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怎么用微波炉做出等离子体 – 译学馆
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怎么用微波炉做出等离子体

How to Make Plasma in Your Microwave ... With a Grape

[开场音乐]
[♪ INTRO]
在你想到等离子体的时候
When you think about plasma,
你知道 比如当你坐在那
you know, likewhen you’re just sitting around,
想到物质的状态
thinking about states of matter,
你大概会想到星星 或激光剑的剑刃
you probably imaginestars, or the stuff that comes out of a lightsaber.
你大概想不到能在你厨房的微波炉里做出的东西
You probably don’t think about somethingyou’d make in your kitchen microwave.
但是这完全有可能 油管上很多视频都证明了这点
But it’s totally possible, and there areplenty of YouTube videos to prove it.
得益于那些很酷的物理现象 你甚至用不着高大上的技术
Thanks to some cool physics,you don’t even need fancy technology.
你需要的只是一个你希望毁掉的微波炉 和一个葡萄
All you need is a microwave that you’rewilling to destroy … and a grape.
等离子体就像种气体 除了它原子上的一些电子被扯下来了
Plasma is kind of like a gas, except that itsatoms have some of their electrons stripped off,
所以它是由正离子组成的 再加上很多自由电子在旁边乱转
so it’s made up of positively-chargedions and a bunch of free electrons zooming around.
如果要做 你就需要让一些气体变的很热
To make some,you just have to make some gas really hot,
然后让电流通过它
and then send an electrical current through it.
用微波炉是个很好的办法
And a microwave is a great way to do that.
微波炉里的食物沐浴在一种光波里 叫做
Microwave ovens cook food by bathing it ina kind of light called,
很惊人 微波
shockingly, microwaves.
它们就像现在从你电脑中照出的可见光一样
They’re just like the visible light comingout of your computer screen right now,
但是它们的频率 它们每秒来回振动的次数
but their frequency, the number of timesthey oscillate back and forth each second,
大概低了二十万倍 所以物体对它们的反应不一样
is about 200,000 times lower, so matter responds differently to them.
这种波让食物中的水和其它分子蒸发
The waves make water and other molecules in your food vibrate,
可以生成热量 让你的Hot Pocket变热
which generates the heatthat makes your hot pocket hot.
现在 如果你往微波炉里扔一个普通的葡萄
Now, if you throw a regular old grapein a microwave oven,
它可能只会变的很热然后炸掉
it will probably just get really hot and explode.
你的微波炉里会沾满葡萄汁 但是你看不见火球
You’ll get fruit juice all over the insideof the thing, but you won’t see any fireballs.
想得到等离子体的火球 这个葡萄要经过加工
To get the fiery ball of plasma, the grapeneeds some preparation.
在那些油管的视频中 他们总是小心得将葡萄切成几乎两半
In those YouTube videos, they’re always carefulto cut the grape almost completely in half,
除了两半中间连着一小片皮
except for a tiny strip of skinconnecting the two halves.
这片皮很重要
And that strip is important,
因为它让葡萄充当天线
because it lets the grape act like an antenna
这才让整个实验运转起来
and that makes the whole experiment work.
一个切成两半的葡萄正好是合适的大小
A sliced grape happens to be just about theperfect size
用来捕捉和放大微波
to trap and amplify microwaves,
当波开始流入 葡萄变成了偶极天线
and when the waves start flowing in, the grapeturns into what’s called a dipole antenna,
两半葡萄中的电荷 顺着那片皮被推来推去
where the electrical charges in each halfget pushed back and forth across the little slice of skin.
要确保所有的微波从相同方向照在葡萄上
To make sure all the microwaveshit the grape from the same direction,
人们通常拿出或者罩住转动食物的转盘
people will usually take out or coverthe spinning plate that rotates the food,
所以电荷顺着相同路径来回反弹
so the charges bounce back and forthin the same way over and over again.
使得微波的能量都集中在了这片葡萄皮上
All that focuses the energy of these microwavesonto that tiny bit of skin.
上面的水分很快被蒸发 然后
Any water on there boils away pretty quickly and then,
毫无悬念地 这片皮在几秒后着火了
unsurprisingly, the strip catches on fireafter just a couple of seconds.
这就是为什么我们不建议你在家中尝试的原因
Which is one reason whythis is a bad idea to try at home:
火和强力电流 通常不是个很好的组合
Fire and powerful electronics,not usually a good thing to mix together.
但是火并不会这样消失
But the fire doesn’t just disappear afterthat.
热空气上升 所以火苗从两半葡萄之间攀升
Hot air rises, so the flame climbs up between the two grape halves.
由于微波炉还在运作
And since the microwave oven is still going,
电荷还在两半葡萄之间来回反弹
electric current keeps bouncing back and forth between the sides of the grape,
经过了蒸汽或者热分子 被火带到上方
and across any steam orhot molecules carried up by the fire.
最后当它变的太热的时候 蒸汽 空气 甚至葡萄汁里的原子
Eventually, it gets so hot that the atomsin the steam, the air, and even the grape
都被扯下了电子 之后你就得到了等离子体
juice have their electrons stripped off, andyou get a bunch of plasma.
等离子体的火球射出了切成两半的葡萄 如果进行的顺利
The plasma fireball shoots out from the grapehalves and, if everything goes just right,
或者特别特别不顺利的话 它会很引人注目得撞在微波炉顶上
or horribly, horribly wrong, it tends to hitthe roof of the microwave often pretty spectacularly.
当火球消失然后它冷却下来时 等离子体又变为了普通的气体
Once that fireball stops and it cools down,the plasma just turns into regular gas again,
没什么其它需要担心的 除了你坏掉的微波炉
and there’s nothing to worry about, except,probably, for your broken microwave oven.
这也是第二个原因你不该用家里的微波炉尝试这个 这可是花钱买的
Which again, is why this is not a great ideato do in your home microwave oven, which you probably bought with money.
所以如果你在油管上看过了葡萄爆炸
So if you’ve seen these grapesplosions onYouTube,
它们不只是吸引眼球
there’s a lot more to them than meets the eye,
还有很多关于微波炉的很酷的科学知识
and there’s a lot of coolmicrowave science out there.
但是我绝对不允许你自己尝试
But I am not condoning you doing them.
这种事应该让谨慎而专业的“葡萄爆炸师”去做
It’s the kind of thing that should be donecarefully by professional grape exploders.
感谢收看
Thanks for watching!
除了完美切成两半的葡萄 还有很多其他东西
Besides perfectly cut grapes,there are plenty of other things
你不应该塞进微波炉里 我们在之前的科学秀中解释过
you should not stick in the microwave, andwe’ve explained some of them before here on SciShow.
如果你好奇为什么不能把金属放进去
If you’ve ever wondered why you shouldn’t put metal in there,
可以来看我们的视频 我们会在里面做解释
you can watch our episode where we tell you all about it.
[结束音乐]
[♪ OUTRO]

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用微波炉和葡萄做出等离子体火球

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