The people in the back, can you hear me clearly?
Have you ever held a question in mind
for so long that it becomes part of how you think?
Maybe even part of who you are as a person?
Well I’ve had a question in my mind for many, many years
and that is: How can you speed up learning?
Now, this is an interesting question
because if you speed up learning,
you can spend less time at school.
And if you learn really fast,
you probably wouldn’t have to go to school at all.
当我年轻的时候 学校还是过得去的 但是……
Now, when I was young, school was sort of OK but…
I found quite often that school got in the way of learning
so I had this question in mind: How do you learn faster?
And this began when I was very, very young,
when I was 11 years old,
I wrote a letter to researchers in the Soviet Union, asking about hypnopaedia,
this is sleep-learning,
where you get a tape recorder, you put it beside your bed
and it turns on in the middle of the night
when you’re sleeping,
and you’re supposed to be learning from this.
A good idea, unfortunately it doesn’t work.
But, hypnopaedia did open the doors to research in other areas
and we’ve had incredible discoveries about
learning that began with that first question.
I went on from there to become passionate about psychology
and I have been involved in psychology in many different ways
for the rest of my life up until this point.
In 1981, I took myself to China
and I decided that I was going to be native level in Chinese inside two years.
Now, you need to understand that in 1981, everybody thought
Chinese was really, really difficult
and that a Westerner could study for 10 years or more
and never really get very good at it.
And I also went in with a different idea
which was: taking all of the conclusions
from psychological research up to that point
and applying them to the learning process.
What was really cool was that in six months I was fluent in Mandarin Chinese
and it took a little bit longer to get up to native.
But I looked around and I saw all of these people from different countries
struggling terribly with Chinese,
I saw Chinese people struggling terribly to learn English and other languages,
and so my question got refined down to:
How can you help a normal adult
快速 简单 高效地学习一种新的语言
learn a new language quickly, easily and effectively?
Now this is a really, really important question in today’s world.
We have massive challenges with environment,
we have massive challenges with social dislocation,
with wars, all sorts of things going on
and if we can’t communicate,
we’re really going to have difficulty solving these problems.
So we need to be able to speak each other’s languages,
this is really, really important.
The question then is: How do you do that?
Well, it’s actually really easy.
You look around for people who can already do it,
you look for situations where it’s already working
and then you identify the principles and apply them.
It’s called modelling and I’ve been looking at language learning
and modelling language learning for about 15 to 20 years now.
And my conclusion, my observation from this is
that any adult can learn a second language to fluency inside six months.
Now when I say this, most people think I’m crazy, this is not possible.
So let me remind everybody of the history of human progress,
it’s all about expanding our limits.
In 1950, everybody believed that running one mile in four minutes was impossible,
and then Roger Bannister did it in 1956
and from there it’s got shorter and shorter.
100 years ago everybody believed that heavy stuff doesn’t fly.
Except it does and we all know this.
How does heavy stuff fly?
We reorganise the material using principles that we have learned
from observing nature, birds in this case.
And today we’ve gone even further…
We’ve gone even further, so you can fly a car.
You can buy one of these for a couple of hundred thousands US dollars.
We now have cars in the world that fly.
And there’s a different way to fly which we’ve learned from squirrels.
So all you need to do is copy what a flying squirrel does,
做一件叫做翼服的衣服 于是 你就可以像松鼠一样飞啦
build a suit called a wing suit and off you go, you can fly like a squirrel.
Now most people, a lot of people, I wouldn’t say everybody
but a lot of people think they can’t draw.
However there are some key principles, five principles, that you can apply
to learning to draw and you can actually learn to draw in five days.
所以 如果你像这样画画 你用五天来学习这些规则
So, if you draw like this, you learn these principles for five days
and apply them and after five days you can draw something like this.
Now I know this is true because that was my first drawing
and after five days of applying these principles that was what I was able to do.
And I looked at this and I went:
“喔 那么 这就是我紧张地专注于一件事
“Wow, so that’s how I look like when I’m concentrating so intensely
that my brain is exploding.”
So, anybody can learn to draw in five days
and in the same way, with the same logic,
anybody can learn a second language in six months.
How? There are five principles and seven actions.
There may be a few more but these are absolutely core.
And before I get into those I just want to talk about two myths,
I want to dispel two myths.
The first is that you need talent.
Let me tell you about Zoe.
Zoe came from Australia, went to Holland, was trying to learn Dutch,
struggling extremely, extremely… a great deal
and finally people were saying: “You’re completely useless,”
你没有天分 放弃 你在浪费时间
“you’re not talented,” “give up,” “you’re a waste of time”
and she was very, very depressed.
And then she came across these five principles,
she moved to Brazil and she applied them
and in six months she was fluent in Portuguese,
so talent doesn’t matter.
People also think that immersion in a new country is the way to learn a language.
But look around Hong Kong, look at all the westerners
who’ve been here for 10 years, who don’t speak a word of Chinese.
看那些住在美国 英国 澳大利亚 加拿大的中国人
Look at all the Chinese living in America, Britain, Australia, Canada
have been there 10, 20 years and they don’t speak any English.
Immersion per se does not work.
Why? Because a drowning man cannot learn to swim.
When you don’t speak a language, you’re like a baby.
And if you drop yourself into a context
which is all adults talking about stuff over your head, you won’t learn.
So, what are the five principles that you need to pay attention to?
First: the four words,
关注 意义 关系和记忆
attention, meaning, relevance and memory,
and these interconnect in very, very important ways.
Especially when you’re talking about learning.
Come with me on a journey through a forest.
You go on a walk through a forest
and you see something like this… Little marks on a tree,
maybe you pay attention, maybe you don’t.
You go another 50 metres and you see this…
You should be paying attention.
又走了50你 如果你没有注意 你就会看到这个……
Another 50 metres, if you haven’t been paying attention, you see this…
And at this point, you’re paying attention.
And you’ve just learned that this… is important,
it’s relevant because it means this,
and anything that is related, any information related to your survival
is stuff that you’re going to pay attention to
and therefore you’re going to remember it.
If it’s related to your personal goals,
then you’re going to pay attention to it.
If it’s relevant, you’re going to remember it.
所以 第一条规则 第一个学习语言的规则
So, the first rule, first principle for learning a language
is focus on language content that is relevant to you.
Which brings us to tools.
We master tools by using tools and we learn tools the fastest
when they are relevant to us.
So let me share a story.
A keyboard is a tool.
以一定的方式录入中文 这是有方法的 键盘是一个工具
Typing Chinese a certain way, there are methods for this. That’s a tool.
I had a colleague many years ago
who went to night school; Tuesday night, Thursday night,
two hours each time, practicing at home,
she spent nine months, and she did not learn to type Chinese.
And one night we had a crisis.
We had 48 hours to deliver a training manual in Chinese.
And she got the job, and I can guarantee you
in 48 hours, she learned to type Chinese
因为这是相关的 这很有意义 也很重要
because it was relevant, it was meaningful, it was important,
she was using a tool to create value.
So the second principle for learning a language is to use your language
as a tool to communicate right from day one.
As a kid does.
When I first arrived in China, I didn’t speak a word of Chinese,
and on my second week, I got to take a train ride overnight.
I spent eight hours sitting in the dining car
talking to one of the guards on the train,
he took an interest in me for some reason,
and we just chatted all night in Chinese
and he was drawing pictures and making movements with his hands
and facial expressions and piece by piece by piece
I understood more and more.
But what was really cool, was two weeks later,
when people were talking Chinese around me,
I was understanding some of this
and I hadn’t even made any effort to learn that.
What had happened, I’d absorbed it that night on the train,
which brings us to the third principle.
When you first understand the message,
then you will acquire the language unconsciously.
And this is really, really well documented now,
it’s something called comprehensible input.
There’s 20 or 30 years of research on this,
Stephen Krashen, a leader in the field,
has published all sorts of these different studies
and this is just from one of them.
The purple bars show the scores on different tests for language.
The purple people were people who had learned by grammar and formal study,
the green ones are the ones who learned by comprehensible input.
因此 理解是有用的 理解是关键
So, comprehension works. Comprehension is key
and language learning is not about accumulating lots of knowledge.
In many, many ways it’s about physiological training.
A woman I know from Taiwan did great in English at school,
she got A grades all the way through,
went through college, A grades, went to the US
and found she couldn’t understand what people were saying.
And people started asking her: “Are you deaf?”
And she was. English deaf.
Because we have filters in our brain that filter in
the sounds that we are familiar with
and they filter out the sounds of languages that we’re not.
And if you can’t hear it, you won’t understand it,
if you can’t understand it, you’re not going to learn it.
So you actually have to be able to hear these sounds.
And there are ways to do that but it’s physiological training.
Speaking takes muscle.
You’ve got 43 muscles in your face,
you have to coordinate those in a way
that you make sounds that other people will understand.
If you’ve ever done a new sport for a couple of days,
and you know how your body feels. Hurts.
If your face is hurting, you’re doing it right.
And the final principle is state. Psycho-physiological state.
如果你很伤心 恼怒 担忧 心烦 你是没办法学的 就是这样
If you’re sad, angry, worried, upset, you’re not going to learn. Period.
如果你很开心 放松 处于一种阿尔法脑电波状态 保持好奇心
If you’re happy, relaxed, in an Alpha brain state, curious,
you’re going to learn really quickly,
而且 需要明确的是 你需要忍受歧义
and very specifically you need to be tolerant of ambiguity.
If you’re one of those people who needs to understand 100 percent
every word you’re hearing, you will go nuts,
because you’ll be incredibly upset all the time, because you’re not perfect.
If you’re comfortable with getting some, not getting some,
just paying attention to what you do understand,
你就会很好 很轻松 那么你就会学得很快
you’re going to be fine, relaxed, and you’ll be learning quickly.
那么 基于这5个原则 你需要采取的7个行动是什么呢？
So based on those five principles, what are the seven actions that you take?
Number one: Listen a lot.
I call it brain soaking.
You put yourself in a context
where you’re hearing tons and tons and tons of a language
and it doesn’t matter if you understand it or not.
You’re listening to the rhythms, to patterns that repeat,
you’re listening to things that stand out.
(Chinese) Pào nǎozi.
(English) So, just soak your brain in this.
The second action is that you get the meaning first,
even before you get the words.
You go: “Well how do I do that? I don’t know the words!”
Well, you understand what these different postures mean.
Human communication is body language in many, many ways, so much body language.
From body language you can understand a lot of communication,
因此 你在理解 你在通过理解性输入学习
therefore, you’re understanding, you’re acquiring through comprehensible input.
And you can also use patterns that you already know.
If you’re a Chinese speaker of Mandarin and Cantonese and you go to Vietnam,
you will understand 60 percent of what they say to you in daily conversation,
because Vietnamese is about 30 percent Mandarin, 30 percent Cantonese.
The third action: Start mixing.
You probably have never thought of this
but if you’ve got 10 verbs, 10 nouns and 10 adjectives,
you can say 1000 different things.
Language is a creative process.
婴儿们会怎么做？ “我” “洗澡” “现在”
What do babies do? OK, “me”, “bath”, “now”.
OK, that’s how they communicate.
因此 开始混合 发挥创造力并且享受它
So start mixing, get creative, have fun with it,
it doesn’t have to be perfect, just has to work.
And when you’re doing this, you focus on the core.
What does that mean?
Well, any language is high frequency content.
In English 1000 words covers 85 percent
of anything you’re ever going to say in daily communication.
3000 words gives you 98 percent
of anything you’re going to say in daily conversation.
You got 3000 words, you’re speaking the language.
The rest is icing on the cake.
And when you’re just beginning with a new language,
start with your tool box. Week number one,
in your new language you say things like:
“How do you say that?” “I don’t understand,”
“repeat that please,” “what does that mean?”
all in your target language.
You’re using it as a tool, making it useful to you,
it’s relevant to learn other things about the language.
By week two, you should be saying things like:
我 这个 你 那个 给 你知道 热
“me,” “this,” “you,” “that,” “give,” you know, “hot,”
简单的代词 简单的名词 简单的动词
simple pronouns, simple nouns, simple verbs,
simple adjectives, communicating like a baby.
And by the third or fourth week, you’re getting into “glue words.”
“即使” “但是” “因此” 这些逻辑连接词
“Although,” “but,” “therefore,” these are logical transformers
that tie bits of a language together, allowing you to make more complex meaning.
At that point you’re talking.
And when you’re doing that, you should get yourself a language parent.
If you look at how children and parents interact,
you’ll understand what this means.
When a child is speaking, it’ll be using simple words, simple combinations,
sometimes quite strange, sometimes very strange pronunciation,
other people from outside the family don’t understand it.
But the parents do.
And so the kid has a safe environment, gets confidence.
The parents talk to the children with body language
and with simple language they know the child understands.
So you have a comprehensible input environment that’s safe,
we know it works; otherwise none of you would speak your mother tongue.
So you get yourself a language parent,
who’s somebody interested in you as a person
who will communicate with you essentially as an equal,
but pay attention to help you understand the message.
There are four rules of a language parent.
Spouses are not very good at this, OK?
But the four rules are,
first of all, they will work hard to understand what you mean
even when you’re way off beat.
Secondly, they will never correct your mistakes.
Thirdly, they will feed back their understanding of what you are saying
so that you can respond appropriately and get that feedback
and then they will use words that you know.
The sixth thing you have to do, is copy the face.
You got to get the muscles working right,
so you can sound in a way that people will understand you.
There’s a couple of things you do.
One is that you hear how it feels, and feel how it sounds
which means you have a feedback loop operating in your face,
but ideally if you can look at a native speaker
and just observe how they use their face,
let your unconscious mind absorb the rules,
then you’re going to be able to pick it up.
And if you can’t get a native speaker to look at, you can use stuff like this…
（女声） Sing song king stung hung
(Female voice) Sing, song, king, stung, hung.
(Chris Lonsdale) And the final idea here, the final action you need to take
is something that I call “direct connect”.
What does this mean? Well most people learning a second language
sort of take the mother tongue words and the target words and go over them
again and again in their mind to try and remember them. Really inefficient.
What you need to do is realise that
everything you know is an image inside your mind, it’s feelings,
if you talk about fire, you can smell the smoke,
you can hear the crackling, you can see the flames,
so what you do, is you go into that imagery and all of that memory
and you come out with another pathway. So I call it “same box, different path”.
You come out of that pathway and you build it over time,
you become more and more skilled at just connecting the new sounds
to those images that you already have, into that internal representation.
And over time you even become naturally good at that process,
that becomes unconscious.
So, there are five principles that you need to work with, seven actions,
if you do any of them, you’re going to improve.
记住 作为一个学者 这些东西是你可以控制的
And remember these are things under your control as the learner.
Do them all and you’re going to be fluent in a second language in six months.