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百万生物大灭绝

How To Make One Million Species Disappear

嗨大家好 我是乔
Hey smart people, Joe here.
如果我们追溯到大约5600万年前
If we look into the past, about 56 million years ago,
我们会发现一个时刻—地质记录中的一个细线
we find a moment – a thin line in the geologic record
地球上的生命历程发生了变化
where the course of lives on the earth was alerted
大气中的碳含量激增
Carbon in the atmosphere soared.
全球气温迅速上升了6℃
Global temperatures rapidly rose by six degreescelsius.
天气也变得更加极端
Weather got more extreme,
我们星球上的大量生命形式已经永久消失
and huge numbers of our planet’s lifeforms disappeared forever.
古新世—始新世极热事件
The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum is one
是众多未被发掘的极端天气事件之一
of the most radical climate events ever unearthed,
后面发生大规模灭绝的原因
and the mass extinction that followed it was triggered
至少有部分是因为温室气体排放进了大气
at least in part by an injection of greenhouse gases into the air.
在古新世–始新世极热事件时人类并没有濒临灭绝的危险
Humans weren’t at risk of dying out during the PETM
因为我们还不存在
because we didn’t exist.
但是现在 时过境迁
But now, we do.
生命都会消失是事实
Extinction is a fact of life,
但是我们目前面临的危机
but the crisis we currently face is of a scale never before
是人类出现在地球后前所未有的
seen since our species arrived on Earth.
这次 全都是因为我们
And this time, it’s because of us.
如今 100万物种濒临灭绝
Today,one million species are threatenedwith extinction.
100万物种的危机只是个数据 而一个物种的灭绝却是一场悲剧
While one extinction is a tragedy, a million risks being just another statistic.
那我们就来了解它真正意义
So let’s break down what this really means.
它表示地球上八分之一的非微生物生命形式
It means one in eight non-microbial life forms
可能会消失 许多只要几十年
on Earth could disappear, many within decades.
超过四成的两栖动物
More than 40 % of amphibians,
将近33%的暗礁珊瑚和鲨鱼 超过20%的哺乳动物
almost 33 % of reef-forming corals and sharks, over 20 % of mammals,
以及将近10%的昆虫… 全都面临风险
and up to 10% of insects …. allat risk.
单从哺乳动物来说 它们要花数百万年
For mammals alone, it will take millions
才能从未来半世纪经受的损失中
of years to recover from the losses they’re
恢复过来
predicted to endure over the next half century.
未来真的难以想象
That future is hard to imagine.
但是我们可以看见现在正在发生的事
But we can see what’s happening right now.
自1970年起 人类人口数增长超过两倍
The human population has more than doubled since 1970,
五十年里增加了四十多亿人
adding over 4 billion people in
约等于每年德国的人口增长率
half a century, or roughly one Germany everyyear.
40%的人居住在距海岸线一百公里以内
And forty percent of them live within 100 kilometers of the coast.
在2014年 仅有3%海洋领域
In 2014 only 3 % of the ocean was free
没有人类带来的压力
from human pressure and 66 % of it has been severely
66%的领域由于人类活动产生了巨大改变
altered by human activities.
30%的地表水酸性比工业革命前强
Surface waters are 30% more acidic than beforethe industrial revolution.
健康的珊瑚礁也已经缩减了近一半
Healthy coral reefs have shrunk by nearlyhalf.
保卫着海滨免受洪涝和风暴侵袭的
Coastal mangrove forests and seagrass meadows
沿海红树林和海洋草坪
that guard shores from flooding and storms
它们的数量在近几十年里持续下降
have been on the decline for decades.
海洋鱼类总资源
About a third of ocean fish stocks are being harvested
有1/3被人类不合理的打捞
at unsustainable levels, and nearly
另外2/3也在捕捞殆尽的边缘
two-thirds are on the brink.
自1900年开始 全球海岸线平均上升了至少16厘米
Since 1900, global average sea level has risen by at least 16 cm.
而在过去20年里
6 cm of that rise happened
就上升了6厘米
just in the past 20 years.
陆地上的情况也有所变化
Things are changing on land, too.
自1992年后城市增加了一倍多
Cities have more than doubled in area since1992.
在接下来三十年里
We’ll add 25 million kilometers
我们要铺建2500万公里的水泥路
of new road and cement in the next 30 years, mainly in
主要集中于发展中国家
developing countries.
国家的富有与资源消耗成正比
And as countries get richer, their resourceuse accelerates.
我们从全球每年提取六百亿吨
We extract 60 billion tons
可持续和不可持续资源
of renewable and nonrenewable resources from the planet every
是1980年消耗量的两倍
year – twice as much as in 1980.
超过1/3的全球地表
More than a third of the world’s land surface
和将近3/4的淡水
and nearly three-quarters of our freshwater
现在用于农作物和牲畜
are now devoted to crops or livestock.
在美国 牧草是产量最大的农作物
In the US, lawn grass is our biggest crop,
所覆盖的面积约是其他所有作物的三倍
covering an area around three times larger than any other,
这使得我们的院子种植的作物成为美国最需要灌溉的植物
making our yards the most heavily irrigated cultivated plant in America.
随着人类的多样化 我们的食物也变得更少
As diverse as human populations have become, our food is becoming less so.
我们大约75%的食物来源
Around 75 percent of what we eat comes
是仅仅12类植物和5大类动物
from just 12 plant and five animal sources. Wheat,
小麦 玉米和水稻就占了
corn and rice make up nearly 60 percent
以植物为主要能量来源的食物的60%
of the plant-based calories in most diets.
曾经有550多种
More than 550 breeds of mammals used
被当做食物和用于农业劳作的哺乳动物
for food and agriculture throughout history have already
早已经灭绝了
gone extinct.
由于授粉昆虫的死亡
And pollinator losses put up to $ 577 billion
每年高达5770亿的全球作物都处于危险当中
in annual global crops at risk. Today,
如今 世界上25%的无冰区用于放牧
25 % of the world’s ice-free land is used for grazing,
同时 一半的农业扩张
and half of agricultural
是以损失森林资源为代价的
expansion has come at the expense of forests.
在1990年到2015年间
Between 1990 and 2015,
大约有300万平方千米的原始森林被砍伐
nearly 3 million square kilometer of native forest was cut down, and only
从未工业化之时起 仅68%的森林被保留下来
68% of the world’s forest area remains frompre-industrial times.
同时 这些森林的变化
These land changes, altogether,
让50万的陆生生物
have left half a million terrestrial species without
长期没有足够的栖息地存活
enough habitat to survive long term.
随着贸易扩张 旅游业发展
As trade and travel expands,
动植物也被四处交易
we’re moving plants and animals around too.
一些国家的侵略性物种
Some countries are seeing as much
比1970年增加了70%
as 70 % more invasive species than in 1970.
因为我们不经意在世界上传播了一种真菌
Because we unwittingly spread just one fungus
如今造成了将近400种两栖动物面临威胁
around the world, nearly 400 amphibians are
其中90种已经灭绝了
now threatened, and 90 have gone extinct.
不知名的疾病愈加破坏生物多样性
No known disease has damaged global biodiversitymore.
全世界都在乱扔垃圾
We’ve also spread our garbage around theworld.
海洋塑料增加了十倍
Marine plastic has increased 10 times
从1980年起 三到四百万吨的有毒废物
since 1980 and three to four-hundred million tons
每年都会进入全球的用水系统中
of toxic waste is dumped into the world’swaters every year.
融入海岸生态系统的肥料造成了
Fertilizers washing into coastal ecosystems have produced more
超过四百个海洋“死亡地域”
than 400 ocean ‘ dead zones’,
这里没有足够的氧气支持太多生命
where there isn’t enough oxygento sustain most life.
包括肥料
Along with fertilizers,
土地开荒和农作物导致
land clearing and crop production account for a quarter of our
1/4温室气体排放
greenhouse gas emissions.
自1980年气体排放量就已经翻倍了
Those emissions have doubled since 1980,
全球平均气温也上升了至少0.7℃
raising average global temperatures by at least 0.7
这听起来好像不多
degrees Celsius, which doesn’t sound like much,
但是温度仅仅上升两摄氏度
but at just 2 degrees of warming,
就会直接造成1/20的物种灭绝
1 in 20 extinctions will be directly causedby climate change.
植物和浮游生物每年能吸收56亿吨二氧化碳
Plants and plankton sequester 5.6 billiontons of CO2 every year.
全球化石燃料排放量的60%是由
That’s 60 % of global fossil fuel emissions,
正在被我们威胁生命的生物所吸收
removed by species we currently threaten.
在五千六百万年前的PETM时期
The long list of plants and animals that
就有非常多的动植物消失了
disappeared 56 million years ago during the PETM owe their
基本上都是由于二氧化碳和气候变化引起的
demise almost solely to carbon and climate change,
但是如今对于自然生态系统的威胁
but the threats today to natural ecosystems
不仅仅是气候
go far beyond climate.,
疾病 土地使用 以及污染
Diseases ,land use,and pollution
也威胁着地球上的动植物
also threaten our planet’s plants and animals.
我们也是动物
We’re animals too – and our
我们的行为早就影响我们的未来
actions have already affected our own future. Yet,
然而 如果所有的生命都消失
if this were all to disappear,
如果是一百万生物种类都要灭绝
if one million species were to go extinct and we
是我们把自己的星球变成了那个样子
were to change our planet to this extent,
从地质史的范围来看 我们应不应该
in the scale of geologic time, should we look
回到那个时候
back on this moment,
数十亿的我们都只是地球历史长河中的一抹短暂微薄的记忆
the billions of us would be a paper thin memory in the long history of Earth.
这关乎我们决定
It’s up to us to decide
如今所知的世界是否会比未来更好
if the world we know today gets to be more than that in the future.
哇 各位
Wow guys.

Wow.
我说的对吗
Am I right?
你们刚刚听到的消息绝大部分来自
Most of what you just heard comes from the biggest review
曾经生活在地球上的重大生命的回顾
of life on earth ever conducted.
来自50个国家的400多名专家
Over 400 experts from 50 countries looked
通过研究1.5万中资源 得出了一大堆坏消息
at 15,000 sources to give us this big pile
但是他们也会提供很多机会
of bad news, but they also provided plenty
让地球变得更好
of opportunities to make it better.
如果想了解更多
If you want to know more
可以为自然界做的事情
about what you can do to help the natural world, check the links
点击视频中的链接了解详情
down in the description,
你也可以收看我另外一个节目 “糟糕至极”
and also check out my other show Hot Mess, dedicated to stories
这是讲述关于我们日益改变的世界和气候的故事
about our changing world and climate.
希望你能订阅我们
Hope we’ve earned your subscription.
下次见
See you next time.
保持好奇哦
Stay curious.

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视频概述

关于当代人类活动对于生物环境所带来的不良影响

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5CZJJyOwiow

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