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如何学习日语 – 译学馆
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如何学习日语

How to Learn Japanese (Online & Free)

大家好 最近我每天都收到关于如何学习日语的问题
Hey guys, so I’m getting questions like daily now on how to learn Japanese.
那就是我今天要讲的主题 我提到的所有资源会在视频下方的评论区内
So that’s what I’m going to talk about today. All of the resources I’m going to go over will be linked
有链接
down in the description.
要学习日语 你需要注意三个不同的方面 听力 阅读 和口语
To learn Japanese you’ll need to focus on three different areas: listening, reading,
写作我没有包括在内 因为它更像是一种促进
and speaking. I don’t include writing in there because that’s more of a means to improve
其他方面的手段 而且老实说 你应该不会需要手写日本汉字
on the other areas, and honestly you’re probably not going to have to physically draw out kanji
但你将会经常需要用日本汉字发信息或打字 所以 只要会读和
as often as you will have to text or type them, so as long as you know how to read and
拼写日本汉字 那就应该足够了
spell kanji, that should get you pretty far.
最简单的当然是听力 提高听力最简单的方法是
The easiest of all is of course listening. And the easiest way to improve your listening
让自己沉浸在这种语言环境里 大部分人在日本的一到两个月的时间里
is to immerse yourself in the language. Most people pretty much max out their listening
听力水平大大提高 但这些时间还是必须的 如果你不是身在日本
within one to two months in Japan, and that’s all it takes. If you’re not in Japan you can
那可以听一下日本新闻 看日剧或者其他 但是要达到
listen to Japanese news programs or watch dramas, or something like that. But to get
完全的效果 可能要等到你真正到日本
the full effects that you’ll probably have to wait until you can actually get to Japan and be
沉浸在日语语言环境之中
surrounded by the language.
阅读还是口语哪个比较简单 这要因人而异
Whether reading or speaking is easier honestly depends on the person. If you’re the type
如果你是那种不太学习的人 但是你可以走入人群
of person who doesn’t really study very much, but you just throw yourself out into a crowd
通过听他们对话并且复述这种方法来学日语
of Japanese people and you pick up the language by listening to them and repeating it back
那你的口语会比较好 但更多的人会倾向于自学 特别如果你不在日本
to them, you’ll probably be better at speaking. But most people tend to study a lot more,
那么对于你来说 阅读可能会更容易
and especially if you’re not in Japan, reading will probably be easier for you.
阅读你需要注意三个方面 日本汉字 词汇和语法
You’ll need to focus on three areas with reading: kanji, vocabulary, and grammar. Now, I don’t
在这里 我不再说平假名和片假名 因为学习一段时间后
really include hiragana or katakana in there because you should be able to learn those
你应该可以完全学会它们了 而且我推荐你们同时学习这三者
completely within a few days. And I do recommend learning all three of those at the same time.
例如 在Genki课本里每一章都涉及一点
So for example, the textbook Genki has a little bit of all three in each chapter. They also
每章的开头都有一个听力的模块 我建议你复述它们的对话
have a listening section at the beginning, so I recommend repeating back what they say
以便你能习惯说日语 在Jun给日语学习者的意见的视频中
to you so you can get used to speaking the language. In Jun’s “Advice for Japanese Learners”
他谈论到了为何语言是一种工具
video he talks about how language is a tool. It’s not something you can just study and
而不是只能学习并掌握 你只有真正地精通它才能使用这个工具
learn. You have to use it to truly become proficient at it.
当然 把自己沉浸在日语的环境或者与日语流利的人练习对话是
Of course, immersing yourself in Japan or practicing with people who are fluent is the
提高日语口语的最好方法 但是如果你不能做到这一点 我可以向你提供网上很多资源
best way to get better at speaking the language, but if you can’t do that, there are some resources
让你与日语母语者联系并练习对话
I can show you online so that you can connect with native speakers and practice that way. Typically
通常来说 它运作的原理是语言的转换 这样日语母语者会学习你的语言
how this works is it’s a language exchange. So that person will be learning your language,
你则可以学习他们的语言 所以你们都可以帮助对方说彼此的语言
and you’ll be learning their language, so you’ll both practice and help each other speak
在japan-guide.com网站上有一个专门与外国人接触并进行语言交流的论坛
each other’s languages. There is a forum for people who want to make contacts and do language
那里有成千上万来自世界各地的人 其中也包括了
exchanges on the website japan-guide.com. There are tons of people from all over the
很多想学英语的日本人 在这里你可以认识很多人
world there, including many from Japan who want to learn English. So you can meet people
你可以在Skype(聊天工具)上和他们交流 或者如果你碰巧和他们住得近也可以在现实生活
there and either connect with them on skype or meet them in real life if you happen to
中和他们碰面
live nearby.
你也可以上网站Lang-8.com 这是一个博客式的网站 你要做的是
You can also use the website Lang-8.com. It’s a blogging website, so what you do is you
使用你正在学习的语言来写博客 那么说这种语言的人
write a blog in the language that you’re trying to learn, and then people who speak that language
就会纠正你的语法 拼写这样的错误 作为回报
will correct your grammar and vocabulary and things like that. And in return you help the
你要通过纠正其他正在学习你的语言的网友的错误
community by correcting other people who are learning your language. Jun used to do it
Jun过去常干这个 而且他认识了一些在Skype上联系的朋友 他们还可以练习
a lot and he made friends that he connected with on skype so they were able to practice
彼此的语言 我强烈建议使用这个网站
each other’s languages that way, too. I do highly recommend using this website to help you get used to
它能帮你习惯纠正语法以及其他语言类的事情
correct grammar and things like that.
如果你害怕开口与别人练习口语时犯错误
If you’re too afraid of making mistakes to open up and practice speaking with people,
那就喝醉吧 或者喝一点酒 我是认真的 这是人们常用的有效的方法
get drunk. Or a little tipsy. I’m dead serious. That is a legitimate tactic that people use.
好了 现在说一下免费的资源
Okay, on to free resources.
从语法开始 你可以根据guidetojapanese.org/learn这个网站上的Tae Kim的指南来学习日语
Starting out with grammar, you can use Tae Kim’s Guide to Learning Japanese on the website
这个网站会指导你 我认为是基本相当于
guidetojapanese.org/learn. This website will walk you through what I would consider the
大学头两年你需要学习的语法知识
general equivalent of about what you would learn grammar-wise your first two years in
如果你对个别语法点有疑问 你可以使用它们的论坛
university. If you have questions about specific grammar points, they also have a forum you
或者你也可以在网上找学习日语的论坛
can use. Or you can find forums for people learning Japanese all over the internet.
我见过的一个回复时间短而且答案完美的论坛是
One I’ve seen that has a pretty quick response time with good answers is
reddit.com/r/learnjapanese
is reddit.com/r/learnjapanese.
那里有很多日语不错或者日语流利的人
There are a lot of people there who are nearly fluent or fluent in Japanese who can give
他们会站在以英语为母语的日语学习者的角度上 在日语实际应用方面给你意见
you advice on practical usage, and make things easily understood from the perspective of
让日语变得更容易理解
an English speaker learning Japanese.
再来说日本汉字和词汇 有一个叫Anki的抽认卡程序你可以
Moving on to kanji and vocabulary, there is a flashcard program called Anki that you download
下载到电脑 在这个程序中 你可以下载很多包括很多日语版本
onto your computer. From the program, you can then download disks of flashcards, including
在内的抽认卡硬盘 这个程序很棒的一点是 你可以选择每一张卡对于你的难易度
many for Japanese. The great thing about this is you can specify how easy each card was
然后根据你的点击的内容来计算相隔多久这张卡再
for you, and then depending on what you click, that calculates how long it will be until
重新向你展示一次
they show that card to you again.
如果在学习日本汉字方面你需要更多帮助 还有一个叫memrise. com的网站
If you need more help for learning kanji, there’s a website called memrise.com. Users
用户可以用日本汉字评论 并为了更容易记住日本汉字而把它们和图片联系在一起
comment on kanji and associate them with images so they’re easier to remember. So for the
像akarui这个词 某人评论他们通过把日本汉字日和
word akarui, someone submitted that they’re able to remember the kanji by combing the
日本汉字月组合摆在彼此旁边来记住这个词光明
kanji sun and moon next to each other, which makes the word bright.
如果你有奖励会学习得更好 那么有一个叫Japaneseclass.jp的网站
If you learn better through rewards, there’s a website called Japaneseclass.jp. They give
它向你提供课程 当你成功完成测试并得到一定分数那么就能够升级
They give you lessons and when you successfully complete tests you get points and can level up.
你也会和你的同学一起排名 网站甚至还有最基础的课程 包括平假名和片假名在内
You also get ranked among your peers. It even has the most basic of lessons including hiragana
它还有一个阅读模块
and katakana. And it has a reading section.
当你日语能力有一定提升后 你也可以练习听力理解和
Once you get a little more advanced you can also practice listening comprehension and
浏览日语新闻网站 它们有一个儿童新闻模块 你可以
reading on Japanese news websites. They also have a news website for kids
制定你自己的学习方式
so you can work your way up.
字典方面 如果是在网上 除非你只是想查单个的动词或者名词这一类的
For dictionaries, if you’re on the internet, I recommend staying away from things like
否则我建议你要远离谷歌翻译这类软件
Google translate unless you’re just doing single verbs or nouns or things like that.
如果你想翻译一整个句子 那你用谷歌翻译我能保证你会完全理解错误
If you’re trying to translate a full sentence I guarantee you you will completely lose the meaning.
如果你正在使用Chrome 它有一个拓展功能叫Rikaikun(或者如果你在
If you’re using Chrome there is an extension called “Rikaikun” (or if you’re
使用Firefox 它有个另外的名字叫rikaichan) 这个拓展功能是在你的鼠标放在日语文章上的时候
using Firefox, it’s called rikaichan). What this extension does is it allows you to see
可以显示日语单词的解释和一些语法要点
the definition of Japanese words and some grammar points just by hovering your mouse
这个功能非常方便 但是会形成习惯 不要让它
over Japanese text. It’s really convenient, but can be habit–forming so don’t let it get
成为你学习单词的阻碍
in the way of actually learning the words.
现在说要花钱的资源
Moving on to resources that cost money:
如果你用实体课本能学习得更好 那我推荐用Genki
If you learn better with actual textbooks, I recommend starting out with Genki I and II.
第一册和第二册开始学习日语 对于语法要点 我强烈推荐Seiichi Makino和
For grammar points I HIGHLY recommend a series of three books by Seiichi Makino
Michio Tsutsui写的一系列三本书 第一本叫日语基础语法字典
and Michio Tsutsui. The first is called “A Dictionary of Basic Japanese grammar.”
中级的课本也非常好 但是除非你日语确实进阶了
The intermediate book is also really good, but unless you’re really getting advanced
不然就不需要买这本进阶版 实际上它是一本辞典 所以它并不提供
you don’t need to buy the advanced one. It’s actually a dictionary so it’s not going to
课程 不过它确实能告诉你如何使用语法要点
give you lessons, but it does tell you how to use the grammar points, whether it’s used
无论用于书面还是口语还是举例 它和相关语法要点有细微不同之处
in written or spoken Japanese, examples, and small differences with related grammar points.
对于日本汉字课本 我最喜欢的是叫留学生のための漢字の教科書系列的课本
For kanji books, my favorite is the series of books called 留学生のための漢字の教科書,
就是留学生的日本汉字课本 它是日文版本的 这三本书
which is “Kanji Textbook for Foreign Exchange Students.” They’re in Japanese, but with all
展示了大概2000个日本汉字 这已经是非常接近你在日本需要了解的词汇量
three books they do walk you through about 2,000 kanji which is pretty close to everything
我使用这本书的方法是每一页认真阅读
you will need to know in Japan. The way I used this book was working through each page,
在另外一张纸上练习着写下日本汉字和派生词汇
practicing writing down the kanji and example vocabulary on a separate sheet of paper, and
然后在课程结束后做练习测试 第二天我会复习一遍并
then doing the practice tests at the end of the lesson. The next day I’d review it again and
再做一次测试才开始下一课
take the test again, and then start the next lesson.
这些书我都有 但现在我不能展示给你们看 因为它们和我的其他东西一起
I have all of these books but I can’t show you because they’re still in Korea with everything
留在了韩国 不好意思啦
else I own. Sorry.
字典方面 很多学生最终都是买了电子辞典
As for dictionaries, typically what a lot of students end up doing is buying an electronic dictionary
或者一个denshi-jisho 它们的缺点是非常昂贵和不便于
or a denshi-jisho. Cons are that they’re really expensive and they can be a
携带 而且一些电子辞典里可能没有口语词汇或者俚语单词
hassle to carry around, and some of them might not have colloquialisms or certain slang words
然而它们的好处是一些电子辞典可以通过手写日本汉字来搜索
in them. However, the convenient thing about them is on some of them you can search by
这一点真的非常棒 人们常用的另外一样东西是智能手机
writing out the kanji, which is really nice. Another thing I know people use a lot is an
上的一个应用程序 但是我用的仍然是翻盖手机 所以 我不知道
application on your smartphone. However, I’m still using a flip-phone! So I don’t know
那是什么 如果你们能告诉我你们用什么应用来当作日语词典
what that is. If you guys can tell me what applications you use for Japanese dictionaries,
请让我知道 我会在描述区内写下来
let me know and I’ll put that down in the description.
对于学习日语需要多长时间这个问题 它完全取决于你掌握知识的速度
As for how long it takes to learn, that is completely up to how quickly you pick up on
你投放在学习上的精力和是否能融入这种语言环境中
things, how much effort you put into it, and whether or not you can immerse yourself in
我在日本见过只用1年 从几乎什么日语都不懂
the language. I have seen people in Japan go from knowing almost no Japanese to conversationally
到能够流利对话的人 但是他们在上日语课程并总是
fluent within a single year. However, they were taking Japanese classes and they always
和朋友说日语的 所以如果你要学会日语 就不要身在日本
spoke Japanese with their friends. If you want to learn Japanese, don’t go to Japan
却只用英语交流
and speak English!
假如你没有投入太多的精力来学语言
If you don’t put much effort into learning the language and you don’t study on your own
那你只是浪费你的余生时间而且没有真正学习到什么东西
time you could float along for the rest of your life and not really learn that much.
但这也不是一场竞赛 所以感觉到别人学得比你更快的时候 也不需要给自己太大压力
But it’s not a race so don’t stress yourself out if you feel like other people are learning
你只是在和自己竞赛 有时候你可能会觉得日语
faster than you. You’re only competing against yourself. There may be times when you feel
对于你来说太难了 或者你就是学不懂某个知识点
like Japanese is too difficult for you, or you just can’t understand something. It can
这可能会让人觉得很沮丧 以前我在弄不懂老师说的一个词的时候有过这样的感觉
be frustrating, and I’ve been to that point before where I couldn’t understand a word
觉得自己很蠢 觉得这一点意义也没有 以前也曾因沮丧
the instructor was saying. I’ve felt stupid, I’ve felt like it was pointless, and I’ve
而哭泣过 然而你必须要继续前进
been brought to tears before in frustration. But you just keep pushing forward. There will
总有一天你无法学会的事会成为你的老习惯
come a time when that thing that you couldn’t understand will become second nature to you.
只要你不能放弃 很多时候 我们很难发现自己有没有在进步
You just don’t give up. A lot of times it’s really difficult for us to see how far we’ve
但其实在你未发现时 你可能已经在进步了
come on our own. Even if you feel like you’re not making much progress, you probably are.
所以 尽管有时候看起来一点希望也没有 但是仍要继续努力向前
So even when it seems really hopeless just keep pushing forward because you will get
因为你总会渡过这个难关 我希望通过这次影片介绍一些有用的资源给你们
past it. So I hope this video introduced you guys to some resources that you’ll find helpful.
当拿回我的书的时候 我会展示给你们看的 不过现在就真对不起啦 你们只能
When I do get my books back I’ll show you them but for now I’m sorry—you’ll just have
在网上找图片来看了 感谢观看影片 再见
to find pictures on the internet. Anyway, thanks for watching. Bye!

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