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如何制作石墨烯 – 译学馆
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如何制作石墨烯

How To Make Graphene

想象一下 你被扔进一个昏暗的房间并被告知
Picture this: you are thrown into a dingyroom and told”you can’t leave until you have
直到你发明出人类已知的最薄的材料才能离开
created the thinnest material known to man.”
此外 它还必须是最坚硬的
Not only that, it must also be the strongest,
最好的热导体
the best thermal conductor and as good at
并且导电能力和铜一样好
conducting electricity as copper.
我知道 这听起来很绝望
I know, it sounds hopeless.
但是幸好 你对纳米技术有点了解
But luckily, you know something about nanotechnology.
你知道的 很精密的设备和材料
You know, really really tiny devices and
是小于100纳米的
materials that are less than 100 nanometers in size.
当然不用我告诉你
Of course I don’t have to tell
一纳米是十亿分之一米
you a nanometer is a billionth of a meter.
大约是10个原子的大小
That’s roughly the size of ten atoms.
但是你如何创造那么细小的东西呢?
But how do you create something that tiny?
是时候激发你内心的“百战天龙”了
It’s time to embrace your inner MacGyver.
你需要一支笔
You’re gon na need a pencil,
一些思高牌胶带和充沛的体力
some scotch tape and a healthy dose of elbow grease.
铅笔中不但包含铅还有石墨
A pencil contains not lead but graphite,
由大片大片的碳六角晶体
which consists of sheets of carbon in a hexagonal
组成
lattice.
当你书写时 表面的石墨
When you write, layers of graphite slide
从铅笔顶端滑落黏附在纸上
off the tip of the pencil and stick to the paper. Usually,
通常 许多石墨层会堆叠在一起
many layers are stacked on top
但是某一刻
of each other but once in a while you get a single
你会得到一层独立的碳原子
layer of carbon atoms.
这叫“石墨烯”
And this is called”graphene”
2004年安德烈·海姆和
In 2004, Andre Geim and
康斯坦丁·诺沃肖洛夫用石墨和胶带
Konstantin Novoselov created graphene using nothing but graphite
制造出了石墨烯
and scotch tape.
他们把一小片石墨放在胶带上
They placed a graphite flake onto the tape,
对折 然后撕成
folded it in two and then cleaved the flake
两半
in half.
他们反复实验并研究实验样品
They repeated this procedure a number of times and then studied the resulting fragments.
令他们震惊的是
To their astonishment they found some
他们找到了单原子层石墨
of the pieces were only a single atom thick.
这是万万没想到的
This was particularly unexpected
因为我们一直以为单层的石墨
because it was thought a single layer of graphite would
是不稳定的 尤其是在室温下
not be chemically stable, especially at roomtemperature.
室温下的石墨烯比其他物质导电性能都好
Graphene conducts electrons faster than anyother substance at room temperature.
这都归功于它高质量的石墨烯晶体
This is because of the extraordinarily high quality of the graphene lattice.
科学家也在石墨烯上发现了独立的原子
Scientists are yet to find a single atom out of place in graphene.
由于电子不受晶体运动影响分散
Since the electrons aren’t scattered by defects in the lattice,
它们运动的如此之快
they go so fast that Einstein’s
以至于要用爱因斯坦的相对论来解释
relativity must be used to understand theirmotion.
这个完美的晶体
And this perfect lattice is created
是由碳原子间坚固而富有弹性的联系产生
by the very strong yet flexible bonds between carbon
使这种物质易弯曲但是又比钻石更坚硬
atoms — making the substance bendable butharder than diamond.
石墨烯是如此的坚硬
Graphene is incredibly strong —
如果你把一头大象平衡的放在一支笔上
if you could balance an elephant on a pencil and support
用石墨烯来支撑 石墨烯是不会被破坏的
the pencil on graphene, the graphene wouldn’tbreak.
当然铅笔会
Of course the pencil would.
由于他们的发现
For their discovery,
海姆和诺沃肖洛夫在2010年被授予诺贝尔物理学奖
Geim and Novoselov were awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 2010.
然而这只是石墨烯的开始
And this is only the beginning for Graphene.
科学家正致力于
Scientists are hard
用它创造又薄又透明的曲面触摸屏
at work exploiting its unique properties to create thin, transparent,
通过合成材料制造出更小更快更节能的电脑
flexible touch screens,Smaller, faster, more energy efficient computers
更高效的太阳能电池
Tough composite materialsAnd more efficient solar cells
考虑到这只是纳米技术的一方面
And now consider this is only one aspect of nanotechnology,
所以为了大局
so in order to think big you
你需要先从小处着手
need first consider the very small.

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视频概述

本视频介绍了如何制作石墨烯,并且提到了它的由来及未来的应用

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PifL8bAybyc

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