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如何让压力成为你的朋友

How to make stress your friend | Kelly McGonigal

我要跟大家坦白一件事
I have a confession to make.
但首先 我要各位也对我坦白
But first, I want you to make a little confession to me.
在去年
In the past year,
如果工作生活
I want you to just raise your hand
压力不大的请举手
if you’ve experienced relatively little stress.
有吗?
Anyone?
那觉得压力适度的呢?
How about a moderate amount of stress?
有没有感到压力山大的?
Who has experienced a lot of stress?
耶 我也是
Yeah. Me too.
不过这不是我要坦白的
But that is not my confession.
我要坦白的是 我是一名健康心理学家
My confession is this: I am a health psychologist,
我的职责就是让人们更健康快乐
and my mission is to help people be happier and healthier.
不过我担心自己这10年来
But I fear that something I’ve been teaching
传授的与压力有关的内容
for the last 10 years is doing more harm than good,
恐怕弊多于利
and it has to do with stress.
这些年我不断跟人说 压力会让人生病
For years I’ve been telling people,stress makes you sick.
压力会让患上疾病 从感冒到心血管疾病的几率
It increases the risk of everythingfrom the common cold
都随之升高
to cardiovascular disease.
我基本上是把压力当敌人的
Basically, I’ve turned stress into the enemy.
但现在 我对压力的看法已经变了
But I have changed my mind about stress,
今天我要让你们也同样改变这个观点
and today, I want to change yours.
我们从一项研究开始
Let me start with the study that made me rethink
它让我重新思考压力是什么
my whole approach to stress.
这研究历时8年 追踪了
This study tracked 30,000 adults
在美国的3万名成年人
in the United States for eight years,
研究首先问这些人
and they started by asking people,
「去年你感受到了多大压力?」
“How much stress have you experienced in the last year?”
同时问他们
They also asked, “Do you believe
「你相信压力有碍健康吗?」
that stress is harmful for your health?”
之后研究人员以公开的死亡统计 找出参与者中去逝的人
And then they used public death records to find out who died.
(笑声)
(Laughter)

Okay.
先说坏消息
Some bad news first.
前一年压力颇大的人
People who experienced a lot of stress in the previous year
死亡的风险增加了43%
had a 43 percent increased risk of dying.
但这只适用于
But that was only true for the people
那些相信压力有碍健康的人
who also believed that stress is harmful for your health.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
承受极大压力的人
People who experienced a lot of stress
如果不将压力看为有害 死亡的风险就不会升高
but did not view stress as harmful were no more likely to die.
事实上 与压力相对较小的研究参与者相比
In fact, they had the lowest risk of dying
这样的人死亡风险反而最低
of anyone in the study, including people who had relatively little stress.
研究人员花了8年追踪死亡案例
Now the researchers estimatedthat over the eight years
18.2万美国人过早离世的原因
they were tracking deaths, 182,000 Americans died prematurely,
并不是压力本身 而是认为压力有害的这个想法
not from stress, but from the belief that stress is bad for you.
(笑)
(Laughter)
估计超过2万人符合这情形
That is over 20,000 deaths a year.
如果估计正确
Now, if that estimate is correct,
「相信压力有害」
that would makebelieving stress is bad for you
就成为美国去年的
the 15th largest cause of death
第15大死因
in the United States last year,
致死率更胜皮肤癌 爱滋病和谋杀
killing more people than skin cancer, HIV/AIDS and homicide.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
你们应能体会为何这研究让我担心害怕了
You can see why this study freaked me out.
我一直努力告诉他人
Here I’ve been spendingso much energy telling people
压力有碍健康
stress is bad for your health.
因此这研究让我猜想:
So this study got me wondering:
改变对压力的看法 是否能促进健康?
Can changing how you think about stress make you healthier?
的确 科学证实了这一点
And here the science says yes.
改变看待压力的方式
When you change your mind about stress,
身体对压力的反应就会改变
you can change your body’s response to stress.
我来解释为什么会这样
Now to explain how this works,
我想让大家假想自己正在参与一项
I want you all to pretend that you are participants
会使你紧张的研究
in a study designed to stress you out.
所谓「社会压力测试」
It’s called the social stress test.
你进入实验室后
You come into the laboratory,
才知道自己需要发表一段
and you’re told you have to give
5分钟的演讲 演讲以个人缺点为题
a five-minute impromptu speech on your personal weaknesses
而且眼前的听众将是一群
to a panel of expert evaluators sitting right
专业评审
in front of you,
为了让你切实感受到压力
and to make sure you feel the pressure,
镜头和灯光都会聚焦在你脸上
there are bright lights and a camera in your face,
有点像现在这样!
kind of like this.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
且评审都经过培训
And the evaluators have been trained
专用令人沮丧的表情回应你
to give you discouraging,non-verbal feedback,
就像这样
like this.
(呼气)
(Exhales)
(笑)
(Laughter)
就在你已够泄气时
Now that you’re sufficiently demoralized,
第二场好戏上演了:数学测验
time for part two: a math test.
且你们事前不知道
And unbeknownst to you,
实验己设定成受测者会被干扰
the experimenter has been trained to harass you during it.
现在我们一起做做看
Now we’re going to all do this together.
很好玩的
It’s going to be fun.
至少对我来说昰这样
For me.

Okay.
现在你们
(Laughter)
开始倒数 从996开始
I want you all to count backwards from 996
每数一个数减7
in increments of seven.
要大声地数
You’re going to do this out loud,
越快越好 从996开始
as fast as you can, starting with 996.
开始!
Go!
(观众纷纷数箸)
(Audience counting)
请快ㄧ点!
Go faster. Faster please.
你们太慢了
You’re going too slow.
停……
(Audience counting) Stop.
停……停
Stop, stop, stop.
那个人算错了
That guy made a mistake.
所以我们得重来ㄧ次
We are going to have to startall over again.
(笑)
(Laughter)
这方面你们不太行 对吧?
You’re not very good at this, are you? Okay,
现在大家弄清楚是怎么ㄧ回事了
so you get the idea.
若各位也参与这项研究
If you were actually in this study,
可能会有点神经紧张
you’d probably be a little stressed out.
也许会心跳加速 呼吸急促
Your heart might be pounding, you might be breathing faster,
甚至满身大大汗
maybe breaking out into a sweat.
通常我们将这些生理变化称为焦虑
And normally, we interpretthese physical changes as anxiety
或代表压力失调的信号
or signs that we aren’t copingvery well with the pressure.
但如果将这些现象当成
But what if you viewed them instead
身体活力充沛的象征
as signs that your body was energized,
表示已准备好迎接挑战 又会怎样呢?
was preparing you to meet this challenge?
在哈佛大学所进行的一项研究中
Now that is exactly what participants were told
他们正是这样告诉受试者的
in a study conducted at Harvard University.
在社会压力测试开始前
Before they went through the social stress test,
受试者学着将压力反应当作助力
they were taught to rethink their stress response as helpful.
心跳加速是蓄势待发
That pounding heartis preparing you for action.
呼吸急促也不要紧
If you’re breathing faster, it’s no problem.
这是为了让大脑得到更多氧气
It’s getting more oxygen to your brain.
受试者中 那些学会将压力反应
And participants who learned to view the stress response
想成有助表现的人
as helpful for their performance,
比较不会忧虑紧张 焦虑少了 信心反而倒提升了
well, they were less stressed out,less anxious, more confident,
但最令我着迷的发现是
but the most fascinating finding to me
受试者生理上压力反应改变的方式
was how their physical stress response changed.
典型的压力反应是 心跳加速
Now, in a typical stress response, your heart rate goes up,
血管收缩成这样
and your blood vessels constrict like this.
这也是为何长期压力
And this is one of the reasonsthat chronic stress
有时会与心血管疾病有所关连的原因之一
is sometimes associatedwith cardiovascular disease.
总是如此对健康不是好事
It’s not really healthy to be in this state all the time.
但在这项研究中
But in the study,
当受试者 把压力反应看作是有帮助的
when participants viewed their stress response as helpful,
他们的血管就会像这样放松
their blood vessels stayed relaxed like this.
他们的心脏仍在强力收缩 但心血管系统的样子比较健康
Their heart was still pounding, but this is a much healthier cardiovascular profile.
事实上看起来更像
It actually looks a lot like what happens
感到兴奋和鼓起勇气时的样子
in moments of joy and courage.
要克服人生中的各种压力
Over a lifetime of stressful experiences,
这样的生理差异
this one biological change
足已产生
could be the difference
因压力50岁就心脏病发
between a stress-induced heart attack at age 50
和健康活到90多岁的区别
and living well into your 90s.
最新的压力研究结果便是如此
And this is really what the newscience of stress reveals,
如何看待压力至关重要
that how you think about stress matters.
所以我身为徤康心理学家的目标也改变了
So my goal as a health psychologist has changed.
不再想要帮人摆脱压力
I no longer want to get rid of your stress.
而是让人更善于处理它
I want to make you better at stress.
刚才我们所做的就是疗程的一小部分
And we just did a little intervention.
如果你刚才举手表示
If you raised your hand and said you
去年压力很大
‘d had a lot of stress in the last year,
我们可以拯救你
we could have saved your life,
因为但愿下次 压力使你心跳加快时
because hopefully the next time your heart is pounding from stress,
你会记得今天的演讲
you’re going to remember this talk and
然后你会自我盘算
you’re going to think to yourself,
这是我的身体在帮助我准备迎接挑战
this is my body helping me rise to this challenge.
当你如此看待压力
And when you view stress in that way,
身体会信任你的判断
your body believes you,
而你的压力反应就更健康了
and your stress response becomes healthier.
曾有10年的时间我视压力为恶魔
Now I said I have over a decadeof demonizing stress
为了自我改正 我们接下来再做一趟疗程
to redeem myself from, so we are going to do one more intervention.
我想跟你们谈谈
I want to tell you
压力反应中 最受忽视的部份
about one of the most under-appreciated aspects of the stress response,
这部分的概念是:压力让人获得社交能力
and the idea is this: Stress makes you social.
要了解压力的这部分
To understand this side of stress,
我们要先谈一种叫「催产素」(OT)的激素
we need to talk about a hormone, oxytocin,
我知道在激素中
and I know oxytocin has already gotten as much hype
「催产素」掀起许多热潮
as a hormone can get.
甚至有个可爱的小名 叫 「拥抱激素」
It even has its own cute nickname,the cuddle hormone,
因为拥抱时就会产生这种激素
because it’s releasedwhen you hug someone.
但这只是它的一小部分作用
But this is a very small part of what oxytocin is involved in.
催产激素是一种神经激素
Oxytocin is a neuro-hormone.
能微调大脑的社交本能
It fine-tunes your brain’s social instincts.
让人为增进密切关系 所需的努力做好准备
It primes you to do things that strengthen close relationships.
催产素让人渴望 亲友间的肢体接触
Oxytocin makes you crave physical contactwith your friends and family.
强化同理心
It enhances your empathy.
甚至让人更愿意对关心的人
It even makes you more willingto help and support
伸出援手及给予支持
the people you care about.
甚至还有人建议 为了更有同情心和关爱
Some people have even suggestedwe should snort oxytocin…
我们应吸一点这种激素
to become more compassionate and caring.
但关于催产素 大多数人都不知道
But here’s what most peopledon’t understand about oxytocin.
它是一种压力激素
It’s a stress hormone.
由脑下垂体分泌
Your pituitary gland pumps this stuff out
是压力反应的其中一环
as part of the stress response.
和肾上腺素一样
It’s as much a part of your stress response
都是压力下让人心跳加速的反应之一
as the adrenaline that makesyour heart pound.
在压力反应中加入催产素
And when oxytocin is releasedin the stress response,
便会驱使人寻求支持
it is motivating you to seek support.
生理上的压力反应
Your biological stress response
让人想要找他人倾诉
is nudging you to tellsomeone how you feel,
而不是闷在心里
instead of bottling it up.
压力反应确保人会注意
Your stress response wantsto make sure you notice
周遭有人陷入挣扎
when someone elsein your life is struggling
因此我们能相互扶持
so that you can support each other.
当生活陷入困难
When life is difficult,
压力反应让你希望 身旁围绕着的
your stress response wants you to be surrounded
都是关心你的人
by people who care about you. Okay,
好的 那了解压力这方面的事实
so how is knowing this side
又怎样让我们更健康呢?
of stress going to make you healthier? Well,
其实催产素不只影响大脑
oxytocin doesn’t only acton your brain.
对身体也有作用
It also acts on your body,
其中一个主要生理功能
and one of its main roles in your body
就是保护心血管系统 免于压力影响
is to protect your cardiovascular system from the effects of stress.
是天然的抗炎成份
It’s a natural anti-inflammatory.
还能帮血管在压力下保持松弛
It also helps your blood vesselsstay relaxed during stress.
但我最爱它对心脏的生理效果
But my favorite effect on the body is actually on the heart.
心脏有许多催产素的受体
Your heart has receptors for this hormone,
这激素还能促进心脏细胞
and oxytocin helps heart cells regenerate
从压力导致的损害中恢复再生
and heal from any stress-induced damage.
这种压力激素可强化心脏
This stress hormone strengthens your heart.
而且最棒的是 社交接触和社会支持
And the cool thing is that all of these physical benefits
会增强它有益生理健康的好处
of oxytocin are enhanced by social contact and social support.
所以与人接触时感受到压力
So when you reach outto others under stress,
不论是求助或帮助他人
either to seek supportor to help someone else,
这种激素的分泌都会增加 压力反应因此更健康
you release more of this hormone, your stress response becomes healthier,
你能更快地从压力中恢复
and you actually recoverfaster from stress.
我觉得这很神奇
I find this amazing,
压力反应本身
that your stress responsehas a built-in mechanism
竟有减压的机制
for stress resilience,
这机制就是人际关系
and that mechanism is human connection.
最后我想谈另一个研究
I want to finish by telling youabout one more study.
听仔细了 这研究也可救人一命
And listen up, because this studycould also save a life.
研究追踪约1千名美国境内
This study tracked about 1,000 adultsin the United States,
34到93岁的成人
and they ranged in age from 34 to 93,
研究一开始就问
and they started the study by asking,
「你去年有多大压力?」
“How much stress have youexperienced in the last year?”
接着又问:
They also asked,
「你花过多少时间 帮助朋友
“ How much time have you spent helping out friends, neighbors,
邻居 或社区里的其他人?」
people in your community?”
他们以这之后五年内的公开档案
And then they used public recordsfor the next five years
找出死亡人口
to find out who died. Okay,
好 先说坏消息
so the bad news first:
任何引起重大压力的生活经验
For every major stressful life experience,
像财务困难或家庭危机
like financial difficultiesor family crisis,
会让死亡的风险增加30%
that increased the riskof dying by 30 percent.
但是 – 希望大家正盼着我说“但是”
But — and I hope youare expecting a”but” by now —
并非每个人都这样
but that wasn’t true for everyone.
那些花时间关心他人的
People who spent time caring for others
他们的致命风险完全不受压力影响
showed absolutely no stress-related increase in dying.
零影响
Zero.
关爱造就韧性
Caring created resilience.
我们再次见证
And so we see once again
压力对健康产生的危害
that the harmful effects of stress on your health
并非无法避免
are not inevitable.
人的想法和行动
How you think and how you act
可以转化对压力的体验
can transform your experience of stress.
当人选择将压力反应作为一种帮助
When you choose to viewyour stress response as helpful,
生理系统也跟着无所畏惧
you create the biology of courage.
面对压力 选择人际互动
And when you choose to connectwith others under stress,
便能造就韧性
you can create resilience.
我不一定会希望
Now I wouldn’t necessarily ask
生活中有更多压力经验
for more stressful experiences in my life,
但这样的科学实证 让我对压力有全新的正面看法
but this science has given me a whole new appreciation for stress.
压力让我们跟自己的心沟通
Stress gives us access to our hearts.
同情心在人际交流中
The compassionate heartthat finds joy and meaning
得到快乐和意义 是的 加速的心跳
in connecting with others, and yes, your pounding physical heart,
为的是努力产生力量和能量
working so hard to give youstrength and energy.
当你如此看待压力
And when you choose to viewstress in this way,
你不只更善于处理压力
you’re not just getting better at stress,
还实际作出深刻的宣示
you’re actually makinga pretty profound statement.
你实际上是在说:你相信自己能应付生命中的挑战
You’re saying that you can trust yourself to handle life’s challenges.
然后你想起 自己并非单独面对这一切
And you’re remembering that you don’t have to face them alone.
谢谢!
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
克里斯 安德森: 你说的相当神奇
Chris Anderson: This is kindof amazing, what you’re telling us.
我对压力能大幅影响预期寿命这个观念
It seems amazing to methat a belief about stress
感到十分惊讶
can make so much differenceto someone’s life expectancy.
但如何将之应用到咨询中呢 像是
How would that extend to advice, like,
有人要对他的生活方式作选择
if someone is makinga lifestyle choice between,
例如 在备受压力的工作和舒适安逸的工作之间选择
say, a stressful joband a non-stressful job,
选哪个重要吗?
does it matter which way they go?
就某方面而言 只要相信自己能胜任
It’s equally wise to go for the stressful job
选择压力大的工作 是否也不失为明智的选择?
so long as you believe that you can handle it, in some sense? KM:
是的 而且有一件事是确定的
Yeah, and one thingwe know for certain
也就是 相对于逃避不适
is that chasing meaningis better for your health
追求真理对健康比较好
than trying to avoid discomfort.
因此我会说
And so I would say that
最好的选择方式就是
‘s really the best way to make decisions,
选择那些你认为
is go after what it is
对人生有意义的事
that creates meaning in your life
然后相信自己能应付随之而来的压力
and then trust yourself to handlethe stress that follows.
– 非常谢谢妳 凯利 这真是太棒了!- 谢谢!
Thank you so much, Kelly.It’s pretty cool.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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