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如何用费曼技巧来更快速的学习含示例 – 译学馆
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如何用费曼技巧来更快速的学习含示例

How to Learn Faster with the Feynman Technique (Example Included)

有一句名言流传已久
There is this pretty well-known quote that get thrown a lot
据说这句话是阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦说的
and it’s often attributed to Albert Einstein.
那就是“如果你不能将一个概念简洁地解释出来 那么你就没有真正明白它”
It goes “If you can’t explain it simply, then you don’t understand it well enough.”
现在 无论爱因斯坦是否说过这句话
Now whether or not Einstein was the person
我们先假设他没有说过
who actually said this, let’s be real he probably wasn’t,
这句话都确实富有洞察力
it’s still really insightful and reversing it reveals
而且它揭示了一种非常有用的学习方式
a pretty powerful piece of study advice.
如果你想完全理解什么 就去解释它
If you want to understand something well, explain it.
这个方法 我曾在之前的
Now this idea is something I touched on briefly
一个简述Marty Lubdell演讲《Study Less, Study Smart》的视频里
back in my video summary of the Study Less, Study Smart
略微提到过
lecture by Doctor Marty Lubdell, because in that lecture
因为在那个演讲中 Lobdell教授讲述了这种有效的学习方法
he talked about one of the effective study techniques
就是将你学会的知识教授给别人
being to teach what you’re learning to someone else.
所以在这个视频中我将对这个方法进行更深一步的讲解
So in this video, I want to dig deeper into that idea
并且教你一步一步来实践这个方法
and share with you a step-by-step process for doing this,
也就是费曼技巧
which has been called the Feynman Technique.
费曼技巧以物理学家费曼命名
Now this technique is named after the physicist
费曼是一位名副其实的伟大科学家
who was, in his own right, a great scientist.
1965年 他凭借在量子电动力学上的贡献
In fact, back in 1965, he won a Nobel Prize for his work
获得诺贝尔物理学奖
in quantum electrodynamics, which is something
“量子电动力学”这个词我得练好几遍才能念出来
I had to practice saying a couple of different times,
同时 他在很多别的方面
and he contributed to science in a number of different ways,
也都对科学做出了贡献
including in the development of what are called
包括改进费曼图
Feynman diagrams, which are basically graphical
费曼图是一种用于展现亚原子粒子运动模式
representations of the math behind
背后数学原理的基础图表
how subatomic particles work.
但费曼除了是一位优秀科学家以外
But in addition to being a great scientist,
还是一位优秀教师和一个优秀的解释者
he was also a great teacher and a great explainer.
事实上 他有一个绰号就是“优秀解释者”
And in fact, one of his nicknames was “The Great Explainer,”
因为他能够提炼极其复杂的概念
because he was able to boil down incredibly
并且将它们用简洁的语言表达出来
complex concepts and put them in simple language
让别的人都能理解
that other people could understand.
这就是他既是一位优秀科学家
And that’s why he’s one of those great scientists
又是一位有名的优秀教师的原因
who is also known as a very good teacher.
事实上 即使在他自己的学习过程中
And in fact, even in his own learning, Feynman was famous
他也是出了名的 不知疲倦地研究公式
for tirelessly working through equations until the concept
直到他所纠结的概念在他脑海中
he was wrangling with was intuitively easy to understand,
变得直观又易懂
in his mind.
因此这个技巧以他命名
So that’s why this technique is named after him,
不过你不一定要成为一名物理学家
but you don’t have to be a physicists or you don’t have
也不一定用费曼技巧解决数学和科学问题
to be working on math or science problems to use
因为解释清楚一个概念是为了
this technique, because explaining a concept works
增进你对这个基础概念的理解
to improve your understanding of that concept in basically
可以是历史或数学
an area, be it history or be it math,
也可以是网站开发
or be it web development.
这都无关紧要
It doesn’t matter, and it also works
它也可以用于多种不同的目的
for multiple different purposes.
如果你对某个概念不太确定或想要快速增进你的理解
If you’re shaky on a concept and you want to quickly
你就可以使用这个方法
improve your understanding, you can use it.
但如果你已经自信完全掌握了一门科目
But if you already have a pretty confident grasp
或者说你马上就要考试了
of a subject, and say you’ve got a test coming up soon,
你还可以用它来测试你的理解程度
you can also use it to test your understanding
并挑战一下你对自己掌握程度的假设
and challenge your assumptions.
就像费曼自己说的那样
As Feynman himself said,
最重要的原则是不要蒙骗你自己 自己是最容易被骗的
The first principle is that you must not fool yourself-And you are the easiest person to fool.
想要确定你真的理解了
The ultimate way to ensure that you actually understand
一个概念中那些最细微的部分
all the little nitty-gritty details of a concept
最好的方法是将这个概念解释给别人听
in head is to explain it to someone else,
或者至少假装你在解释给别人听
or at least to pretend you’re doing so.
这就是费曼技术的关键所在
And that is the crux of the Feynman technique.
所以 现在就让我们开始吧
So, let’s get into it.
一共有四步
It’s a process of four steps and the first step
第一步仅仅是拿出一张纸
is to simply get out a piece of paper and write
在最上面写上你要解释的概念名称
the name of the technique down at the top.
我在视频里举这个例子
And in the example I filmed here, we’re gonna use
我们来解释勾股定理
the Pythagorean Theorem because it is simple
因为它简单 而且不会在接下来的步骤中
and it won’t get in the way of the actual steps
形成阻碍
we’re going to go through.
第二步是解释这个概念
Step two is to explain the concept and to do it
要用简单 直白的英语
in simple, plain English,
或者用法语 或者其他任何你说的语言
or French, or really whatever language you happen to speak.
关键在于将它解释得易于理解
But the idea here is to do it in a way that’s easy
就像你在给教别人一样
to understand as if you were teaching someone else.
不要仅仅止于定义概念
And don’t just settle with defining the concept either.
也要用一些可以保证你能够
Also work through examples and make sure you’re able
将概念进行应用的实例
to use the concept in practice, as well.
第三步
For step three, identify any of the areas
指出那些你理解不深或感到困惑
that you’re shaky on after your explanation
以至于让你无法进行解释过程的地方
or identify areas that you got stuck on
现在回头去
which halted your explanation and go back
找这些概念的原始资料或你的笔记
to the source material or go back to your notes
或研究一些实例
or work through examples until your understanding
直到这些部分对你来说
of these subareas is just as solid
就像别的部分一样熟练
as all the other areas.
最后
And finally, step four is to look at your explanation
第四步是检查你的解释
and try to identify any areas where you’ve resorted
找出其中用了专业术语 令人看不懂的地方
to using technical terms of convoluted language
挑战一下你自己
and then challenge yourself to break down those terms
用简洁利于理解的语言重新解释这些部分
and explain them in simplified, easy to understand words.
记住 要点在于简单
Remember, the key here is simplicity.
像给没有专业基础的人授课
The act of explaining a topic as if you were teaching
一样解释一个专业概念
it to somebody who didn’t have the same base
是检验你对这门科目理解
assumptions and base knowledge that you have
的最好方法
is the ultimate test of your own knowledge in that subject.
这非常重要
And that’s pretty much it, that’s all there is
这就是费曼技术
to the Feynman technique.
使用费曼技术非常有用
Now using this tecnhique is incredibly helpful
因为首先 它帮你快速回顾概念
because it, number one, helps you to quickly overview
让你看到你知识点牢固的地方
the concept and see where your knowledge is solid,
其次 它也帮助你快速精准定位
but number two, it helps you to instantly pinpoint
到你理解模糊的地方
the areas where you’re shaky and where
和你还需要更深一步学习的地方
you need to do extra work.
这些让费曼技术在回顾概念时成为首选的方法
And that makes this technique a great first step
它非常有效
in reviewing a concept because it’s very efficient
还能帮你节省时间
and it helps you waste less time.
我还想给你们另一个建议
I did want to give you guys one extra suggestion though,
这关系到你们在进行第四步时
and it relates to how you frame your mind
如何构造你们的思维框架
going into step four.
不要仅仅想 我怎么让它更简单
Instead of just thinking how can I make this simple,
我怎么用平白语言表述它
how can I put it in plain English, also think,
也要想 我怎么给一个孩子解释这个概念?
how would I explain this to a kid?
为什么呢?
Why?
事实上 除了问
Well besides asking questions like,
“我能不能再吃一块奥利奥”
“Can I have another Oreo,” or
“我能不能看七龙珠?”
“Can I go watch Dragonball Z?”
一个孩子还会问 为什么
A kid’s gonna ask, why
“为什么它这样运作”
“Why does that work?”
这有助于挑战你对自己理解程度的假设
And that’s gonna help challenge your assumptions.
举例来说 回到勾股定理
For instance, going back to our Pythagorean Theorem
也许你知道公式
example, maybe you know the formula,
但一个孩子会问你为什么那个公式成立?
but a kid would ask you why does that formula work?
为什么勾股定理对所有
Why does the Pythagorean Theorem hold as a rule
直角三角形都成立
for all right triangles?
也许你对这个问题的答案有直观的了解
And yeah, maybe you understand that intuitively,
也许你能通过重新整理的方式得出证据
maybe you could bust out the proof by rearrangement,
但也许你不能
but maybe you can’t.
也许你总是看着公式
Maybe you’ve always looked at the formula
仅仅使用而非理解它
and taken it at face value, in which case,
那你就需要更深一步的学习了
you have some more learning to do.
说到勾股定理
Now speaking of the Pythagorean Theorem,
也许这个例子对你来说 有点过于简单了
maybe that was a bit too simple of an example
也许你更想将这个技术
for you and you’d like to see this technique
应用到更难的概念上去
applied to something more complex or something
应用到与数学无关的概念上去
that has nothing to do with math at all.
如果你就是这么想的 在这个视频的附加文章
If that’s you, in the companion article for this video,
我举了几个不同的例子
I’ve included a couple of different examples.
一个是贝叶斯定理
One going through Bayes’ Rule, which is a concept
一个统计学中的概念和可能性理论
and probability theory in statistics,
一个重温了CSS框模型
and one going over the CSS Box Model, which is related
CSS框模型跟网站开发有关但是跟数学毫无关系
to web development and not related to math, at all,
你们可以看看
that you can check out.
所以如果你们想看这些文章
So if you want to see those, you can click the card
可以立刻点击屏幕
on the screen right now to get over to the article,
或者你们可以找到简介中的链接
or you could find the link down in the description below.
除此以外 如果你喜欢这个视频
Beyond that, if you enjoyed this video
觉得它有用
and found it helpful, definitely give it a like
一定要给个赞 支持本频道
to support this channel and if you have addition tips
如果你个人对使用费曼技术有别的心得
or ways that you use this technique personally,
请在评论区留言
I would love to hear from you down in the comments below.
还有 如果你还没有订阅这个频道
Additionally, if you’re not subscribed to this channel yet
还想要得到做一个高效学生的新方法
and you want to get new tips on how to be a more productive
你可以点击这里订阅本频道
student, you can click right there to subscribe
如果你想要我那本关于如何得高分的书的免费复印件
and you can also click right there if you want to get
你也可以点击这里
a free copy of my book on how to earn better grades.
或者你可以点击这一部分
Otherwise you can click right around there
也许能找到另一个
to find another video which you will
有趣的视频
probably find interesting.
感谢收看 下期再见
Thanks for watching and I will see you in the next one.

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视频概述

使用费曼技术,像给别人教课一样解释你的概念

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

我是不死的长夜

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_f-qkGJBPts

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