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如何塑造令人难忘的反派角色?

How To Make A Great Villain

大家好 我是《近距离》的Henry
Hi, guys! Henry here from the Closer Look
今天我想问这样一个问题:
and today I’ll be asking the question:
是什么造就了一个成功的反派?
what makes a great villain?
对于这个问题 我将主要关注
For this case study, I’ll be focusing primarily on
《黑暗骑士》中的小丑
the Joker from the Dark Knight.
本视频中使用的所有素材
All materials used in this video of
均出于剪辑的合理需求
a nonprofit educational purposes
为非盈利性教育目的
for welding the guidelines of fair use.
那么 《蝙蝠侠:黑暗骑士》
So, the Dark Knight.
这部电影受到了普遍赞赏
This film received practically universal praise and
根据IMDB的数据 它是有史以来第四部最佳影片
according to IMDB, it’s the fourth best film of all time.
有许多原因可以解释
There are many reasons
为什么这部电影受到如此高的赞誉
why this film is considered in such high regard.
但今天我只关注其中一点
But today I’ll be focusing on just one,
小丑
the Joker.
绝大多数的制片人 编剧 以及小说家
The vast majority of filmmakers, screenwriters and storytellers alike
都会告诉你同一件事情
will all tell you the same thing
那就是 反派必须比主角更强大
that the villain must have more power than the protagonist.
我个人认为这是一个有意思的说法
Personally, I think it’s an interesting statement.
但我觉得还有待商榷
But I respectfully disagree, sort of.
在《黑暗骑士》中
In the Dark Knight,
小丑没有钱 更别提资源
the Joker has no money and no resources to mention.
他绝对不是传统意义上的强大反派
He has absolutely no power in the traditional sense.
然而 他仍是有史以来最成功的反派角色之一
Yet, he is still one of the best villains of all time.
一个糟糕的电影制片人会给反派树立众多敌人
A bad filmmaker will give his villains a massive army
和近乎无穷的力量
and near limitless power.
比如《美国队长》的红骷髅
Take for example, Red Skull in Captain America,
《魔界》的索伦 《雷神2:黑暗世界》的玛雷基
Sauron in Lord of the Rings, Malekith in Thor 2
《哈利波特与魔法石》的罗南
Ronan in Guardians of the Galaxy.
数不胜数
The list is endless.
所有的这些角色
All of these characters
都拥有传统意义上的强大力量
have massive amounts of traditional power and
无穷无尽的资源
none whatsoever of the non-traditional saw.
这就是这些反派和小丑之间的区别
This is where these villains differ from the Joker.
小丑拥有力量 但不是我们所熟知的那种
He has power, just not in the way we’re accustomed to.
他的全部力量来源于他
His entire power comes from his ability to
机智且狡猾的攻击
attack with great intelligence and cunning,
能直击黑暗骑士最致命的弱点
straight at the Dark Knight’s greatest weaknesses.
小丑甚至都承认
The Joker even confesses
他根本没有真正的资源
how he has no real resources at all.
“看看我用几颗毒气和几颗子弹
“Look what I did to this city
对这个城市做了什么”
with a few drugs of gas and a couple of bullets.”
因此 这就引出了第一点
So this leads me to add point one
该如何去塑造反派角色
on to the villain creation guide.
相对于英雄 你的反派角色需要更多力量
Your villain needs to have more power than the hero.
但不要错误地只赋予他们
But don’t make the mistake of giving them
我们刚讨论的那种传统力量
only the traditional power we’ve just discussed.
没关系 你的反派可以拥有大量的钱财
It’s fine for your villains to have massive amounts of money.
有一群令人生畏的追随者
You’re a group of intimidating henchmen.
但除非你能同时拥有一位魅力十足的反派
But unless you can back that up with an interesting villain,
否则电影情节将会平淡无趣
your conflict will be bland and uninteresting.
这就引出了第二点
This leads me to my second point,
塑造角色的另一个要求
which is another field of characterization
同样是小丑出彩的地方
that the Joker excels out.
好吧 我知道这和前面说的毫无关系
Okay. I know this is completely unrelated to everything.
但是 你知道瑞秋这一角色
But did you know the character Rachel
在《蝙蝠侠:侠影之谜》和《黑暗骑士》里
was played by two different actresses
是由两位不同的演员扮演的吗?
in Batman Begins and the Dark Knight?
上周有人告诉我这件事 让我大吃一惊
Someone told me last week and it blew my mind.
总之 我觉得你吧…
Anyway, I I just thought you.
我就是觉得你可能想知道
I just thought you might want to know.
无论如何 塑造角色的另一关键
Anyway, another element of characterization
就是动机 这也是小丑出彩的地方
that the Joker excels at is motivation.
这点是塑造一个成功反派的基本要求
This right here is the bread and butter of a good villain.
如果你的反派动机很弱 或缺乏真实动机
If your villain has a very weak or no real motivation,
那么你的观众就不会相信这个角色
then your audience won’t believe that character at all and
并且情节也会再次变得乏味无趣
the conflict will again become bland and uninteresting.
一个建议:
A word of advice:
如果你想让观众对角色产生共鸣
If you want your audience to empathize with the villain,
最好的办法就是设计一个强有力的动机
having a solid motivation is the best way to do so.
比如《雷神》里的洛基
Take for example, Loki in the film Thor,
他的动机不是获得更多力量或者复仇
his motivation is not more power or revenge,
而是得到他父亲的爱和支持
but rather the love and approval of his father.
如果你想知道我是怎么得出结论的
If you want to see how I reach that conclusion,
请点击观看我的视频
they click here to see my video on
《为何<雷神>是有史以来最好的漫威电影》
why Thor is the best marvel movie of all time.
抱歉 有时候控制不住自己
Sorry. Sometimes I can’t help myself.
总之 小丑有一个超棒的动机
Anyway, the Joker has an amazing motivation
Alfred清楚地解释了这件事
which is cleverly explained by Alfred right here.
“因为有些人追寻的不是符合逻辑的东西 比如钱
“Because some men aren’t looking for anything logical like money.”
“他们不接受收买 威胁 劝说 或协商”
“They can’t be bought, bullied, reasoned or negotiated with.”
“有些人只是想看到世界毁灭”
“Some man just want to watch the world burn.”
小丑的动机
The Joker’s motivation
不是获取更多的力量或者个人利益
is not more power or personal gain
而是类似其他99%的反派
and like 99% of all other villains,
他只是一个虚无主义者
he quite simply is a nihilist,
这意味着他没有任何道德或信仰
which means he doesn’t have any morals or beliefs.
他压根不关心任何人
He genuinely doesn’t care about any human life
包括他的追随者 也包括他自己
including his henchmen and also including his own,
当蝙蝠侠把他从屋顶上扔下去时
which is illustrated by how he starts laughing maniacally
他狂笑的样子说明了这一切
when Batman throws him off the roof towards the end.
小丑这种一切都无关紧要的人生规则
The Joker’s philosophy of nothing really matters
在电影中至少被花样诠释了50次
is illustrated at least 50 different times in the movie.
但我最喜欢的一次是
But one of my favorite times is
他讲他伤疤来历的那次
when he tells a story about how he got his scars.
第一次他说
The first time he says
是他父亲耍酒疯时干的
his father did it while on a drunk rampage and
第二次他说 他是为了让妻子高兴而自残
the next time he says he did it to make his wife happy.
这两个故事的区别在于是否是意外
The difference between these two stories is no accident.
这表明小丑真的不关心任何事情
It proves that the Joker truly doesn’t care about anything,
包括他的过去
including his past.
因为对他而言 这无所谓
Because to him, it doesn’t matter.
对他而言 所有事都是笑话
Because to him, everything is a joke.
信不信由你
And believe it or not,
他的终极目标从不是摧毁高谭市
his end goal was never to destroy Gotham.
而是为了证明 内心深处 所有人都与他无异
It was to prove that deep down, everyone is like him.
小丑和蝙蝠侠之间的斗争
This battle between the Joker and Batman
在最后共同的镜头达到高潮
is highlighted in their last shared scene.
“该死 他们将要加倍速率了”
“Hell. They’ll be doubling up the rate.”
“这座城市的居民疯了”
“The city’s inhabitants are losing their minds.”
“这座城市只会让你相信
“This city just showed you
生活在其中的都是好人”
that it’s full of people ready to believe in good.”
“直到他们的精神被完全摧毁”
“until their spirit breaks completely.”
小丑不想毁灭世界
The Joker doesn’t want to destroy the world.
他只是想证明当世界末日到来时
He just wants to convince it that when it comes down to it,
其他人和他没什么区别
him and the rest of humanity are not so different.
在他看来 把一个普通人变成小丑
In his opinion, for a regular person to become the Joker,
“所需要的只是轻轻推一把”
“All it takes is a little push.”
蝙蝠侠自己甚至都说:
Batman even says it himself:
“你是要证明
“What were you trying to prove
每个人内心深处都同你一样吗?”
that deep down everyone’s exactly as you?”
蝙蝠侠的人生规则正好相反
And the Batman’s philosophy is the exact opposite.
他相信所有的罪犯都还有的救
He believes all criminals can be redeemed that
每个人内心深处都有好的一面
deep down everyone has the potential for good.
小丑和蝙蝠侠之间的互动
The dynamic between the Joker and Batman is
与其他英雄和反派之间的互动不同
not the same as most other hero villain dynamics out there.
在大多数故事中 反派想要完成最终目标
In most other stories, the villain wants to achieve an end goal
英雄是他们成功路上的唯一阻碍
and the hero is the only obstacle in the road that can stop them
反之亦然 英雄想要实现终极目标
or vice versa, the hero wants to achieve the goal and
反派是唯一的障碍
the villain is the only one who can stop them.
然而 《黑暗骑士》中 却并不是这么回事
Well, in the Dark Knight, that is not the case.
他们都为了相同的目标对抗
They are both competing for the exact same goal:
即哥谭镇的灵魂
The soul of Gotham.
我认为 让小丑这个角色锦上添花的是
And what I consider to be the icing on the cake for the Joker.
最终 小丑胜利了
It’s in the end, he wins.
小丑很有趣 因为在每一次行动中
The Joker is interesting because at every point,
他都比蝙蝠侠提前一步
he is one step ahead of the Batman.
小丑的一次绝妙行动是哈维和瑞秋那次
A genius move by the Joker was with Harvey and Rachel.
他骗了蝙蝠侠 隐藏了他们被困的地点
He lied Batman and sucked their addresses,
不管蝙蝠侠做出什么选择 最终他都会输
meaning no matter what Batman chose he would lose.
他选择去救瑞秋
He chose to save Rachel.
她会死 而小丑会胜利
She would die and the Joker would win and
如果他选择去营救哈维
if he chose to save Harvey,
哈维会死 而小丑又会胜利
he would die and the Joker would again win.
最后 小丑实现了他真正的目标
In the end, he accomplishes his true goals and
向世界揭露了哥谭镇的真面目
shows the world Gotham’s true face,
这就是一个巨大的谎言
the face of a big lie.
瞧 小丑把哈维·丹特变成双面人
See when the Joker turned Harvey Dent into two-face,
他做这件事有一个特殊原因
he did it for a very specific reason
是为了设计另一个计划
to create another scenario
一个蝙蝠侠不可能胜利的计划
where it is impossible for the Batman to win.
如果蝙蝠侠和戈登决定向世界揭露
If Batman and Gordon decided to reveal to the world
哈维成了双面人
that Harvey became two-faced,
他谋杀无辜的人民
that he murdered innocent people,
那么哥谭镇政府的名誉
then the reputation of Gotham’s government
将永远留下污点 小丑将会胜利
would be forever tarnished and the Joker would win and
而如果他们决定掩盖哈维的暴行
if they decided to cover up Harvey’s atrocities and
继续维护他作为哥谭镇白衣骑士的名誉
maintain his reputation as a white knight of Gotham,
他们最后也正是这样做的 小丑还是会取得胜利
which is what they did in the end, the Joker would win.
因为这整个司法系统
Because an entire system of justice
数百万人如今所信任和信仰的
millions of people now believe and place their faith
都是一个巨大的谎言
in one big lie.
此时 小丑露出看戏般充满恶意的笑容
Now that’s one hell of a last laugh that even the Joker can appreciate.
这令我想到另一个塑造成功反派的要点
This leads me to another point of making a great villain.
让他们赢
Let them win.
这不是说非得让他们在结尾大获全胜
This doesn’t mean they have to have a complete victory in the end.
当反派取得胜利时 即使是像
But when the villain is victorious, even in small little waves
小丑在整部电影中所取得的那种小胜利
like the Joker did throughout the whole movie,
也能给故事增加真实性
it adds a realistic grit to the story and
使观众更费心地去寻找英雄
makes the audience feel even more invested in the hero’s quest,
因为观众更想让英雄获胜
as they want him to succeed even more.
若小丑的所有计谋都不能成功
And the Joker did not succeed in any of his plans.
观众将难以参与到电影里
The audience would have been less engaged in the story.
我有一个很喜欢用的技巧
I have a technique I like to use.
当我想要测试反派与主演之间
Whenever I want to test whether the villain
是否有一个有趣的互动时
will have an interesting dynamic with the protagonist,
试着把这个反派换成小说中的其他反派
try and swap your villain around with other villains in fiction
然后问问自己 这对叙事是否有丝毫影响
and ask yourself does it have any impact on the narrative
交换之后仍然一样吗?
and is it still largely the same?
如果你的回答是没有影响
If your answer is it makes no difference,
那么你的反派角色还需要继续打磨
then your villain still needs a little more work.
如果Nalan把另一个版本的小丑加进电影里
If Nolan put another version of the Joker in this film,
效果就没那么好了
it just wouldn’t work right.
杰瑞德·莱托饰演的小丑 杰克·尼科尔森饰演的小丑
Jared Leto’s Joker, Jack Nicholson’s Joker or
甚至是系列动画里的小丑
even the animated series Joker,
由于电影的性质 他们都不可能成功
none of them would have worked because of the nature of the film.
但是这是蝙蝠侠唯一的化身
But this is the only incarnation of Batman
是绝对的现实主义
that has gone for absolute realism.
如果小丑开一些古怪的玩笑
And if the Joker were making wacky jokes or
用一些廉价的毒气弹
using explosive Whoopie cushions for cheap gags,
这是没有什么信服力的
it just wouldn’t be believable.
小丑的基调
The Joker is delivered in a tone
与《黑暗骑士》三部曲的其余部分是一致的
that is consistent with the rest of the Dark Knight trilogy.
这种基调是一种彻底的现实主义
A tone of utter realism and this is why
这就是为何这个版本的小丑是有史以来最好的
the Joker in this film is the best villain of all time.
当杰克·尼科尔森扮演的小丑
When Jack Nicholson’s Joker killed a man
用羽毛刺穿喉咙 杀死这个人时
by throwing a quill at his throat,
这很有意思
it was interesting.
但也是相当荒谬的
But it was also quite ridiculous
提醒观众他们看到的并不是现实生活
and reminded the audience that they weren’t watching real life.
他们只是在看电影
They were watching a movie and
而在动画世界里
in the animated universe where the
小丑带着微笑毒死一群人
Joker poisons a group of people with his smile gasps.
这确实令人震撼
It’s shocking, yes.
但是这也很符合动画的特征
But it’s also quite cartoony in nature and
提醒观众他们看到的并非现实世界
reminds the viewer that they aren’t watching real life.
他们是在看动画
They are watching an animation.
而这就是《黑暗骑士》与影史上
But that is where the Dark Knight is completely different
其他版本的小丑完全不同的地方
to every other incarnation of Joker in history.
当小丑用铅笔猛击一个人的头时
When the Joker slams a pencil through that man’s head,
令人毛骨悚然 但是完全可信
it was shocking, yet completely believable.
当小丑炸毁医院
When the Joker blows up their Hospital,
烧掉一叠钱
sets fire to that pile of money and
最后被扔下楼差点摔死时
last when he’s thrown to his death,
这些片段都以一种
these moments are all delivered
完全可信的方式呈现出来
in a completely believable way.
《黑暗骑士》里全程无尿点
At no point in the Dark Knight does the immersion break for the audience.
因为小丑以一种
Because the Joker is delivered
如此惊人的真实方式呈现出来
in such a terrifyingly realistic way.
观众相信他在荧幕上的每一分每一秒
The audience believes every second he is on screen,
他不只是书中的一个角色
he isn’t just a character from a book.
而是一个活生生的人
He is a real-life human being.
红骷髅 索伦 洛基
Red Skull, Sauron, Loki,
他们不是天生的反派
they aren’t inherently bad villains.
但是观众不相信
But the audience doesn’t believe
他们真实地存在于我们的世界中
that they truly exist in our world.
而小丑 他是如此逼真
But with the Joker, he is so believable,
如此准确地反映了现实生活
so hauntingly accurate to real life.
当观众在看《黑暗骑士》时
That while the audience is watching The Dark Knight,
小丑可能就隐藏在他们身后
the Joker could be right behind them.
感谢收看本周的视频
Thanks for watching this week’s video.
这是我在频道中上传的第二个视频
This is the second video I’ve ever uploaded onto my channel.
我不清楚我是否应该继续上传这类视频
And I have no clue whether I should continue uploading this kind of content.
在改善视频内容上 如果你有任何建议
If you have any ideas at all on how I can improve my content,
请在下方评论告诉我
then please tell me in the comments below.
不论反馈如何 我都很感激所有评论
All feedback both good and bad is hugely appreciated.
如果你喜欢请订阅
Also if you could like and subscribe that
我将十分感谢
would be pretty prime soon,
总之 感谢观看
Anyway, thanks for watching and
我们下次节目再见
I will see you guys next time on the Closer Look.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

小丑这一角色为何会取得成功?成功的反派角色是怎样被塑造出来的?让我们跟着节目揭开这层面纱。

听录译者

Felicity

翻译译者

E23

审核员

审核员_MC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ga0rs2G8BGI

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