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如何从零开始制造眼镜 – 译学馆
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如何从零开始制造眼镜

How to Make Eyeglasses from Scratch

当说到生存的基本条件
When it comes down to the essentials for survival,
我们一般会想到:食物 水 庇护所
we usually think of the basics: food, water, shelter.
然而世界上有75%的成年人视力不佳
However, for the 75% of adults in the world that have less perfect vision,
对他们来说 矫正镜片几乎和生存必需品同样重要
corrective lenses might be almost just as important to them.
像这些能让你看清东西的重要工具
For something so crucial as allowing yourself to be able to see,
自己做一个会有多难呢?
how hard would it be to make them yourself?
而这一直是我想尝试的
Well, that’s why I’m trying do.
从最基本的原材料开始
Starting from the most basic materials,
我要试图做一个专属处方眼镜
I’m gonna attempt to make my own prescription eyeglasses.
但动手之前 我要向一位专家请教
But before I begin, I wanna reach out to an expert
他在这方面颇有经验 我想向他取经
with some experience in this endeavor and get some advice.
所以我去找路易斯·达特内尔 他是《世界重启》的作者
So I looked up Lewis Dartnell, author of “The Knowledge”,
在书里他试图提供从零开始重建社会所需要的一切信息
where he attempts to provide all the information you need to rebuild society from scratch.
在为这本书做研究时
While researching his book,
路易斯本人亲自实践了徒手制镜片的全过程
he went through the process of making his own glass from scratch.
我差不多也要这样做
Since I’m attempting to do something similar,
所以我寻求了他的建议
I sought out his advice.
要制作玻璃 你需要二氧化硅 可从沙子里提取
So for glass, you need silica which you can get from sand.
你需要东西来帮你在温度适宜的窑内熔化二氧化硅
You need something to help you melt that silica at reasonable temperatures in a kiln,
这种东西就叫焊剂
and that’s called a flux.
并且你可以用苏打粉或者碳酸钾当焊剂
And you can use soda ash or potash as a flux,
这两者可以从海藻中提取
which you can get from seaweed.
最后你需要石灰
And lastly you need lime,
石灰可从珊瑚 砂岩或白垩中获得
which you can get from coral or sandstone or chalk.
综上所述 你可以从同一片沙滩上收集到制作玻璃的主要原料
So it turns out all of the main ingredients for glass, you can collect on exactly the same beach.
我去的是英国东部诺福克郡的一个海滩
And I went to a beach in Norfolk in East England,
我从同一个地方收集了所有这些原料
and I collected all those things from the same place.
并在一天时间内
And over the course of a day,
用从自然环境中收集到的东西从零开始制作了玻璃
made glass from scratch, from the stuff that we’ve harvested from the natural environment.
对我来说有点不同 因为我住在内陆
A little bit different for me, because I’m located in the center of continent.
找到沙子和石灰岩不是问题
Getting the sand and the limestone shouldn’t be a problem,
但我不认为我能找到海藻一类的东西
but I don’t think I can get any seaweed or anything like that.
请告诉我更多关于碳酸钾的信息
Tell me more about the potash.
嗯 与其烧海藻一类的东西 不如烧硬木材
Erm, rather than burning things like seaweed, you can burn hardwood timber.
从历史上我们知道焚烧这种木材
And that timber collects potassium carbonate
会产生钾碱或碳酸钾
or potash as it was known through history.
虽然它们是不同的化学物质 成分上也有些许不同
So it’s a slightly different chemical, slightly different compound,
但是在焊接时起的作用是相同的
but it performs exactly the same function as a flux
都是帮助降低二氧化硅的熔点以制作玻璃
for helping to lower the melting point of your silica to make a glass.
谢谢帮助 路易斯
Thanks for help, Lewis.
我觉得这能给我开始的方向
I think that should give me a start in our direction.
棒极了 祝你好运安迪
Excellent stuff! Good luck with it, Andy.
请一定要告诉我你的制镜项目的进程
And definitely let me know how your making from glass project goes.
我很乐意看到成果
I’d love to see the results.
根据路易斯的建议
With Lewis’ suggestions,
我第一步是要收集我所需的原材料:
my first step is gathering the raw items I’ll need:
沙子 石灰岩和硬木材灰烬
sand, limestone and hardwood ash.
从沙子开始
Starting with the sand,
我试着在附近找寻可用的最白的沙子
I tried to find the whitest sand available near me,
我去了密西西比河沿岸
off the bank of the Mississippi River.
然后我滤除了混在沙子里面的
And then strained out any extra pebbles or other debris
多余的砂砾和碎片
that might have been mixed in.
回去的路上 我试图寻找石灰岩
On the way back, I managed to find some limestone
我找到了一些石头
and collected a few rocks.
之后我就把它们放进口袋里进行粉碎
Then later I pulverize them into a pocket.
现在就剩下最后一个原料要准备了——硬木材灰
That just leaves one last ingredient – the hardwood ash.
安全提示:如果你生火时要用助燃剂的话
As a safety note, if you decide to use an accelerant to start a fire,
一定要确保这种助燃剂在自己的可控范围内
make sure you know what exactly you’re using.
因为显然一些燃料比你想的要有爆发性
Because apparently some fuels can be more explosive than you expected.
我的三种原料已齐备 现在我去找迈克尔寻求帮助
With my three ingredients collected, I turned to Michael,
迈克尔是玻璃吹制工 他答应帮我
a glassblower who agreed to help me,
测试我的原材料是否有用
to test out my ingredients and see if this was even gonna work.
我回来时发现硬木材烧的一塌糊涂
What I got back was something very far from actual clear glass.
这时我才意识到自己的错误
At this one, I realized my mistake.
匆忙之中我忘记了最重要的一步
In haste, I’d forgotten the very important step
即把碳酸钾从灰渣中分离出来
of actually separating the potash from the rest of the ash residue.
所以我需要再来一些灰烬
So I’m gonna need to get some more ash.
这次我非常谨慎缓慢地烧火
This time I very cautiously and slowly built up the fire.
为了提取碳酸钾 我首先把灰烬浸在水里
To extract the potash, I first soaked the ashes in water.
然后木炭和其他轻型物体会浮到表面
The coals and the lighter will float to the surface
我可以把这些东西捞出来
and can then be skimmed off.
而碳酸钾或钾碱会融入水中
The potash or potassium carbonate will dissolve into the water
其他用不到的灰烬中的矿物质也会沉到底部
and all the other unwanted minerals from the ashes will sink to the bottom.
所以我要做的就是一直煮水
Then I just need to boil the water down,
直到容器里只剩碳酸钾粉末
until I just have the powder of the potassium carbonate left.
结果我花了30个小时煮水
So I spent about 30 hours boiling water now
蒸发了至少20加仑的水
and boiled at least 20 gallons of water.
最终就得到了这个
End result of all that is this.
称一下多重 仅有182克
And weighing it out, it is only 182 grams.
这么多…差不多够了
That is… maybe enough.
不确信我生产的碳酸钾的质量和数量 所以我拜访了迈克尔
Unsure about the quality and quantity of potash I produced, I visited Michael.
我们针对我的材料又进行了一次测试
We performed one more test of my ingredients.
他仔细地按量配至合适的比例
He carefully measured everything out to the proper proportions,
把这些材料混合起来
mixed everything together,
然后他加热样本 看是否能生产出接近玻璃的东西
then he heated the sample to see if it produced anything close to glass.
实验很成功
That’s a good test.
对实验结果确信了之后 我们就能进行一整套的生产了
Confident in the results, we can move on to a full-size batch.
但是首先 我们只能生产一小块玻璃
But first, since we’re only gonna be able to produce
因为我的碳酸钾供应有限
a small quantity of glass because my limited supply of potash,
所以我决定用迈克尔的普通玻璃做一次练习
I decided to do a practice round with some of Michael’s regular glass.
冷却后 我用金刚钻头钻孔
Once cooled, I used a diamond tip drill bit
在球状玻璃上切下一些圆形
to cut a bunch of disks out of the bulb.
下一步是难点 要把镜片磨成我需要的规格
Next, the hard part, shaping the lenses into my correct prescription.
我用了一系列砂轮
Using a series of abrasive wheels,
我慢慢地把镜片的形状打磨得端端正正的
I slowly ground my lenses into the correct shape
然后再次抛光
and then polished them clear again.
因为我近视
Because I’m nearsighted,
所以镜片必须是凹透镜
the lenses will need to have a concave shape.
幸运的是 我用的是电灯泡用的曲面玻璃
Fortunately, since I started with a curved glass from the bulb,
所以我需要做的就是稍稍打磨外表面
all I need to do was grinding the outside face a little bit shallower
使其变成凹面镜就好
to achieve a concave lens.
我找到了一个
The best way I found
测量我凹透镜度数的绝妙方法
to measure the curvature of my concave lenses
即用激光笔
was to use a laser pointer.
因为凹透镜会往外折射光线
Because a concave lens is refracting light outward,
凹透镜的焦距 也就是聚光点 在镜片的后部
its focal length where the light converges is actually negative.
因此我认为我可以找一个点
Therefore I figured I can measure the point where the light diverges as
这个点上 分叉光线的间距是平行光线间距的两倍
being twice as far than if they had been parallel.
而这个点离凹透镜的距离应该就是我镜片的焦距
The inverse of this number should then be my focal length of my lens.
在我这里 我测到的位置在离镜片中心0.5英寸处
In my instance, I measured a half-inch from the center of the lens
那么我就找到凹透镜的折射焦距了
and then found out at which distance the lens would refract it to be a full inch off.
多亏之前拜访了验光师西弗博士
Thanks my visit to the optometrist Dr. Seaver before,
我才得以知道需要什么焦距来匹配我的眼镜规格
I know what focal length I need to be at to match my prescription.
但是在抛光过程中
However, I’m only able to shine the laser pointer
我只能一直往镜片上照射激光笔
through the lens after it’s been polished.
所以这个过程需要一边打磨一边试戴
So this makes it a lot of guess and checking,
然后得再一次重新抛光
then having to redo all of the polishing once again.
如果镜片焦距对我的处方眼镜来说过长
If the focal length is still longer than my prescription,
就意味着我需要继续进一步打磨镜片
that means I need to keep going and grind it down even further.
如果焦距过短 就证明磨得太过了
If it’s too short already, that means I’ve gone too far
我就需要另造一个镜片重头再来
and I’ll need to start all over again with a new lens.
我花了一整天的大好时光来打磨我的镜片
After spending the better part of a whole day grinding my lenses,
现在终于大功告成了
I now have the completed ones.
所以我要最后测量一次
So I’m just gonna measure one last time,
确保镜片周正 能媲美我现在戴的眼镜
make sure they’re right and compare them to my actual glasses.
很明显 我的方法并非百分之百精确
Well, my method is obviously not the most accurate.
但起码我能保证 我造出了非常接近我眼镜的镜片
As far as I can tell, I’m pretty close to spot on with my lenses.
既然我的练习镜片磨好了
Now that I’ve gotten the hang of grinding my own lenses.
我就要用我做的玻璃做眼镜了
I’m ready to attempt it with the glass.
真的是从头开始啊
I’m actually making it from scratch.
因为我们现在在这么一个小作坊里
Because we’re working in such a small commodity,
所以我们没条件吹玻璃
I didn’t have enough to blow a bubble.
不过我们可以把材料放进一个平平的模子里
Instead, we were going to pour it into a flat mold.
如果想要镜片更厚的话 可以把模子下降一格
Once we kept it thick, we could slump it over a form.
这样你就只能拿到半成品
And that gets you halfway there
你还得手工打磨凹透镜的表面
and then you’d have to grind out by hand of concave surface.
烧了很长时间了 继续努力
I’m going on and on. It’s kinda work at it.
你可以看到它的表面那里熔在一起了
You can see it’s just starting to kinda form together there on the surface.
相当酷
It’s pretty cool.
玻璃在窑里烧了几天后
After heating it in the kiln for several days,
终于要冷却了
it was finally ready to pour.
这东西表面磕磕巴巴的
Pretty gnarly stuff.
出炉后 玻璃需要在窑里整夜冷却
Once board, it just needed to cool overnight in the kiln,
然后我也可以把相同的打磨技巧用在这些玻璃上
and then I could apply the same grinding technique to these lenses as well.
但同时 我得去做框架了
But in the meantime, I’m gonna make the frames
即把眼镜挂在脸上的眼镜架
to actually hold the lenses onto my face.
制造镜片这一难关已经过去了
After the struggle of making the glass,
下一步的材料获取较容易——木头
let’s try materials that’s a little simpler – wood.
砍倒树后
After felling my tree,
我把树干切成可用型号的木板
I chopped the tree trunk into some workable size boards.
但因为树是刚砍的 湿气很大
But because this tree is freshly cut, it contains a lot of moisture
不风干的话一不小心就会出现裂缝甚至断裂
that will eventually dry out of it and cause it to crack and break.
一般来说 经过一年或两年的完全风干后
Generally wood is only ready to be used,
木头才是可用的
after it’s been left to fully air dry for up to a year or two,
或者也可以在窑里慢慢烘焙一个月
or if it’s slowly baked in a kiln for up to a month.
但是 我没有太多时间去等待
However, I don’t quite have that much time to wait,
所以我就把木板扔进了微波炉
So I’m just gonna throw it in the microwave.
短暂微波一下
By microwaving it in short bursts
然后称称损失了多少水分
and carefully measuring how much moisture weight it’s lost,
我总共用了一个小时慢慢弄干木板
I can slowly dry these boards out in about an hour.
当木板的数据差值越来越小的时候
Once there is no longer any measurable amount of weight loss between bursts,
干燥就完成了
I know it’s dry.
但是你需要谨慎行事
However you do need to be careful,
如果你烧久了 木板会着火
because if you overdo it, it’s gonna start on fire.
我要用手中的干木板做眼镜架了
With my now dry wood, I can make my frames.
但是 我还有很多练习时的镜片和大量的木头
However, I still have my practice lenses and a fair amount of wood,
我想找一个木工专家
I thought reaching out to a woodworking expert
来看看他可以为我做一个多棒的眼镜架
and see how great a frame he can make for me.
所以我打包了镜片和微波后的木头
So together with the lenses and my microwave wood,
把它们寄给Make Something频道的大卫
I mailed them to David at Make Something
看他是否有什么好主意
to see what he could come up with.
请去他的频道观看相关视频
Check out his video on his channel,
浏览他的制作全过程
to watch the entire process he goes through
看看这么棒的眼镜架是如何诞生的
to make me an even better set of frames.
这是大卫寄回的包裹
So I just got the package back from David.
咱们来看看他做的眼镜架 哦 哇
Let’s see how his frames turned out. Oh, wow!
很美 哈哈哈 哇 看起来相当不错
Nice! hahaha… Wow, it turns out pretty good.
哦 头太大了
Ooh, it’s a little big.
好了 哇
All right, wow!
相当棒
That is pretty good.
太酷了
This is awesome.
干得好 大卫 眼镜架很不错
Great job, David. This frames turned out great.
我做的眼镜就有点不一样了 特别是镜片
My glasses are a little bit different, particularly the glass.
而且我有一个问题 镜片不太清晰
So I had a little bit of an issue – that is not the clearest stuff.
如果你离近了看 会发现镜片的局部相当模糊
If you look closer at it, there are parts of it
它已经…已经尽力了
that are trying… trying to be clear.
呃 我可以透过镜片看到一些光线
Erm… I can see some light through this,
但看不到任何图像
but I cannot see anything.
总而言之 我的眼镜制作并太不成功
So in that regard, my glasses were not the best of successes,
至少镜片不够清楚
at least in making them clear.
但如果我想看得更清楚
But if I’d be able to get them clear,
我觉得要它真正适合我眼睛
I’m sure it could have gotten them
就像这副眼镜
actually prescribed to my eyes like these.
一切都变近了
These are pretty close.
总之 戴比不戴好多了
Overall, I can see a lot better than I could without them.
但是我还要去请教一下路易斯
But I’m gonna check in with Lewis to see if
看他是否有一些建议 让我的眼镜更清楚
he has any suggestions on how I could have done this better.
好吧 路易斯 这就是我的眼镜成品
Alright, Lewis, so these are my final glasses.
[嘿嘿]
[Laughter]
安迪 你说你能看到我吗?
Andy, can you even see me?
戴上眼睛你还能看到东西吗?
Can you see anything at all through those glasses?
我能看到一点光 只此而已
I can see a little bit of light. That’s about it.
[哈哈]
[Laughter]
你可以分清白天和黑夜
You can tell if it’s night or it’s day.
你…我觉得你创造了眼镜发明界的历史
You… I think you’ve nailed invention of spectacles in history.
干得好 阁下
Well done, Sir.
那么我的建议就是我能想到的两个原因
So from my point of view, what I can see here all in two things:
眼镜看起来有点绿 好像被着上了绿色
It looks a little green. It looks quite tinted green.
看起来相当不透明 里面几乎都是泡泡
And it looks quite opaque. It looks almost frothy in there.
这叫做“玻璃气泡”
It’s called “seeding”.
我认为可能是你在窑里熔制玻璃时
I think there’s a lot of tiny bubbles that have got caught
玻璃里进了很多气泡
in that glasses you’re melting it in your kiln.
而对此问题的解决方法是
The sort of things you can do trying to solve that,
呃 或许你可以延长把眼镜放在窑里的时间
erm… maybe trying to leave it in the kiln for a bit longer.
这样当玻璃被熔化时
So that the glass is molten,
气体就有更长时间从玻璃里逸出
and it gives a longer opportunity for the gas to escape from that glass,
气泡逃出后就不会在凝固时被滞留玻璃里面了
the bubbles to escape and not get trapped when they resolidifies.
或许你可以重新净化一下你的碳酸钾
Maybe try repurifying potash you’ve got
因为我提过焊剂很关键
because that I said the key component is that flux
它不仅能帮助降低玻璃黏度的熔点
that help to reduce the melting point from viscosity of the glass,
还能帮助气泡逸出
also help the bubbles to escape as well.
还有我觉得眼镜里有绿色的原因
And I think the reason you’ve got a bit of a green tint there
可能是你用的沙子和二氧化硅里有铁杂质
is maybe your sand, your silica had some iron impurities in it,
这会使最后的玻璃成品着上绿色
will make the glass come out so green-tinted
这种情况 做啤酒瓶时没问题
which, you know, I mean that’s fine for a bottle of wine
但我认为对一副眼镜来说
but I think for your pair of glasses,
如果眼镜里总有绿色会让人有点上火
erm, it’ll be a little bit irritating if it’d been green whole time.
因为你总不想通过一层绿色玻璃观看这个世界
You’re looking at the world through green tinted glasses.
那么你建议我下一次做什么呢?
So what would you recommend I’d make next?
哦 现在你是做了一副眼镜
Oh now that you’ve made a pair of spectacles
说实话 我在书里叫眼镜为spectacles
and to be honest, I use “spectacles” in the broadest sense of the word.
我猜你会想更进一步
I reckon you should step up a bit.
所以下一次你应该试一下
And the next thing you should try
把你制作的多个镜片来一次结合
is to use your lenses in combination with each other
从头开始做一个望远镜或者显微镜之类的
and make something like a telescope or a microscope from scratch.
看看你是否可以用你的望远镜
And maybe see if you can use your telescope
观测到运行的月亮和木星
to see the moons orbiting Jupiter,
这一点伽利略400年前就能做到了
which Galileo was able to see over 400 years ago,
当时人们才刚刚把望远镜和天空联系起来
when people first started turning telescopes towards the heavens.
所以我很乐意看到你的成品
So I’d love to see if you… if you could pull that off.
我下次肯定会试着这样做
Definitely I would try that next.
好 你接受挑战了 好的
Yeah, challenge accepted. Okay.
让我们知道你的进展吧
Well, let’s know how it goes.
很期待听到你的消息
And I’m looking forward to hearing back from you again.
再次感谢
Thanks again.
多谢大卫和Make Something频道
Also thanks to both David and Make Something.
请一定要去观看大卫了不起的木工视频
Be sure to check out all of his amazing wood making videos.
你从我的眼镜中就能看出来 大卫的木工活儿真是不可思议
As you can tell from my glasses, he does some really amazing works.
请一定要去看他的视频 他的视频也很出色
Be sure to check out his videos. They’re quite good as well.
同时要感谢路易斯对我的支持和指导
And also thanks to Lewis for his assistance and guidance with this.
推荐你们去看他的书《世界重启》
Be sure to check out his book “The Knowledge”.
这本书真的很棒 而且我可能
It is a really amazing book and something I am probably gonna be
在以后的视频里也要谈及到
referring back to in future episodes.

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视频概述

如果世界文明重置了,对于那些把矫正眼镜看成必需品的人来说,你能从零开始做出一副眼镜吗?

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ef2_aaYpZSI

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