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保护地球,从土壤开始

How To (Literally) Save Earth

土壤无疑是很多生命的根基 然而我们却视土壤为……嗯 像是
Soil is the literal foundation for much of life, yet we treat soil like… well, like
灰尘
dirt.
也许是因为大多数时间 土壤里都在自我照顾
Maybe that’s because, most of the time, soil takes care of itself
通过分解动植物 和降解基岩 以形成新的土壤
decomposing plants and animals and degrading bedrock produce new soil
几乎跟风和水侵蚀土壤的速度一致
at roughly the same pace that wind and water erode it away
但是土壤这种生成与侵蚀的平衡很容易打破
But this balance between soil formation and erosion is easily tipped.
千年以来 位于太平洋上的曼格亚小岛被一层薄薄的富饶土壤所覆盖
For millennia, the tiny Pacific island of Mangaia was covered in a thin layer of fertile
但是大约在两千年前人类踏足这片土壤
soil, but after humans arrived around 2000 years ago
刀耕火种的农业 将土壤暴露在风雨的侵蚀中
their slash-and-burn agriculture exposed the soil to the elements.
经过几个世纪
Over several centuries,
风雨几乎吹走了曼格拉山坡上全部肥沃的表层土
rain and wind swept virtually all the nutrient-rich topsoil from Mangaia’s hillsides
将这些土壤汇集在了一些适于耕种的山谷间
and concentrated it in just a few arable valleys,
人们凶残地抢夺这些地方
which people viciously fought over.
随着耕地的减少 人们诉诸于其他的食物—像鼠类
With less land to grow crops, people resorted to alternative food sources like rats—and
甚至于人
even each other.
如今全世界也做着相同的事情
We are doing the same thing throughout the world today
不是说我们吃人
not the part where we eat each other
而是我们耕种土壤的方式
but the part where we farm the soil away.
因为为了方便耕种 我们拔掉了当地的深根植株
That’s because we make for agriculture by clearing away deep-rooted native vegetation
然后用锄头 棃 拖拉机来松土
and use hoes, plows, and tractors to loosen the soil,
这让土壤更易被风雨冲刷
making it easier for wind and rain to sweep away.
我们种植的大多数浅根植物 都不利于保持水土
And we grow mostly shallow-rooted crops that are no good at holding onto soil,
在丰收期间割走后
and that get stripped away during harvest,
让田野大多数时间都裸露着
leaving fields bare for much of the year and at the
处于风雨的侵蚀下
mercy of the elements
导致全球的耕地 损耗土壤的速度是生成的50倍
As a result, the world’s farmlands lose soil 50 times faster than new soil can form.
这些额外损失的土壤加起来比得上80亿的卡车
That extra erosion adds up to about 8 billion pickup trucks of soil moved annually
每年农田搬运土壤到河底或大坝后面
from fields to places like the bottoms of rivers and behind dams
这些地方并不利于耕种
which are less convenient for farming.
因土壤损耗而造成庄稼产量的减少
That soil loss reduces global crop yields by as much as if we took a California-sized
相当于每十年让一个与加利福尼亚大小的农田停产
swath of farmland out of production every decade.
所幸 我们知道如何使侵蚀和土壤生成的速率重新平衡
Fortunately, we know how to bring erosion back into balance with the rate at which soil forms
减少犁地 在收割之后
plow less often, and after harvest,
让植物留下一部分 或者种植一些所谓的遮盖作物
leave plant parts behind or plant so-called cover crops to, well,
以保护土壤免受水和风的侵蚀
cover the soil as protection against water and wind.
我们也可以引种树种 或是本土庄稼
We can also incorporate trees or native plants
这可以一年内适当地持续保持水土
that keep soil in place year-round.
实施这样的策略可以减少95%的侵蚀
Putting strategies like these in place can cut erosion by as much as 95 percent,
长远来看 可以保证庄稼高产
helping keep crop yields high in the long run.
但就现在而言 这样做可能会减少产量
But in the present, they can hurt yields,
因为在耕地上种植其他植株
because adding other vegetation to farm fields
意味着留给庄稼的地方变少
means less room for crops.
总的来说 我们慢慢地将这些保持水土的策略规范化
As a result, we’ve been slow to make these soil-saving strategies the norm.
如果我们不能将可耕的土壤保留下来
If we can’t keep the farmable soil on our farms,
人类文明可能不会立马崩溃
human civilization won’t immediately implode
但我们可能会以争夺仅存的一块块耕地告终
but we might end up fighting over the patches of land where that soil ends up,
就像曼格拉人一样 我们不过是生活在一个大的多的岛屿上罢了
like the Mangaians, but on much, much bigger islands.
说到土壤 这个视频由Soylent赞助
And, speaking of soil, this video was sponsored by Soylent,
富含全面营养的方便食物的系列产品
a line of nutritionally-complete convenient foods
需要很少的耕地就能生产
that actually take less soil to produce
因为许多核心的营养包括omega-9脂肪酸
because many of their core nutrients including omega-9 fatty acids,
不是来自于田里的植物而是来自于
come not from plants grown in fields but from algae grown
发酵箱里的藻类植物
in fermentation tanks.
他们最新的产品Coffiest 一种咖啡口味 富含藻类的瓶装食物 重新定义了早餐
Their newest product, Coffiest, reimagines breakfast as a coffee-flavored, algae-fueled meal in a bottle
它能帮助你开启全新的一天
to help kickstart your day.
另外 Soylent已和美国粮食计划署合作
Plus Soylent has partnered with the World Food Program USA
每卖出一份Coffiest 就会捐赠给那些需要帮助的人一顿饭
to donate a meal to someone in need for every case of Coffiest they sell.
前往 soylent.com/EARTH
Go to soylent dot com slash earth, that’s s-o-y-l-e-n-t dot com slash E-A-R-T-H or click
或是点击介绍中的链接 可以获得首月购买Coffiest降价10%的优惠
on the link in the description to get 10% off of your first month’s worth of Coffiest.
感谢 Soylent!
Thanks, Soylent!

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视频概述

环境恶化,水土流失,谁是幕后小黑手?观看视频,你会了解水土流失背后隐藏的小秘密。

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收集自网络

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superman飙

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOefA-bSduM

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