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发财的同时改变世界

How to make a profit while making a difference | Audrey Choi

我相信大机构
I believe big institutions
拥有改变世界的特有潜力
have unique potential to create change,
我也相信作为独立个体的我们
and I believe that we as individuals
有着独特的力量
have unique power
影响那些大机构的发展方向
to influence the direction that those institutions take.
这些信仰不是单纯地源于
Now, these beliefs did not come naturally to me,
对大机构的信任
because trusting big institutions,
也不是我的家族信念
not really part of my family legacy.
我母亲十岁的时候
My mother escaped North Korea
从朝鲜逃了出来
when she was 10 years old.
为了出逃成功 她要一直躲避那些大机构
To do so, she had to elude every big institution in her life:
像专制政府 占领军
repressive governments, occupying armies
或者是全副武装的边境巡逻兵
and even armed border patrols.
后来她决定要移民去美国的时候
Later, when she decided she wanted to emigrate to the United States,
她必须去挑战
she had to defy an entire culture
轻视女性的文化传统
that said the girls would never be the best and brightest.
仅仅是因为她的名字听起来像个男孩子
Only because her name happens to sound like a boy’s
她才浑水摸鱼通过了
was she able to finagle her way into the government immigration exam
去美国的移民考试
to come to the United States.
得益于她的勇敢和激情
Because of her bravery and passion,
我才有了她从未有过的机会
I’ve had all the opportunities that she never did,
使得我的人生故事与她完全不同
and that has made my story so different.
我不是逃离大机构
Instead of running away from big institutions,
我是朝着它们奔去
I’ve actually run toward them.
在我的职业生涯中一直如此
I’ve had the chance over the course of my career
像供职于华尔街日报
to work for The Wall Street Journal,
白宫
the White House
现在 我任职于世界上最大的金融机构之一
and now one of the largest financial institutions in the world,
主管可持续性投资
where I lead sustainable investing.
如今 这些机构就像油轮一样
Now, these institutions are like tankers,
在它们的内部工作
and working inside of them,
我意识到它们改善世界的潜能非常巨大
I’ve come to appreciate what large wakes they can leave,
让我更加坚信的依据是
and I’ve become convinced
这个掌管全球资本市场的机构
that the institution of the global capital markets,
拥有全世界价值290万亿美元的股票和债券
the nearly 290 trillion dollars of stocks and bonds in the world,
这个可能是我们最强大的力量
and that may be one of our most powerful forces
如果使用得当 将造福社会
for positive social change at our disposal,
只要我们愿意
if we ask it to be.
我知道有些人可能在想
Now, I know some of you are thinking,
全球资本市场 积极的社会变化
global capital markets, positive social change,
往往不会出现在同一句甚至同一段话中
not usually in the same sentence or even the same paragraph.
我想很多人可能觉得资本市场
I think many people think of the capital markets
就像海洋一样
kind of like an ocean.
它巨大 无情 冷漠
It’s a vast, impersonal, uncaring force of nature
不受我们的意愿影响
that is not affected by our wishes or desires.
因此我们的一点点存款
So the best that our little savings accounts
或者退休金 能做的
or retirement accounts can do
也就是搭上经济向好的浪潮
is to try to catch some waves in the good cycles
希望别陷进金融风暴的涡漩里
and hope that we don’t get inundated in the turbulent ones,
实际上我们对那一点退休金的运作
but certainly our decisions on how to steer our little retirement accounts
影响不了潮汐
don’t affect the tides,
也不会改变波浪的形状 大小或者方向
don’t change the shape or size or direction of the waves.
为什么会这样呢?
But why is that?
因为 实际上资本海洋的三分之一
Because actually, one third of this ocean of capital
属于我们这样的个体
actually belongs to individuals like us,
而资本市场剩余的大部分
and most of the rest of the capital markets
被那些大型机构所控制 而它们的权力 权威
is controlled by the institutions that get their power and authority
和资金都来源于我们
and their capital from us,
包括每一位会员 参与者 受益人 股票持有者或市民
as members, participants, beneficiaries, shareholders or citizens.
所以 如果我们是资本市场最终的拥有者
So if we are the ultimate owners of the capital markets,
为什么不发出有力的声音呢?
why aren’t we able to make our voices heard?
为什么不掀起波浪呢?
Why can’t we make some waves?
所以 我想问你们一个不同的问题
So let me ask you a different question:
谁在商场或者星巴克
did any of you buy fair trade coffee
买过公平贸易咖啡?
the last time you were at a supermarket or at Starbucks?
好 那谁去餐馆
OK. Do any of you go to the restaurant
点过可持续养殖的鲑鱼?
and order the sustainably farmed trout
而不是你真正想要的
instead of the miso-glazed Chilean sea bass
卤制智利鲈鱼
that you really wish you could have?
谁在使用混合动力汽车甚至是电动汽车?
Do any of you drive hybrid cars or even electric cars?
所以 我们为什么要做这些事呢?
So why do we do these things?
对吧?在由十二亿内燃机汽车组成的巨大舰队里
Right? One electric car doesn’t amount to much in a fleet of 1.2 billion
一辆电动汽车并不能意味着什么
combustion engine vehicles.
一条鱼也就是汪洋大海里的一条鱼而已
One fish is just one fish in the sea.
在这个疯狂的世界里
And one cup of coffee
一杯咖啡也无法与满山的咖啡豆相抗衡
doesn’t amount to a hill of beans in this crazy world.
但我们做这些事 是因为我们相信他们是重要的
But we do these things because we believe they matter,
我们要携起手来
that our actions add up,
我们的选择可以影响别人
that our choices might influence others
团结一致 我们的影响力会非常巨大
and collectively, what an impact we can have.
我包里放着一个几年前买的咖啡杯
So, in my bag I have a coffee mug that I bought a couple of years ago.
这是一个可重复使用的杯子 所有的信息都印在上面
It’s a reusable mug. It has all these things printed on it.
看看上面印刷的句子 写着
Look at some of the things that are on it, that it says.
这个杯子可多次重复使用
“This one cup can be used again and again.”
这个杯子可以鼓励其他人也去使用
“This one cup may inspire others to use one too.”
这个杯子可以帮助拯救地球
“This one cup helps save the planet.”
我从来没有想过这个塑料杯有着如此强大的力量
I had no idea this plastic cup was so powerful.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
那么 为什么我们认为
So why do we think that our choice
买一杯四美元 装在可重复使用的杯子里的遮阴种植 公平贸易
of a four dollar shade-grown fair trade artisanal cup of coffee
手工咖啡是有用的
in a reusable mug matters,
然而我们个人退休账户上的4000美元
but what we do with 4,000 dollars in our investment account
却起不了作用?
for our IRA doesn’t?
为什么我们不能告诉超市和资本市场
Why can’t we tell the supermarket and the capital markets
我们在乎
that we care,
我们在乎公平的劳动标准
that we care about fair labor standards,
我们在乎可持续的生产方法
that we care about sustainable production methods
和社区的健康
and about healthy communities?
为什么我们用自己的拿铁咖啡
Why aren’t we voting with our investment dollars,
而不是自己的投资来投票
but we would vote with our lattes?
这有点像存在于我们集体意识里
So I think it has something to do with the myths,
的神话或者是寓言
the fables that we all carry around in our collective consciousness.
你们还记得格林童话里的那个神奇的粥锅吗?
Do you remember the Grimm’s fairy tale about the magic porridge pot?
如果你对这口锅说:”沸腾吧 小锅”
If you said to the pot, “Boil, little pot, boil,”
它就会煮一锅香甜的粥
it would fill up with sweet porridge.
如果你说:”停下来吧 小锅”
And if you said, “Stop, little pot, stop,”
它就会停下来
it would stop.
但是如果你说的咒语不对 它就不会听你的
But if you got the words wrong, it wouldn’t listen,
而且可能会有糟糕的后果
and things could go terribly awry.
因此 我觉得谈到市场的时候
So I think when it comes to markets,
我们可能也会想到一些类似的童话
we have a little bit of a similar fable in our heads.
我们相信市场就是这个小粥壶
We believe that the markets is this magic pot
它只听从一条命令
that obeys only one command:
赚更多的钱
make more money.
只有准确说出这句话
Only those words said exactly that way
这个小锅才会装满金子
will make the pot fill up with gold.
但是发出别的命令 比如”保护环境”
Add in some extra words like “protect the environment,”
这种咒语可能就不会奏效
the spell might not work.
要是说出“推动社会公平”这样的错误咒语
Put in the wrong words like “promote social justice,”
你可能还会发现你的金币变少了
and you might see your gold coins shrink
按照这个寓言的寓意 甚至会全部消失
or even vanish entirely, according to this fable.
因此我们很好奇 人们的真实想法是什么?
So we asked people, what do you really think?
我们调查了一千位投资散户
And we actually went out and polled a thousand individual investors,
发现了一些有趣的事情
and we found something fascinating.
绝大部分人
Overwhelmingly,
希望在这个咒语里加一些别的话
people wanted to add those extra words into the formula.
百分之七十一的人同意
71 percent of people said yes,
他们对于可持续投资很感兴趣
they were interested in sustainable investing,
我们将可持续投资定义为 在你已拥有的
which we define as taking the best-in-class investment process
最佳投资的基础之上
that you already have traditionally
再加上一点额外的考量
and adding in the extra information you get
关于致力于更好的环境 社会和政府管理
when you think about the environment and society and good governance.
百分之七十一的人都想这么做
71 percent wanted that.
百分之七十二的人相信这样做的公司
72 percent said that they believe that companies who did that
经济上会发展得更好
would actually do better financially.
所以说 人们确实相信做善事也能取得成功
So people really do believe that you can do well by doing good.
但是也有些奇怪的意见
But here was the weird thing:
百分之五十四的人
54 percent of the people
仍然坚持认为 如果投资这种类型的股票
still said if they put their money in those kinds of stocks,
他们会赚得更少
they thought that they would make less money.
这是对的吗?
So is it true?
投资遮阴咖啡会让你的甜粥变少?
Do you get less sweet porridge if you invest in shade-grown coffee
难道不是因为你喝了它?
instead of drinking it?
好的 你知道的 小蜜蜂公司和本杰瑞公司
Well, you know, the investors in companies like Burt’s Bees
的投资人不会这么认为
or Ben & Jerry’s wouldn’t say so.
对吧 这两个公司都曾是
Right? Both of those started out as small,
具有社会责任感的小公司
socially conscious companies
后来却大受消费者欢迎
that ended up becoming so popular with consumers
最终被巨头联合利华和高乐氏
that the giants Unilever and Clorox bought them
以数亿美元收购
for hundreds of millions of dollars
每个公司
each.
重要的事情是
But here’s the important thing.
那些公司意识到
Those corporations realized
如果他们想要保护投资的价值
that if they wanted to protect the value of their investments,
就必须坚持社会使命
they had to preserve that socially conscious mission.
如果他们不能一直致力于
If they didn’t keep adding in those extra words
保护环境和贡献社会
of environmentally friendly and socially conscious,
他们的品牌就不能赚钱
those brands wouldn’t make more money.
但是 这不也从反面证明了这个规律么?
But maybe this is just the exception that proves the rule, right?
那些运作我们的存款和退休金的
The serious companies that fund our economy
权威机构推动了世界的运转
and that fund our retirements and that really make the world go round,
它们必须坚守着赚钱的责任
they need to stick to making more money.
哈佛商学院做过调查
So, Harvard Business School actually researched this,
并且他们发现了一些有趣的事情
and they found something fascinating.
如果你二十年前投资了一美元
If you had invested a dollar 20 years ago
在一个仅仅
in a portfolio of companies
致力于赚更多钱的证券公司里
that focused narrowly on making more money
年复一年
quarter by quarter,
这一美元
that one dollar
会变成十四美元四十六美分
would have grown to 14 dollars and 46 cents.
看上去挺不错
That’s not bad until you consider
如果你把同样多的钱投资在
that if instead you’d invested that same dollar
一个致力于发展业绩
in a portfolio of companies
并且关心重大的环境和
that focused on growing their business
社会问题的证券公司里
and on the most important environmental and social issues,
那么这一美元将会变成
that one dollar would have grown
二十八美元三十六美分
to 28 dollars and 36 cents.
几乎是前一个的两倍
almost twice as much sweet porridge.
我们得知道 他们表现优异并不是通过给钱
Now, let’s be clear, they didn’t make that outperformance
让自己看起来像是个不错的企业公民
by giving away money to seem like a nice corporate citizen.
而是将重心放在企业的关键问题上
They did it by focusing on the things that matter to their business,
比如在生产过程中
like wasting less energy and water
节省更多的能量和水
in their manufacturing processes;
比如确保合同能激励首席执行官
like making sure the CEO contracts had the CEOs incentivized
让其更关注公司和顾客的长远利益
for the long-term results of the company and the communities they served,
而不只是每季度的收益
not just quarterly results;
或者建立一流的公司文化
or building a first class culture
提高员工的忠诚度 工作效率
that would have higher employee loyalty,
降低员工流动率
retention and productivity.
不仅哈佛
Now, Harvard’s not alone.
牛津大学调查了120个不同的案例
Oxford also did a research study where they examined 120 different studies
研究可持续性投资对经济效益的影响
looking at the effect of sustainability and economic results,
他们一再发现
and they found time and time and time again
那些关注这类重要事情的公司
that the companies that cared about these kinds of important things
有着更高的运营效率
actually had better operational efficiency,
更低的资金成本
lower cost of capital
股票价格也更高
and better performance in their stock price.
再来说说阿尔戈尔
And then there’s Al Gore.
二十年前 我在白宫跟着阿尔戈尔工作
So 20 years ago, when I worked for Al Gore in the White House,
他是最早号召企业和政府
he was one of the early pioneers pleading with businesses and governments
关注气候变化的人之一
to pay attention to the challenges of climate change.
离开白宫后 他成立了一家叫世代的投资公司
Post-White House, he opened an investment firm called Generation,
将环保和别的一些重要事情
where he baked environmental sustainability and other things
纳入了投资计划的核心
right into the core investment process.
他的这一做法在当时颇受争议
And at the time there was a good bit of skepticism about his views.
十年后 他的成就证明了
Ten years later, his track record is one more proof point
正确的可持续性投资的重要价值
that sustainable investing done right can be sound investing.
完全不会使甜麦粥变少(即损害别的利益)
Far from making less sweet porridge
因为他在常规模式里引入了可持续性投资
because he added sustainability into the mix,
才取得了远高于基准的成就
he actually significantly outperformed the benchmark.
可持续性投资
Now, sustainable investing,
庆幸的是它并不需要什么神奇的咒语
the good news is it doesn’t require a magic spell
也不需要什么投资秘诀
and it doesn’t require some investment secret,
它并不是精英的专属
and it’s not just for the elite.
也不是亿万富翁的私募股
It is not just about private equity for billionaires.
它不是时髦投资 不同于清洁能源
It’s not just groovy-sounding investments like clean technology
新兴市场的小额贷款
or microfinance in emerging markets
抑或是布鲁克林的手工烘焙店
or artisanal bakeries in Brooklyn.
它是关于股票 债券和世界五百强的
It’s about stocks and bonds and Fortune 500 companies.
关于互惠基金的
It’s about mutual funds.
关于所有事情的
It’s about all the things
市场上已有很多这类投资
we already see in the market today.
我相信只要我们一起努力
So here’s why I’m convinced
可持续性投资一定会盛行
that we collectively have the power
原因如下
to make sustainable investing the new normal.
首先 事实一再证明
First, the proof points are coming out all the time
可持续性投资只要运作合理
that sustainable investing done right,
不超出传统投资方式的原理和范围
preserving all the same good principles of investing,
是可以增加收益的
the traditional sphere, can pay.
这很好理解
It makes sense.
其次
Secondly,
我们所面临的最大障碍
the biggest obstacle standing in our way
可能是我们脑海中的偏见
may actually just be in our heads.
我们要尽早摒弃这种偏见
We just need to let go of that myth
认为把资金放到可持续性投资里
that if you add your values into your investment thinking,
会减少你的甜麦粥(有损收益)
that you get less sweet porridge.
一旦你摆脱了这种偏见
And once you get rid of the fable,
你就能体会到可持续性投资的好处了
you can actually start appreciating those facts we’ve been talking about.
第三 未来已经到来
And third, the future is already here.
可持续性投资的市场规模已经达到20万亿美元
Sustainable investment today is a 20 trillion dollar market
是投资市场增长最快的部分
and it’s the fastest-growing segment of the investment industry.
在美国 可持续性投资增长势头强劲
In the United States, it has grown enormously, as you can see.
它占据了全美专业投资
It now represents one out of every six dollars
市场的六分之一
under professional management in the United States.
我们还在等什么呢?
So what are we waiting for?
这让我想到了我母亲带给我的激励
For me, it goes back to the inspiration that I received from my mother.
她清楚她想要的生活
She knew that she wanted a life
能自己做选择
where she would have the freedom to make her own choices
能发出自己的声音 能写自己的故事
and to have her voice heard and write her own story.
她为此充满激情
She was passionate about that goal
她绝不会让军队 困难
and she was clear that she would let no army, no obstacle,
或是大机构阻挡自己
no big institution stand in her way.
她成功来到了美国
She made it to the States,
当了一名老师
and she became a teacher,
一名获奖作家
an award-winning author
一名母亲
and a mother,
最后还把女儿送到哈佛
and ended up sending her daughters to Harvard.
如今 她在全世界最有权力的大机构
And these days, you can tell that she is amply comfortable
愉快工作
holding court in the most powerful institutions in the world.
最有趣的是
It seems almost too prophetic
她的名字在韩语里的意思是
that her name in Korean means
充满激情 明确
“passionate clarity.”
充满激情和明确
Passionate clarity:
我认为这正是变革所需要的
that’s what I think we need to drive change.
激情表示我们渴望看到世界变得更好
Passion about the change we want to see in the world,
目标明确是确保我们有正确的前进方向
and clarity that we are able to help chart the course.
与过去相比 我们有了更多
We have more opportunity today than ever before
选择的机会
to make choices.
也了更多表达自己意见的能力
We have more power than ever before to make our voices heard.
不要墨守成规了
So change your perspective.
尽你的绵薄之力
Vote with your small change.
致力于让这个世界变得更好
Invest in the change you want to see in the world.
摒弃偏见
Change the fables
改变市场
and change the markets.
谢谢
Thank you.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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视频概述

国际权威专家告诉富豪们,你们有能力做慈善,也可以投资可持续发展的行业,如今的机会前所未有,不要犹豫,把世界变成你想要的样子

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收集自网络

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译学馆审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7l5QHRY_AI

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