗传分子
Then they tracked the 28 most prized molecules back to the tomato genes that made them.
这个团队发现令人惊讶的是超市中西红柿的不同
The team found that—surprise surprise—most supermarket varieties make half of these molecules
在于在这种物质极大减少的水平上产生了部分这种分子
at vastly reduced levels.
研究者也发现超市西红柿被培育的更大
The researchers also found that when supermarket tomatoes are bred to be bigger, sweetness
更甜的基础上也付出了很大代价
comes at the expense of bulk.
带着这些发现 带有这种分子的西红柿帮助研究人员找到了
With these discoveries, breeders now have molecular markers to help them find a path
一种使超市西红柿更美味的方法
to tastier supermarket tomatoes.
尽管基因工程能把西红柿所有好的特点重组
Although genetic engineering could restore all the great characteristics to tomatoes
消费者仍然不认可转基因水果
pretty much instantaneously, consumers aren’t keen for GMO fruits.
但是种植者仍然能用更慢一点的传统的杂交配种
But growers can still use slower old-school crossbreeding methods to create a tomato with
的方法培育出良好基因的西红柿
more of desirable genes.
当我们等待培育者在优良西红柿的基础上再
As we wait for breeders to restore tomatoes to their former glory, here’s a tip for getting the most
重组西红柿基因的时候 有一个小提示可以让你得到相对完美的果实
out of your red fruits.
不要把西红柿放在冰箱里
Don’t put the tomatoes in the fridge.
严肃地说 科学显示冰冻的西红柿阻止了
Seriously people, science has shown that chilling tomatoes blocks the production of flavor-making
西红柿内味酶的产生
enzymes.
朋友们不要让你的朋友冷冻西红柿了
Friends don’t let friends refrigerate tomatoes.
你有一些生产方面的意见来分享吗
Do you have any produce pro tips to share?
请在评论区自由评论
Fire away in the comments.

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视频概述

超市西红柿与野生西红柿以及传统西红柿的不同

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

孙卫卫

审核员

审核团审核员XD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZKKvsQNozX8

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