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如何在六个月内学习任何语言 – 译学馆
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如何在六个月内学习任何语言

How to learn any language in six months | Chris Lonsdale | TEDxLingnanUniversity

坐在后面的人们你们能听清楚我讲话吗
The people in the back, can you hear me clearly?
很好
OK, good.
你有没有考虑过一个问题
Have you ever held a question in mind
在很长一段时间里它变成了你思考方式的一部分
for so long that it becomes part of how you think?
它甚至可能成为你是谁的一部分
Maybe even part of who you are as a person?
许多年来我一直有一个疑问
Well I’ve had a question in my mind for many, many years
这个疑问是 怎样才能加速学习
and that is: How can you speed up learning?
现在这是一个有趣的问题
Now, this is an interesting question
因为如果你要加速学习
because if you speed up learning,
你在学校花的时间就会减少
you can spend less time at school.
如果你学的真的很快
And if you learn really fast,
你也许就可以不用去学校了
you probably wouldn’t have to go to school at all.
当我年轻的时候 学校还是过得去的 但是……
Now, when I was young, school was sort of OK but…
我经常的发现学校总是在阻碍学习的进程
I found quite often that school got in the way of learning
所以在我的脑子里有这样一个问题怎样才能学的更快
so I had this question in mind: How do you learn faster?
这个问题从我很小的时候就困扰着我
And this began when I was very, very young,
当我十一岁的时候
when I was 11 years old,
我给苏联研究者写了一封信 问了关于睡眠教学法的事情
I wrote a letter to researchers in the Soviet Union, asking about hypnopaedia,
这是睡觉学习
this is sleep-learning,
当你有了一个录音机时 你把它放在床旁边
where you get a tape recorder, you put it beside your bed
然后在半夜的时候打开它
and it turns on in the middle of the night
当你睡着的时候
when you’re sleeping,
你就会从中学习到一些东西
and you’re supposed to be learning from this.
这是一个好主意但是不幸的是这种方法并没有用
A good idea, unfortunately it doesn’t work.
但是 睡眠教学法给其他领域的研究都提供了有利的指导
But, hypnopaedia did open the doors to research in other areas
并且我们有了惊人的发现关于
and we’ve had incredible discoveries about
学习它从第一个问题开始
learning that began with that first question.
我从那里开始去变得对心理学热情
I went on from there to become passionate about psychology
而且我用多种不同的方法涉及到心理学
and I have been involved in psychology in many different ways
直到我生命的这一刻
for the rest of my life up until this point.
1981年我自己去了中国
In 1981, I took myself to China
我决定在两年的时间里让我的中文达到本土的水平
and I decided that I was going to be native level in Chinese inside two years.
现在你需要去明白1981年的那些东西每个人都这么想
Now, you need to understand that in 1981, everybody thought
中文真的很难
Chinese was really, really difficult
一个西方人需要学习十年或是更久
and that a Westerner could study for 10 years or more
而且永远也不会非常擅长于说中文
and never really get very good at it.
我也陷入了一个困难的境地
And I also went in with a different idea
用所有的结论
which was: taking all of the conclusions
从心理的研究到那一点
from psychological research up to that point
然后在学习过程中运用他们
and applying them to the learning process.
最酷的事情就是我在六个月之内就可以流利的说普通话
What was really cool was that in six months I was fluent in Mandarin Chinese
而且在很短的时间里我的中文就达到了本土的水平
and it took a little bit longer to get up to native.
但是我环顾四周发现所有来自不同国家的人
But I looked around and I saw all of these people from different countries
都在苦苦挣扎于中文学习之中
struggling terribly with Chinese,
我看见中国人英语和其他语言都学不好
I saw Chinese people struggling terribly to learn English and other languages,
所以我的问题被提炼成
and so my question got refined down to:
你怎样帮助一个正常的成年人
How can you help a normal adult
快速 简单 高效地学习一种新的语言
learn a new language quickly, easily and effectively?
在今天这是一个非常重要的问题
Now this is a really, really important question in today’s world.
我们有许多环境的挑战
We have massive challenges with environment,
我们有许多社会问题的挑战
we have massive challenges with social dislocation,
还有战争 每一种事情都在继续
with wars, all sorts of things going on
如果我们不能交流
and if we can’t communicate,
我们会在解决这些问题的时候有很大困难
we’re really going to have difficulty solving these problems.
所以我们需要会说对方的语言
So we need to be able to speak each other’s languages,
这非常重要
this is really, really important.
之后的问题是 你怎样做
The question then is: How do you do that?
事实上这很简单
Well, it’s actually really easy.
你看看周围那些已经做了它的人
You look around for people who can already do it,
寻找它已经工作的情况
you look for situations where it’s already working
之后你记住原则并应用他们
and then you identify the principles and apply them.
这叫做模仿 我已经看语言学习
It’s called modelling and I’ve been looking at language learning
模仿语言学习大概十五到二十年了
and modelling language learning for about 15 to 20 years now.
我的结论 我从中观察到的是
And my conclusion, my observation from this is
许多成年人可以流畅的学第二种语言在六个月之内
that any adult can learn a second language to fluency inside six months.
现在当我说这个的时候 大多数人会认为我很疯狂认为这件事情不可能
Now when I say this, most people think I’m crazy, this is not possible.
那么让我来帮大家记起人类的发展史
So let me remind everybody of the history of human progress,
这些都是关于探索限制的
it’s all about expanding our limits.
1950年 所有人都认为四分钟跑一公里是不可能的
In 1950, everybody believed that running one mile in four minutes was impossible,
但是在1956年Roger Bannister做到了
and then Roger Bannister did it in 1956
而且从那以后 时间变得越来越短
and from there it’s got shorter and shorter.
一百年前所有人都认为重的东西不会飞
100 years ago everybody believed that heavy stuff doesn’t fly.
除了它我们都知道这个
Except it does and we all know this.
重的东西要怎么飞
How does heavy stuff fly?
我们用我们学的原则改造材料
We reorganise the material using principles that we have learned
从观察自然和笼子中的鸟
from observing nature, birds in this case.
到今天我们已经走的很远了
And today we’ve gone even further…
我们可以走的更远所以你可以让车子飞
We’ve gone even further, so you can fly a car.
你可以花几十万美元就能买一辆啦
You can buy one of these for a couple of hundred thousands US dollars.
现在在世界上我们有会飞的车子
We now have cars in the world that fly.
还有另外一种飞行的方式 也就是我们向松鼠学会的这种
And there’s a different way to fly which we’ve learned from squirrels.
所以你要做的就是模仿松鼠的飞行
So all you need to do is copy what a flying squirrel does,
做一件叫做翼服的衣服 于是 你就可以像松鼠一样飞啦
build a suit called a wing suit and off you go, you can fly like a squirrel.
现在的大多数人我不是说所有人
Now most people, a lot of people, I wouldn’t say everybody
但是许多人认为他们不会画画
but a lot of people think they can’t draw.
然而 这里有一些重要的原则有五个原则你可以应用
However there are some key principles, five principles, that you can apply
学着去画画 那么你就可以在五天之内真正学会画画
to learning to draw and you can actually learn to draw in five days.
所以 如果你像这样画画 你用五天来学习这些规则
So, if you draw like this, you learn these principles for five days
然后在五天之后应用他们 你就可以像这样画出来东西
and apply them and after five days you can draw something like this.
现在我知道这是正确的因为那是我第一次画画
Now I know this is true because that was my first drawing
在应用了这些原则五天之后 他们就是你能做的事了
and after five days of applying these principles that was what I was able to do.
我看着这个 我就在想了:
And I looked at this and I went:
“喔 那么 这就是我紧张地专注于一件事
“Wow, so that’s how I look like when I’m concentrating so intensely
我的大脑在探索
that my brain is exploding.”
所以 每个人都可以在五天之内学会画画
So, anybody can learn to draw in five days
用同样的方法和逻辑
and in the same way, with the same logic,
所有人都可以在六个月之内学会第二语言
anybody can learn a second language in six months.
怎样做到呢 这里有五个原则和七个
How? There are five principles and seven actions.
或许会比这多但是这些是绝对的核心
There may be a few more but these are absolutely core.
在我说核心之前 我想先说我的两个缪见
And before I get into those I just want to talk about two myths,
我想消除我的两个缪见
I want to dispel two myths.
首先你需要有才华
The first is that you need talent.
让我告诉你关于Zoe的事情
Let me tell you about Zoe.
Zoe来自澳大利亚 要去好莱坞她正在尝试学习荷兰语
Zoe came from Australia, went to Holland, was trying to learn Dutch,
她特别特别努力 真的非常用功
struggling extremely, extremely… a great deal
最后人们都说 你完全没用了
and finally people were saying: “You’re completely useless,”
你没有天分 放弃 你在浪费时间
“you’re not talented,” “give up,” “you’re a waste of time”
她非常沮丧
and she was very, very depressed.
之后她偶然知道了这五个原则
And then she came across these five principles,
她去了巴西应用了这些原则
she moved to Brazil and she applied them
在六个月里 她已经能很流利的说葡萄牙语了
and in six months she was fluent in Portuguese,
所以有没有才华并不重要
so talent doesn’t matter.
人们也会认为沉浸在一个新国家是学习语言的一个方式
People also think that immersion in a new country is the way to learn a language.
但是看遍香港看所有的西方人
But look around Hong Kong, look at all the westerners
那些在这里呆了十年却连汉语的一个词都不会说
who’ve been here for 10 years, who don’t speak a word of Chinese.
看那些住在美国 英国 澳大利亚 加拿大的中国人
Look at all the Chinese living in America, Britain, Australia, Canada
他们已经在那住了十年甚至二十年但是他们依然不会说英语
have been there 10, 20 years and they don’t speak any English.
沉浸其中本身并没有用
Immersion per se does not work.
为什么 因为一个溺水的人不能学游泳
Why? Because a drowning man cannot learn to swim.
当你不会说一种语言的时候你就像一个小宝宝
When you don’t speak a language, you’re like a baby.
如果你让你自己进入一个环境
And if you drop yourself into a context
到处都是成年人在你头上讲事情 你是无法学习的
which is all adults talking about stuff over your head, you won’t learn.
所以 你需要关注的这五个原则是什么呢
So, what are the five principles that you need to pay attention to?
第一 这四个词
First: the four words,
关注 意义 关系和记忆
attention, meaning, relevance and memory,
并且这几个因素以非常非常重要的方式互相联系
and these interconnect in very, very important ways.
特别是当你在谈论学习的时候
Especially when you’re talking about learning.
和我一起去穿越森林的旅行吧
Come with me on a journey through a forest.
你在森林中走着
You go on a walk through a forest
你看到像这样的东西…… 树上的小记号
and you see something like this… Little marks on a tree,
也许你会注意 也许你不会
maybe you pay attention, maybe you don’t.
你继续走了五十米 然后你看到了这些
You go another 50 metres and you see this…
你应该关注
You should be paying attention.
又走了50你 如果你没有注意 你就会看到这个……
Another 50 metres, if you haven’t been paying attention, you see this…
这个时候 你终于注意到了
And at this point, you’re paying attention.
现在你才明白 这个(指一开始的树上小标记)……是很重要的
And you’ve just learned that this… is important,
这是关联的因为它就代表这些
it’s relevant because it means this,
任何相关的东西 任何和你的生存相关的信息
and anything that is related, any information related to your survival
都是你会关注的东西
is stuff that you’re going to pay attention to
因此你需要去记住它
and therefore you’re going to remember it.
如果这和你的个人目标有关
If it’s related to your personal goals,
然后你就会去关注它
then you’re going to pay attention to it.
如果是相关的你就要去记住它
If it’s relevant, you’re going to remember it.
所以 第一条规则 第一个学习语言的规则
So, the first rule, first principle for learning a language
就是注意和你有关的语言内容
is focus on language content that is relevant to you.
它会提供给我们方法
Which brings us to tools.
我们通过使用工具来掌握工具 而当这些工具和我们息息相关时
We master tools by using tools and we learn tools the fastest
当他们和我们相关的时候
when they are relevant to us.
那么让我来分享一个故事
So let me share a story.
键盘是一种工具
A keyboard is a tool.
以一定的方式录入中文 这是有方法的 键盘是一个工具
Typing Chinese a certain way, there are methods for this. That’s a tool.
很多年前我有一个同事
I had a colleague many years ago
他在周二和周四晚上要去夜校
who went to night school; Tuesday night, Thursday night,
每次两个小时 在家练习
two hours each time, practicing at home,
她花了九个月的时间 并且没有学习打汉字
she spent nine months, and she did not learn to type Chinese.
一天晚上我们有了一个危机
And one night we had a crisis.
我们只有48小时把一份培训手册录入成中文
We had 48 hours to deliver a training manual in Chinese.
她得到了这个工作 而且我可以向你保证
And she got the job, and I can guarantee you
在四十八小时之内,她就会学会打汉字
in 48 hours, she learned to type Chinese
因为这是相关的 这很有意义 也很重要
because it was relevant, it was meaningful, it was important,
她是利用了工具来创造价值
she was using a tool to create value.
所以第二个学习语言的原则就是用它
So the second principle for learning a language is to use your language
就将这门语言作为交流的工具
as a tool to communicate right from day one.
像孩子一样
As a kid does.
当我第一次来到中国时 我不会说中文
When I first arrived in China, I didn’t speak a word of Chinese,
在我到中国的第二周 我需要坐通宵火车
and on my second week, I got to take a train ride overnight.
我花了八个小时坐在餐车里
I spent eight hours sitting in the dining car
和一个火车上的乘警交谈
talking to one of the guards on the train,
由于某些原因 他对我很感兴趣
he took an interest in me for some reason,
然后我们用中文闲聊了一晚上
and we just chatted all night in Chinese
随着他画画 用双手比划
and he was drawing pictures and making movements with his hands
并用上了面部表情 一点一点
and facial expressions and piece by piece by piece
我明白的越来越多
I understood more and more.
但真正有趣的是 两周以后
But what was really cool, was two weeks later,
当在我身边的人们说中文时
when people were talking Chinese around me,
我能明白其中的一些
I was understanding some of this
我甚至没有花精力去学
and I hadn’t even made any effort to learn that.
发生了什么呢 在火车的那晚我已经吸收了中文的用法
What had happened, I’d absorbed it that night on the train,
这就是第三个原则
which brings us to the third principle.
当你第一次明白信息时
When you first understand the message,
你就在不知不觉中学会了语言
then you will acquire the language unconsciously.
而且这是有非常充足的证明的
And this is really, really well documented now,
这叫做 理解性输入
it’s something called comprehensible input.
对这个的研究已经有20到30年了
There’s 20 or 30 years of research on this,
史蒂芬·克拉申 该领域的领头人
Stephen Krashen, a leader in the field,
已经发布了各种不同的研究成果
has published all sorts of these different studies
这仅仅是来自他们其中的一个
and this is just from one of them.
紫色柱子表示不同语言测试的分数
The purple bars show the scores on different tests for language.
紫色代表那些正规学习了语法的人
The purple people were people who had learned by grammar and formal study,
绿色代表靠理解性输入学习的人
the green ones are the ones who learned by comprehensible input.
因此 理解是有用的 理解是关键
So, comprehension works. Comprehension is key
语言学习并不是大量知识的积累
and language learning is not about accumulating lots of knowledge.
在很多很多方面 这是关于生理训练的
In many, many ways it’s about physiological training.
我认识的来自台湾的一位女士在学校英语学的很好
A woman I know from Taiwan did great in English at school,
她一直以来拿的都是最高分
she got A grades all the way through,
大学时英语也是优秀 当她去美国后
went through college, A grades, went to the US
发现她听不懂别人说话
and found she couldn’t understand what people were saying.
然后人们就开始问她 你是聋子吗
And people started asking her: “Are you deaf?”
事实上她就是 英语聋子
And she was. English deaf.
因为我们的大脑里有过滤器 会留下
Because we have filters in our brain that filter in
这个声音我们都很熟悉
the sounds that we are familiar with
并且滤掉我们不熟悉的语言
and they filter out the sounds of languages that we’re not.
如果你听不见 你就无法明白
And if you can’t hear it, you won’t understand it,
如果你不能明白它 你就不会去学它
if you can’t understand it, you’re not going to learn it.
因此事实上你必须能够听到这些声音
So you actually have to be able to hear these sounds.
是有方法这么做的 但这是生理训教
And there are ways to do that but it’s physiological training.
说话是需要肌肉的
Speaking takes muscle.
你的脸上有43块肌肉
You’ve got 43 muscles in your face,
你要以某种方式让它们相互配合
you have to coordinate those in a way
以发出别人能听懂的声音
that you make sounds that other people will understand.
如果你曾经有做过几天新的运动
If you’ve ever done a new sport for a couple of days,
你知道你的身体感觉怎样吗 受伤了吗
and you know how your body feels. Hurts.
如果你的脸受伤了 你就做对了
If your face is hurting, you’re doing it right.
最后一个原则是状态 心理生理状态
And the final principle is state. Psycho-physiological state.
如果你很伤心 恼怒 担忧 心烦 你是没办法学的 就是这样
If you’re sad, angry, worried, upset, you’re not going to learn. Period.
如果你很开心 放松 处于一种阿尔法脑电波状态 保持好奇心
If you’re happy, relaxed, in an Alpha brain state, curious,
你就会学的很快
you’re going to learn really quickly,
而且 需要明确的是 你需要忍受歧义
and very specifically you need to be tolerant of ambiguity.
如果你不是那些需要100%理解的人之一
If you’re one of those people who needs to understand 100 percent
都能100%理解的人之一 你会发疯的
every word you’re hearing, you will go nuts,
因为你会一直非常心烦 因为你没法做到完美
because you’ll be incredibly upset all the time, because you’re not perfect.
如果你可以接受能明白一些 不能明白一些
If you’re comfortable with getting some, not getting some,
仅仅关注你能够听懂的部分
just paying attention to what you do understand,
你就会很好 很轻松 那么你就会学得很快
you’re going to be fine, relaxed, and you’ll be learning quickly.
那么 基于这5个原则 你需要采取的7个行动是什么呢?
So based on those five principles, what are the seven actions that you take?
第一 多听
Number one: Listen a lot.
我把它叫做泡脑子
I call it brain soaking.
你把你自己融进内容里
You put yourself in a context
你需要听很多很多的语言
where you’re hearing tons and tons and tons of a language
不管你听的明白还是听不明白都没关系
and it doesn’t matter if you understand it or not.
你是在听它的节奏 听它重复的模式
You’re listening to the rhythms, to patterns that repeat,
你是在听突出的东西
you’re listening to things that stand out.
(中文)泡脑子
(Chinese) Pào nǎozi.
(英文)因此 就在这里泡泡脑子吧
(English) So, just soak your brain in this.
第二个行动是在理解单词前
The second action is that you get the meaning first,
甚至在你得到这个词之前
even before you get the words.
你会说:“我该怎么做呢?我都不知道这个词!”
You go: “Well how do I do that? I don’t know the words!”
你明白了这些手势代表什么
Well, you understand what these different postures mean.
人类的交流是身体语言它应用于许多方面 也有许多身体语言
Human communication is body language in many, many ways, so much body language.
从身体语言中你会明白许多对话
From body language you can understand a lot of communication,
因此 你在理解 你在通过理解性输入学习
therefore, you’re understanding, you’re acquiring through comprehensible input.
并且你也能应用你已经知道的模式
And you can also use patterns that you already know.
如果你是一个讲普通话和广东话的中国人 你去了越南
If you’re a Chinese speaker of Mandarin and Cantonese and you go to Vietnam,
你就能够听懂日常对话的60%
you will understand 60 percent of what they say to you in daily conversation,
因为越南语大概有30%普通话和30%广东话
because Vietnamese is about 30 percent Mandarin, 30 percent Cantonese.
第三个动作 开始混合
The third action: Start mixing.
你也许从没有想过这个
You probably have never thought of this
但如果你有10个动词、10个名词和10个形容词
but if you’ve got 10 verbs, 10 nouns and 10 adjectives,
你可以说1000种不同的东西
you can say 1000 different things.
语言是个创造的过程
Language is a creative process.
婴儿们会怎么做? “我” “洗澡” “现在”
What do babies do? OK, “me”, “bath”, “now”.
好的 这就是他们怎么交流
OK, that’s how they communicate.
因此 开始混合 发挥创造力并且享受它
So start mixing, get creative, have fun with it,
你并不需要做到完美 只要有效就好
it doesn’t have to be perfect, just has to work.
当你这么做的时候 关注核心
And when you’re doing this, you focus on the core.
它代表什么
What does that mean?
任何语言都是高频内容
Well, any language is high frequency content.
在英语中 1000个词可以覆盖你在
In English 1000 words covers 85 percent
日常交流中需要用到的85%内容
of anything you’re ever going to say in daily communication.
3000个单词就可以覆盖
3000 words gives you 98 percent
你日常交流的98%了
of anything you’re going to say in daily conversation.
你学会了3000个词你正在说这个语言
You got 3000 words, you’re speaking the language.
剩余的是锦上添花
The rest is icing on the cake.
当你开始学习一种新语言时
And when you’re just beginning with a new language,
从工具箱开始 第一周
start with your tool box. Week number one,
你用新语言说这些:
in your new language you say things like:
“这个要怎么说?” “我不明白”
“How do you say that?” “I don’t understand,”
请重复它它是什么意思
“repeat that please,” “what does that mean?”
全部用你的目标语言
all in your target language.
你是将语言作为一种工具 让它变得对你有用
You’re using it as a tool, making it useful to you,
它和学习关于语言的其他东西是有关的
it’s relevant to learn other things about the language.
两周后 你就应该可以说这些东西
By week two, you should be saying things like:
我 这个 你 那个 给 你知道 热
“me,” “this,” “you,” “that,” “give,” you know, “hot,”
简单的代词 简单的名词 简单的动词
simple pronouns, simple nouns, simple verbs,
简单的形容词 像一个宝宝一样交流
simple adjectives, communicating like a baby.
到了第三或第四周 你就会进入“胶水词”
And by the third or fourth week, you’re getting into “glue words.”
“即使” “但是” “因此” 这些逻辑连接词
“Although,” “but,” “therefore,” these are logical transformers
把你的语言结合到一起 让你可以表达更复杂的意思
that tie bits of a language together, allowing you to make more complex meaning.
那个时候你已经在说话了
At that point you’re talking.
到那时 你就要给自己找一位语言家长
And when you’re doing that, you should get yourself a language parent.
如果你看孩子和家长怎么互相影响
If you look at how children and parents interact,
你就会明白它的意思
you’ll understand what this means.
当一个孩子说话时,他会用简单的词和简单的组合
When a child is speaking, it’ll be using simple words, simple combinations,
有时十分奇怪有时非常奇怪的发音
sometimes quite strange, sometimes very strange pronunciation,
从家庭外面来的其他人不明白
other people from outside the family don’t understand it.
但是家长明白
But the parents do.
所以孩子能有一个安全的环境并且有自信
And so the kid has a safe environment, gets confidence.
家长用肢体语言和孩子交流
The parents talk to the children with body language
用简单的语言 因为他们知道他们的孩子能明白
and with simple language they know the child understands.
于是有了一个安全的理解性输入环境
So you have a comprehensible input environment that’s safe,
我们知道这是有作用的 否则没有人能说你们的的母语
we know it works; otherwise none of you would speak your mother tongue.
你给自己找一位语言家长
So you get yourself a language parent,
这是一个对你这个人有兴趣的人
who’s somebody interested in you as a person
可以跟你平等地交流
who will communicate with you essentially as an equal,
并且愿意花心思帮你理解信息
but pay attention to help you understand the message.
语言家长有4条标准
There are four rules of a language parent.
配偶并不是很好的语言家长 懂吗
Spouses are not very good at this, OK?
这4条规则是
But the four rules are,
首先 他们会努力工作来明白你的意思
first of all, they will work hard to understand what you mean
哪怕你跟不上节奏
even when you’re way off beat.
第二 他们永远都不会改正你的错误
Secondly, they will never correct your mistakes.
第三 他们会向你反馈他们对你说的话如何理解
Thirdly, they will feed back their understanding of what you are saying
于是你就可以合理回应 并且得到反馈
so that you can respond appropriately and get that feedback
然后他们会用你知道的词
and then they will use words that you know.
第6件你需要做的是模仿面部表情
The sixth thing you have to do, is copy the face.
你要让脸部肌肉正确工作
You got to get the muscles working right,
使你发出的声音能让人们理解
so you can sound in a way that people will understand you.
这里有两件你要做的事
There’s a couple of things you do.
第一个是你要听见它的感觉 感受它的声音
One is that you hear how it feels, and feel how it sounds
这意味着你脸上有一个反馈回路
which means you have a feedback loop operating in your face,
但理想状态是如果你能看着一个母语使用者
but ideally if you can look at a native speaker
就观察他们如何使用他们的面部表情
and just observe how they use their face,
让你在无意识的情况下吸收这些规则
let your unconscious mind absorb the rules,
然后你就要去把它捡起来
then you’re going to be able to pick it up.
如果你没有母语者让你看着 你可以用像这样的东西……
And if you can’t get a native speaker to look at, you can use stuff like this…
(女声) Sing song king stung hung
(Female voice) Sing, song, king, stung, hung.
(克里斯·朗斯代尔)最后一个观点 你需要采取的最后一个行动
(Chris Lonsdale) And the final idea here, the final action you need to take
它是我叫做直接联系的东西
is something that I call “direct connect”.
这意味着什么 大多数人都学习了第二语言
What does this mean? Well most people learning a second language
都是用母语单词对照目标语言
sort of take the mother tongue words and the target words and go over them
反复在心中默念并尝试记忆 效率非常低
again and again in their mind to try and remember them. Really inefficient.
你需要意识到
What you need to do is realise that
你所知道的一切都是你脑子里的想象 这种感觉就像
everything you know is an image inside your mind, it’s feelings,
如果你在说火你就可以闻到烟的味道
if you talk about fire, you can smell the smoke,
你可以听到爆裂声 你可以看见火焰
you can hear the crackling, you can see the flames,
你需要做的是走进那个意象和与其相关的所有记忆
so what you do, is you go into that imagery and all of that memory
并且从另一条路出来 这就叫做“殊途同归”
and you come out with another pathway. So I call it “same box, different path”.
你从另一条路出来 你不断建造这条路
You come out of that pathway and you build it over time,
你就会越来越擅长把新声音
you become more and more skilled at just connecting the new sounds
和你已有的图像联系起来 成为内在的表现
to those images that you already have, into that internal representation.
往后你会自然地擅长那个过程
And over time you even become naturally good at that process,
甚至无意识地进行
that becomes unconscious.
所以你需要用这五个原则和七个动作来工作
So, there are five principles that you need to work with, seven actions,
如果你把这一切都做了你就会进步
if you do any of them, you’re going to improve.
记住 作为一个学者 这些东西是你可以控制的
And remember these are things under your control as the learner.
所有都做了之后你就会在六个月之内很流利的说第二语言
Do them all and you’re going to be fluent in a second language in six months.
谢谢
Thank you.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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视频概述

5个原则 7个行动教你如何在6个月内学习一门外语

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

可可天使

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0yGdNEWdn0

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