未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

如何学习:几乎任何东西

How to Learn: Pretty Much Anything

A lot of us want to learn new things and acquire great new skills,
我们都想学习新东西并且获得新技能
but often we lack the motivation to do so.
但是我们经常缺少去学习新东西的动力
Which brings up a lot of good questions, like:
这也引出了不少好问题 比如
为什么我会没动力做那些对我有着长期好处的事情
为什么我会想做一件事想了好几年但是什么都没做
我为什么会想去学像音乐和写作这种高大上的东西呢
So therefore: Chapter 1
所以 第一节
拖延症 或者说 为什么我一直那么懒
是的 我知道 我确实想学一些新东西
但我和你都知道我实际上是不会去做的
为以防万一 我还是会看你的视频
It’s important to address Procrastination first
首先 解决拖延症是很有必要的
because odds are you are going to learn something new right now
因为你还是有可能现在就去学一些新的东西
But you don’t actually like the idea of learning something new
但事实上你并不喜欢去学习新东西这个想法
and there’s an actual reason for that.
而且你的不喜欢是有着真实原因的
When you learn something new it actually adds a bit of stress to your mind.
当你学一些新的东西的时候 你的大脑会受到一点压力
It’s the same area in your brain that activates pain and that goes off.
你受到压力的地方也是那个激活疼痛的地方
So because of this the idea of taking some time to learn something can give you anxiety
正因如此 你想学习新东西的想法会你感到焦虑
Because why would you want to do the equivalent of hurting yourself?
因为你怎么会做一些相当于在伤害自己的事情呢
So the best solution to all of this is… Just start doing it.
所以最好的解决方案就是 直接去做这件事
And that almost sounds too simple,
这听起来太简单了
but it’s really important that you learn how to take initiative.
但最重要的是你要学会怎么掌握主动权
It’s important because you can fear doing something all day or for several days
这很重要 因为你可能会害怕一整天或者好几天都做同一件事
because you keep thinking
因为你可能不停在想:
“Well I just need to find the right mood for it and then I’ll actually do it.”
我只需要找到感觉我就会去做了
but really you just need to start doing it because no one else can do that for you.
然而你能做的只有开始去做 因为这个没有人能帮你做到
And once you have started doing it all that pain and discomfort actually goes away.
而且一旦你开始做了 所有的痛苦和不适都会消失
You move past it and it’s over.
一旦你过了开始的阶段就结束了
You’re now in the learning zone and it’s a lot easier to get back into it the more frequently you get over this threshold.
你现在到了学习区了 一旦你开始了你就更容易重新回来学习了
But then there’s another problem.
但是这又有了另外一个问题
Once you’ve started doing something you’re going to run into some problems
一旦你开始做某件事 你就会遇到一些困难
And you’re suddenly going to switch your attention to something else.
然后你突然就要转移注意力到别的事情上
Something frustrating or negative happens and it breaks your momentum.
一些让你感到沮丧或消极的事情发生了 这会减少你的动力
So because you’re not reaching the reward you had anticipated your brain goes for something short-term
因为你没有得到你的大脑所期待的短期回报
But instead you just have to do it again
相反 你还要再做一次
You have to find your initiative again, and you have to remember that
你要重新找你的动力 但你要记住
while it’s easy to get short-term satisfaction from Instagram, Twitter and video games,
虽然在Ins推特和电子游戏上很容易获得短期满足
it’s all the stuff that’s fun in the short-term
但是这些也只有短期的快乐
But what you’re actually doing in terms of studying
但是你去学习和工作的话
and work is going to lead to long-term satisfaction
这些是可以带来长期满足的
So yeah That was easy
所以是的 这很简单
第二节
我要怎么记住我所学的东西
因为我不想一遍又一遍做最基础的步骤 谢谢
If you want to get down to what learning actually is,
如果你想知道学习到底是什么
it is a cell in your nervous system called a neuron and
实际上是神经系统上一个叫神经元的细胞
information flows from one neuron to another neuron through a synapse
信息通过突触从一个神经元传送到另外一个神经元
and your brain has a billion of these synapses
你的大脑中有数十亿的突触
So don’t worry about it. You’re not suddenly going to go.
所以别担心 你不会突然就变成
“Oh, I have zero point one gigabytes left in my brain
“噢 我的脑子容量还剩0.1gb
I- I guess I’m never learning anything again. Bye everybody.”
我估计我再也没办法学新的东西了 再见各位”
Whenever you are learning something new your brain creates more synapses
每当你学习新的东西的时候 你的脑子都会多生成一些突触
So there really is no limit to how much you can learn.
所以 实际上你学习的容量可以说是无限大的
But that said it is still important that you take rest
然而 休息也是很重要的
You can’t cram every single thing into your head immediately,
你无法在瞬间往你的脑子里塞满知识
because you need to take some time to memorize and process these things so you actually remember it.
因为你需要一点时间去记忆和加工你所学习的东西 以至于你能记住它们
Learning is repetition and relearning the things that are kind of fading away in your head is important,
学习就是重复记忆 重新学习那些你在淡忘的事情是很有必要的
because you need to strengthen these connections in your brain.
因为你要强化这些在你脑中的联系
Your brain is really good at remembering things
你的脑子很擅长记忆
but it remembers things based on how important they are.
但它会根据事情的重要程度而选择性记忆
So if you have forgotten something,
所以如果你忘了某件事
it’s probably because you didn’t really have a need for it.
很有可能是因为你并不是真正需要它
One way to approach this with something like drawing is not
就像你在学习画画的时候
by tackling everything like anatomy, perspective and color theory at the same time,
你不是同时学会人体结构解剖画 透视画法和色彩理论的
because that’s just too much.
因为这实在是太多了
Instead tackle your biggest flaws right now.
相反 应该现在去改正你最大的缺点
That is how you establish the need for learning.
这就是你建立学习需求的方法
And when you read a book for something like anatomy don’t just read from page one to the last.
当你看一本有关人体结构解剖画法的书时 你不应该从第一页看到最后一页
Use the pages that you actually have a need for right now,
你现在就应该翻到你有需要的页码去
and go back to those pages again when you need to relearn it.
然后当你需要再次学习的时候再翻到那些内容
But the number one priority that comes to remembering anything is actually sleep.
但是 记忆力最重要的其实是睡眠
Sleep is extremely important because it plays a large part in processing your synapses.
睡眠是非常重要的 因为睡眠在你的突触加工过程起很大的作用
It creates more synapses and also cleans your synapses from metabolic toxins
睡眠会让你生成更多突触 还会清理突触新陈代谢产生的毒素
so we don’t get dirty and muddled,
这样我们的大脑不会变得混乱
and maybe you kinda remember or
也许有的事情你只记得一点
maybe that was about something else and now you only half remember.
又或者关于别的事情 你现在只记得一半
Another great option for your mental rest is physical exercise and social contact.
别的让你的大脑休息的选择还有体育锻炼和社交活动
Exercise and being socially active helps your brain produce new neurons.
锻炼和积极地社交都能让你的大脑生成新的神经元
Staying physically active and talking to people daily
积极地运动和与别人聊天
will actually help you study and learn better,
都有助于你的学习
and in contrast staying shut in all day is a great way to develop severe depression.
相反 一天都一个人呆着很容易发展为严重的抑郁
第三节
即使有别的人帮助
也要自己做完所有事情
While you could listen to music, watch TV or YouTube videos
如果你边工作学习边听音乐边看电视
while studying and working on something that’s not going to be 100% efficient.
或者油管视频的话 你很有可能没有百分百的效率
But maybe you want to sacrifice some of that efficiency
然而你或许会想牺牲掉部分效率来享受一些音乐
so you can enjoy some music some fun video stuff while also getting some work done.
和一些有趣的视频 同时完成一些学习或者工作
And here is basically the way that I would approach it
这通常是我学习工作的方法
because there are two different modes of thinking:
因为我们有两种不同的思维模式
The focused mode, also called the logical mode or the left brain mode,
专注模式 也叫逻辑模式或者左脑模式
which has a lot more to do with concentration
它和专注力有很大关系
and sort of relating new things to what is already familiar.
还可以将新的东西和熟悉的东西联系起来
This mode pretty much requires that there are no distractions
这种模式几乎需要没有干扰的环境
so your memory is not inefficient.
这样你的记忆才会有效率
But this might not always be the most fun thing to work with.
但这通常不会是一些有趣的事情
So when you are a creative person you tend to prefer
所以 如果你是一个有创造力的人你会更喜欢
the diffused mode, also known as we creative mode or the right brain mode.
发散模式 也被称为创意力模式或者右脑模式
And with this mode your brain is free to wander.
有了这个模式 你的大脑就可以开小差了
You can put on some music, some videos because you’re not really learning anything new
你可以听音乐看视频因为你没有真正在学一些新的东西
instead you’re reinforcing what you have already learned
而是在强化你学过的东西的记忆
So knowing this and knowing that we are not completely left brained or completely right brained
知道我们不是完全靠左脑或者完全靠右脑学习
and that these are just modes that we can shift back and forth between,
而这些只是我们可以来回变换的模式而已
we can utilize the modes to be the most efficient for us.
我们可以利用这些模式让自己变得最高效
If you’re going to learn something you even probably don’t have distractions
如果你打算学点什么 你甚至很有可能不能受到干扰
But in expressing something let your mind wander.
但是如果要表达什么的话 让你的大脑畅想吧
But no matter what you are learning or how you are doing it, you have to do it by yourself.
但是不管你在学什么或者你是怎么学的 你都要自己亲手去做
You can’t really watch a video of someone
你不可能真正通过看某人的
painting and pick up all the painting skills without painting along.
画画视频然后自己不跟着画就学会了技巧了
When you see someone else do something it’s not understanding it.
你看别人做一件事不代表你就懂了
Because a large part of learning is problem-solving
因为学习很大部分是在解决问题
and you have to solve the problem yourself.
你得自己解决问题
第四节
只有真正做了
事情才会变简单
Sometimes it can be so hard to learn something new
有时候学习新的东西是很难的
because it’s so different that you have no way of relating to it.
因为新知识和旧知识是如此不同以至于无法理解
If something feels so abstract that you can’t even relate to it,
如果有的东西抽象到你根本无法理解的话
then you have to not just learn the name for it or what category it belongs to,
那你不仅要学习它的名字或者它所在的类别
but you have to learn about it until it feels real, until it’s a part of reality.
你还要不断学它直到它真实的像现实中的一部分一样
When it comes to drawing, I might think of an eye and the eye actually sticks out a lot.
就像提到画画 我可能会想到一只眼睛而且这只眼睛实际上很突出
but it’s kind of hard to imagine that on your own. So I can say eyes
你可能有点难想象 所以我说
are like marbles and eyelids are like fabric over them.
眼睛就像一个弹珠 然后眼皮就像包裹着它的布
And now we have a way of relating to
现在我们就可以理解
just how the eye looks as it sticks out.
眼睛突出的时候是怎样的
Or when it comes to figure drawing
又或者涉及到人体绘画的时候
I can say draw from the head down to the dominant leg, so that you can feel the
我说从头画到重心所在的腿
gravity and the force and the weight as you draw it.
这样在你画的时候你就能感受到地心引力和肢体张力和重量
And when it comes to which leg is the dominant leg, then allow me to go over
但是重心在哪只脚上呢 让我来踢这个模特
and kick the model so they fall to the floor and start crying. Which leg did I kick?
让他们跌倒在地上哭 我应该踢哪一只脚呢
That’s the dominant leg.
这只就是重心所在的脚
The important thing to learning the things that feel tougher
学习更有难度的事情最重要的是 去弄懂
is to get across the major idea and not get stuck in the details,
大概的思路别去抠细节
because as you get to learn these things that are more abstract or harder to learn
因为当你开始学习那些更抽象或者更难的东西
your synapses will start to connect easier with more complicated things.
你的突触会更容易连接一些复杂的事情
Because now you have something that is actually relatable.
因为你现在有一些实在可以联系的知识了
It’s important to not get too stuck in the details
重要的是不要太抠细节
because otherwise all you have is the details.
否则除了细节以外你什么都学不到了
第五节
你还有很多东西要学
If you want to remember something, you have to test yourself.
如果你想记住一些东西 你要测试一下自己
You have to make it important to you and have a need for it.
你得让这些知识变得对你来说很重要 并且需要它
So you can test yourself by trying to do different things from memory to see how much you actually know.
你可以通过做不同的事情去测试自己看看自己记住了多少
And then when you see what is wrong
然后当你看到错误的时候
You can study it again to correct it. And there’s nothing wrong with
你可以重新学习并改正你的错误
catching yourself not knowing something or having made a mistake.
发现自己记不住或者记错了都没什么不好的
All of this is part of the learning process.
这些都只是学习的一个过程而已
There’s always going to be mistakes,
犯错是常发生的
because mistakes are a part of how we learn.
从错误中学习也是我们学习的一部分
But a problem that can happen with creative people is that
但是有创造力的人可能会遇上一个问题就是
they become too trusting a fair right side intuition,
由于其直觉的误导 他们太过相信
to the point where you now refuse to learn something new because your intuition is misleading.
自己的右脑直觉 以至于他们拒绝学新的东西
Repeating something you already know well is pretty easy,
重复做一件你已经理解的事情是很简单的
so it can feel like you have already mastered something when you actually have not.
以至于 你没有精通的事情也会觉得自己已经精通了
Something that can happen with something like drawing is that
就像有可能发生在画画上的情况就是
you keep drawing heads from imagination until now
你一直从自己的想象中画一个脑袋
this is what heads look like to you.
直到现在对你来说脑子就长这样
So it really is important that you set aside time
所以你很有必要留一些时间去做刻意训练
for deliberate practice and don’t only rely on your intuition.
而不是只依赖于自己的直觉
Because your intuition is important but in the right situations.
因为只有在对的情况下你的直觉才很重要
And then on the more left brain side of things:
到了左脑模式的问题就是
As much as we would like to cram all the studying in
尽管我们想把尽可能多的知识
so we can learn everything immediately,
快速地塞进我们的大脑
it just doesn’t work.
这样是行不通的
Because your brain won’t be able to keep up with making you neural structures
因为你的大脑来不及去生成神经结构
I think a good way to approach this is by mixing things up.
我觉得一个好的学习方式就是混合学习不同的东西
Don’t just study one thing over and over again, but go back and forth between different things.
不要不断地学习一样东西 在不同的事情之间来回学习会更好
So that you give yourself the space to repeat and process the things you are learning.
这样你就给了自己空间去重复和消化在学的东西
Set aside time to fully study something and then time to freely explore it.
留一些时间去深度学习 再留一些时间给自己去自由地探索
So by spacing things out over periods,
通过间隔学习不同的东西
we can actually use our practice and our intuition to reliably learn new things.
我们可以在自己的实践和直觉之下真正学到新东西
The final chapter.
最终节
第六节
一切都在于过程
It’s perfectly normal to procrastinate because things feel unpleasant,
拖延是很正常的 因为我们学起来不开心
especially if they are really new to us.
特别是学那些很新的东西的时候
Maybe for a long time you wanted to make music
有可能很长一段时间那你都很想作一首歌
but you haven’t made any steps towards making music.
但是你在作歌的路上没有一点进展
You don’t know anything about music. You don’t know where to start.
你对音乐毫不了解 你也不知道要从哪开始
It’s this big overpowering thing and in comparison, even the first steps feel so tiny.
制作歌曲是如此浩大的事 相比之下 起初做的几步是如此微不足道
But if you were to focus right now,
但是如果你现在可以集中精力
not so much on everything unpleasant up ahead
不要把太多精力发放在未来不愉快的事情上
but what you can learn right now;
而是去想想自己现在可以学点什么
maybe you could open up a music software and just get acquainted with it.
或许你可以打开一个音乐软件去熟悉一下它
What if you bought a smaller instrument just to play around with and have fun with?
如果小乐器只是为了玩一下开心一下呢
What if you did something that works with where you are right now in the present moment?
如果你做了一些适合你现在的事情呢
Because the thing is when we expect the initial pain of learning something new,
因为在我们想到学习新东西一开始的痛苦时
we expect everything after that to be just as painful.
我们会觉得学习之后的一切也都是一样痛苦的
Maybe you don’t have any highly developed talents and skills,
或许你没有任何高度发达的天赋或者技巧
but you have these artists you look up to
但是有你可以学习的艺术家们
and more than anything you want to have those skills.
而且重要的是 你想学到这些技巧
You want to have what they have, but you can’t have that right now.
你想掌握他们所掌握的技巧 虽然你现在还没有掌握这些技巧
But you can have the initiative.
但你可以拥有学习的主动性
You can have the talent of making effort, time investment,
无论多小的事 你可以有作出努力
and getting something done no matter how small it is.
投入时间 完成事情的天赋
And anything that comes after that can just be a byproduct.
努力之后发生的事情就算是副产品了
Maybe if we trace back to where talent comes from, then maybe this is where it starts.
或许如果我们追溯回天赋的来源 或许只是它开始地方
And it only relies on one thing That you take the initiative.
它只取决于一件事情 就是你拥有主动性
Thank you for listening. And if you would like to support my work
感谢收看 如果你想支持我的工作的话
You can like this video,
你可以给这个视频点个赞
you can subscribe and you can follow me around.
订阅我的频道 还可以关注我
You can also support me on patreon, or if you don’t like patreon
你可以在patreon上支持我 如果你不喜欢patreon的话
I have a ko-fi where you can directly support my caffeine addiction.
我在ko-fi上也有账号 你可以直接资助我
See you soon again, and bye bye.
下次见啦 拜拜

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本视频从六个部分介绍我们应该如何克服拖延与学习的抗拒去真正学习。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jessie

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z2N5a7XZWg8

相关推荐