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如何快速学习新技能:一个四步骤的过程 – 译学馆
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如何快速学习新技能:一个四步骤的过程

How to Learn a New Skill Quickly: A 4-Step Process

Hey what’s going on guys?
嘿 大家好吗?
So today we are tackling
今天我们将讨论
how you can learn new skills incredibly quickly.
如何以惊人的速度学习新技能
Over the course of this video,
通过这个视频
I’m gonna share a four step process
我要告诉你们四个步骤
that you can use to take any skill,
你可以用来学习任何技能
whether it’s related to school or your future career,
无论是有关学业的还是关于未来的职业的
or whether it’s just a fun one like guitar or cooking,
或者只是出于兴趣 比如弹吉它或者烹饪
and break that skill down
将这个技能进行拆解
so that you can learn as much as you need to
这样你就能足够
about the most important parts
了解最重要的部分
and then start practicing them effectively
然后开始有效的练习它们
so you can gain basic proficiency really really fast.
所以你真的能迅速地初步掌握这项技能
Now this process we’re gonna talk about
现在我们谈论的这个做法
applies to any skill,
适用于任何技能
because at its core, skill development, whether it’s really physical like basketball or whether it’s really mental like mathematics, it’s all learning.
因为技能的发展 无论是体力的 比如打篮球 还是脑力的 比如数学 它的核心都是学习
As you intake information about the skill,
当你学习某项技能的相关知识
and as you practice it,
随着不断的练习
you’re forging new neural pathways in your brain,
新的神经回路渐渐在你的大脑中形成
you’re connecting them with other neural pathways,
并且和其它的神经回路连在一起
and you’re strengthening them over time.
久而久之 神经回路得到加强
As you do this,
在做这些的时候
you move though what’s called the three stage model
你经历了三个阶段的模式
or skill acquisition,
或称为技能习得阶段
which starts with the cognitive stage
最初是认知阶段
where you’re just learning about the skill,
在这个阶段 你只是去了解这项技能
and you’re just forming those neural pathways.
渐渐形成这些神经回路
Then moves into the associative stage
然后进入联想阶段
where you’re doing a lot more practice,
这时你要进行大量练习
and now you’re able to sort of self reflect
现在你可以自我反思
and pick out mistakes and change things based on those mistakes.
发现错误然后改正错误了
And eventually you move into the autonomous stage.
最后你进入自动阶段
At that point you have mastered the skill,
此时你就已经掌握了这项技能
and it’s basically able to be done automatically.
因为基本上能够自动完成了
And this autonomous phase takes a really long time to get to.
自动阶段需要很长的时间才能达到
Mastery takes a lot of hours of practice.
精通某项技能需要很多小时的练习
But that doesn’t mean you’re doomed to
但并不意味着你注定要
spend dozens of hours in the beginning phases,
花几十小时在初始阶段
because if you know how to structure the learning and the practice processes the right way,
因为如果你知道学习和练习的正确方式
you can make a surprising amount of progress in a very very short period of time.
你会在非常非常短的时间内取得惊人的进步
In fact, in his book The First 20 Hours,
事实上 在《20小时学习法则》这本书里
author Josh Kaufman argues that you can learn
作者Josh Kaufman 认为你可以
basic proficiency in almost any skill that exists in under 20 hours of dedicated practice.
经过刻意练习近20小时 基本掌握所有的现有技能
And his process for doing this breaks down
他的学习过程可拆解为
to a series of four distinct steps.
四个独立的步骤
And in a second we’re gonna go over those steps,
我们下面讲这些步骤
but first I wanna issue you a bit of a challenge.
但首先我想要给你们出点难题
If you’re sitting there watching this video,
如果你在观看这个视频
and you have a skill you’ve been wanting to learn,
而且你有一个一直想学的技能
use this framework to create a plan for doing that.
就用这个方法制定计划去学吧
Once the video’s over,
视频一结束
take out a piece of paper and create a plan
就拿出张纸制定计划
going through each of the steps,
包括每一个步骤
and then start putting it into action.
然后开始执行
So the first step in Kaufman’s process
Kaufman方法的第一个步骤是
is to deconstruct the skill.
拆解这项技能
Basically you break it down into its component parts,
基本上你把它拆解成最基本的部分
and then you prioritize those parts based on your particular goals within that skill area.
然后根据你对这项技能制定的目标 挑出你认为重要的部分
Now to give you an example
例如
let’s talk about playing the guitar.
拿弹吉他来说
A lot of people want to play the guitar,
许多人都想弹吉他
but there are lots of different ways to play the guitar.
但是弹吉他有许多不同的方式
There’s tons of different musical genres,
有数种不同的音乐流派
you might want to just play a few different songs,
你或许只想弹几首歌
or maybe you want to be like Slash
或许你想要成为Slash或
or like DragonForce guitarists
Dragonforce 那样的吉他演奏家
and be rippin’ solos all day long, right?
整天都演奏 对吗
These are very different skills.
二者需要不同的技能
So, by breaking it down into individual sub-skills,
所以通过把它拆解成不同的小技能
chords, scales, picking technique,
和弦 扫弦 拨弦
reading tabs, understanding musical intervals,
读谱 掌握节奏
you end up with a list of building blocks
你最后拆解出很多最基本的小技能
that you can then prioritize and take action on.
供你挑选去学习
The second step in Kaufman’s process
Kaufman教程的第二步
is the education step.
是学习阶段
Basically at this point you want to take each sub-skill
基本上在这一阶段你要学习每一个小技能
that you’ve prioritized and learn enough about it that you can practice well and identify your mistakes and self-correct.
这技能是你选的 对它的了解程度足以去练好 发现错误并且自己纠错了
Now notice I said enough about each sub-skill,
现在注意我说的是对每一个小技能有足够的了解
not as much as you can about each sub-skill.
不是尽量多的了解小技能
Because I know personally I’m the kind of guy
因为我自己知道我这种人
who will walk into Barnes & Noble
走进Barnes&Noble书店时
and look at every single book on the shelf related to what I’m interested in,
看到书架上我感兴趣的书
and think, I should buy every single one here and read them all before getting started.
就想在开始学习之前 把每本书都买下来读
And that’s just not how good skill development works,
这并不是很好的发展技能的方式
especially if you want to do it quickly.
尤其是如果你想快点学会
You need to learn just enough about each sub-skill so that you can start practicing,
你只需要充分了解每一个小技能 就可以开始练习了
getting your hands dirty, and making mistakes,
放手去练习 去犯错
because then you’re gonna know what you should correct.
因为这时你知道哪里应该改
Alright, step number three in the process
好的 教程第三步
is to eliminate any potential barriers to success
是清除成功道路上的潜在障碍
or barriers to your progress and your practice.
就是影响你进步 影响你练习的障碍
And in my mind,
我认为
the most likely thing that’s gonna get in the way of your practice
最可能阻碍你练习的是
is a lack of motivation in the long-term.
缺乏长期的动力
So, find a way to motivate yourself on a constant basis.
所以为自己找个持续的动力
Maybe it’s having an accountability partner,
或许是找个负责的伙伴
maybe it’s joining a forum where you can talk about your interest,
或许是加入论坛参与讨论
or maybe it’s just making a record
也或许只是做做记录
of every single day you practice
记下每天的学习情况
so you can see a chain developing
这样你就能看到学习的进展
that you don’t want to break.
因而不愿中断
Alright, so skill has been deconstructed,
好的 这项技能拆解完了
learning has been done,
学习任务完成了
and barriers have been sliced in half with a samurai sword.
障碍被武士刀劈两半了
We are now on the fourth and final step of the process
现在是第四阶段也就是最后阶段
which is simply to practice deliberately.
就是专心认真地练习
In The First 20 Hours,
在《黄金20小时法则》这本书中
Josh Kaufman’s rule is that you should practice deliberately
Josh Kaufman的原则是你应该刻意练习
until you’ve achieved your goals for each sub-skill that you prioritized,
直到达到你为每一个小技能设定的目标
or until you’ve hit 20 hours of dedicated practice.
或者是你做足了20小时的专心的练习
And what he recommends
他建议
is that you actually practice by using a timer or a clock,
在实际练习时使用计时器或者时钟
and track the amount of hours you put in.
记下你投入的时间
Because when you’re practicing something difficult,
因为当你练习较难的技能时
it can be really really easy to overestimate how much time you spend practicing.
非常非常容易过高估计你用于练习的时间
Now that we’ve gotten through the four step process,
现在四个阶段都说完了
I want to give you a few additional tips
我再给你们几个建议
you can use to make your skill development journey even more successful.
可以用来让你们更成功地学习技能
And the first one is to identify the work of somebody who is a master or somebody who is where you want to be.
第一个建议是选定某个大师或者你的偶像的作品
Analyze that work as best as you can,
尽量仔细地分析这个作品
and then try to imitate it.
然后尽力去模仿它
Now a lot of people are gonna say,
这时很多人会说
this is copying, this is ripping people off,
这是抄袭是剽窃
but actually as long as you’re not passing off
但是事实上只要你不假冒
this work as your own,
这作品是你自己的就行
this is how a lot of people learn their skills.
许多人都是这么学的
And in fact in Japanese martial arts,
事实上 在日本的武士道里
there’s a concept called shuhari
有个概念称为“守破离”
that is exactly this.
就是这个意思
And in music, it’s the same.
在音乐领域 情况也类似
The famous jazz trumpet player Clark Terry
著名的爵士小号演奏家Clark Terry
believed that imitation was in fact
认为模仿实际上是
an essential part of becoming a great musician.
成为伟大音乐家的必要部分
And he told his students that music learning happens
他告诉自己的学生 音乐学习
in a three stage process,
有三个阶段
which he called imitate, assimilate, and innovate.
他称之为模仿 消化吸收和创新
Here’s what he said about the role of imitation.
他这样谈到模仿的作用
“By imitating the players you love,
“通过模仿你喜欢的演奏家
“you’ll begin to understand the music on a deeper level
你开始在更深的层面上理解音乐
and begin to see a personal sound develop in your own approach to improvisation.
接着开始看到自己即兴演奏方法的改进
“Questions that can’t be answered by music theory or etude books,
音乐理论或者是教育书籍所不能回答的问题
“like how to play longer lines or how to articulate and swing,
比如如何演奏更长的乐句 如何吹得清晰 如何摇摆
will reveal themselves as you start to imitate the masters.”
随着你不断的模仿大师 这些问题都迎刃而解了
Part of the reason this tactic works so well
这个方法很有效的原因是
is it gives you a method to go way way
它给了一种方法让你
beyond your comfort zone and your current level of skill.
走出舒适区并且超越你现有水平
Because if you can take something that a master made,
因为如果你能做到大师那样
and you can analyze it from every angle,
你就能从各个角度进行分析
you can probably recreate certain aspects of it
你就很可能在某一方面进行再创造
even if you don’t know exactly what you’re doing
即使你不确切知道自己当时在干什么
or why you’re doing it.
或者是你为什么这样做
Then later on as you’re kinda backfilling your knowledge by learning the theory
and all the fundamentals,
以后通过学习理论和所有的基本原理 你会回填这些知识
you’re gonna be able to say,
你就能说
oh that’s why I did that, or that’s how I did that.
哦 原来如此 我是这么做的
I didn’t understand it at first, but now I get it.
原来我不懂 现在我明白了
And I kind of have like a rung to pull myself up because I did that work
in the first place.
因为我最初做了这项工作 就像是用台阶把自己垫高了
The Stanford mathematics professor Ravi Vakil
斯坦福大学数学教授Ravi vakil
called it backfilling.
称之为回填
And here’s how he described it in terms of mathematics.
这里他对数学进行了描述
“mathematics is so rich and infinite
“数学是如此丰富 无限宽广
“that it is impossible to learn it systematically,
不可能按部就班地学完
“and if you wait to master one topic
如果你想要掌握一个主题
“before moving on to the next,
接着学习下一个主题
“you’ll never get anywhere.
你将一无所获
“Instead, you’ll have tendrils of knowledge extending far from your comfort zone
相反 你先学会自己熟悉领域外的小知识点
“Then you can later backfill from these tendrils,
之后你可以回填充实这些知识
“and extend your comfort zone.”
扩大你熟悉的领域
Of course, another way to learn from the masters
当然另外一种向大师学习的方法是
is to simply be taught by them.
做他们的学生
Which is why another way you can really excelarate youself
这是为什么另一种能真正加快学习的方法
is by finding a teacher or a coach or a course that you can take.
是找到合适的老师 教练或者课程
Now I know from personal experience,
以我个人的经验 我知道
having a coach or somebody who can tell you your mistakes
找一个教练或者是一个人指出你的错误
is probably the most valuable thing in the world.
很可能是世界上最珍贵的事情
But you don’t have to let geography be a limiting factor
但是不必让地域限制你
in your access to teachers
找到老师
because there are 100s of 1000s of tutorials and online courses that
you can use for
因为你可以用上百上千个老师 和网络课程
basically any skill that you’re trying to learn.
学习你想学的任何技能
And one place where you can find those courses that I wanna let you know about
我想告诉你们 有个地方可以找到这些课程
is Skillshare, who’s actually the sponsor of this video.
Skillshare 网站 它其实是本视频的赞助商
Now Skillshare is an online learning community
目前Skillshare是一个在线的学习社区
that has over 12,000 courses in a ton of different subjects.
拥有12000多个涉及大量学科的课程
And I’ve actually been taking a few of those in After Effects animation,
实际上 我在这里上了几节卡通后期效果的课
but they also have courses in photography,
但是他们的课程还有摄影技术
graphic design, logo design,
图像设计 商标设计
and things like cooking, guitar, presentation skills.
还有烹饪 吉他 演讲技巧
In fact, they have a presentation skills class from Simon Sinek
实际上他们有演讲技巧班 授课人是Simin Sinek
who gave probably my favorite TED talk of all time.
他一直是我最喜欢的Ted演讲人
But one of the reasons I really like Skillshare
但是我真正喜欢Skillshare的原因是
is that it gives you the ability to get feedback from both your teacher and from other people who are taking the same course.
它给你机会得到课程老师和同学的反馈
There’s two ways it does this.
它有两种反馈方式
Number one, below the videos in any course you’re taking
第一种 在课程视频的下方
there’s a comments section.
有评论区
And if you ask a question, you can get an answer from the course instructor.
如果你在这提问题 会得到授课老师的解答
But also, most of the courses on Skillshare
当然 Skillshare上大部分的课程
have a participation component.
都有参与分
Basically there is a project section of the course
课程有个项目
where you can upload your own work for feedback.
是上传你自己的作品进行反馈
Now a membership to Skillshare is normally around $8 a month,
目前Skillshare的会员价一般是大约8美元一个月
which is right around the same price as Netflix,
这和Netflix价格差不多
and potentially a lot more useful.
而且潜在用处更大一些
But, if you wanna get three months of completely unlimited use on Skillshare,
但是如果你想买Skillshare三个月完全无限使用的会员
you can get it for 99 cents by using the link in the description below,
点击下方链接 只需要99美分
and I’ll have a few more details about that at the end of the video.
在视频结束的时候 我对此多说几句
Before we end this video though,
在结束这个视频之前
I’ve got three additional tips for you.
我还有三个建议
And all three of them relate to making your practice sessions
三个建议都会让你的练习
more effective and more useful.
更有效更有用
The first one is find a way to record
第一个是找到方法记录
some of the practice you do.
你做的一些练习
Now you don’t have to record all of it,
目前你不必全部记下来
but recording some of it is gonna allow you
只记那些
to analyze your performance,
能分析你的表现的
see the mistakes you’re making,
能看到你的错误的
and make improvements.
能取得进步的
And this is something my skating coach actually told me to do.
这实际上是我的滑冰教练告诉我的
She said bring your iPhone to the rink,
他说把你的苹果手机带到滑冰场
set it up on a tripod,
把它安在三脚架上
and film yourself practicing the moves you have to practice for the competition.
录下你为参加比赛而练习的动作
Because if you can’t see what you’re doing,
因为如果你看不到自己在做什么
you don’t really know how to make improvements.
你真的不知道如何改进
My friend Martin also does this with Spanish practice.
我的朋友Martin在学习西班牙语时也是这样做的
One thing he does is have an impromptu speech in Spanish with his webcam,
他用网络摄像机录下他用西班牙语做的即兴演讲
so that way he can go back and analyze his accent,
这样他能回放 分析自己的口音
his rate of speech, if he made any grammatical errors,
语速以及他是否犯了语法错误
et cetera.
等等
Secondly, if you want to accelerate your development process
第二如果你想要加速学习进程
and actually get good,
真的学好
you need to make time for hyperfocused
你需要有超级专注的时间
and honestly lengthy practice sessions.
老实说 还要有很长的练习时间
Now I was gonna say when I was writing this script
我要说的是 我在制作视频的技能
that you could just do 20 minutes a day
只要你每天练习20分钟
or 10 minutes a day of practice, as long as it was consistent.
能持续练习的话 每天练习10分钟你也能学会
But when I got to thinking,
但是我又想了想
I couldn’t think of a single skill that I have
想不出有哪种技能
that I’m proud of, that I think I’m truly good at
是我为之骄傲的 我真的擅长的
where I just put in 10 minutes a day or 20 minutes a day of practice.
这些技能我每天只练习10分钟 或者20分钟
I mean, After Effects, public speaking, skateboarding,
我指的是后期效果 公众演讲 滑冰
figure skating, all the things I think I’m pretty good at,
花样滑冰 这都是我自我感觉很擅长的
I spend hours and hours of practice on.
都是我花了数个小时练习了的
And each individual session was honestly quite lengthy.
老实说 每一项的学习过程都是相当漫长的
And lastly, as you practice you want to vary up the stakes.
最后在你们练习时 想改变一下风险
When you’re learning a new sub-skill,
你学习一项新的小技能的时候
you want to start with low stakes
你想要从低风险起步
where you’re in a very low stress situation,
这时你的压力很小
there’s not much of a threat of consequence.
对结果没有很大的威胁
And then move to higher stakes situations
然后风险加大
where there is some pressure.
这时有了一些压力
And video game design is a perfect example of this,
电脑游戏设计就是这种情况很好的例子
because if you analyze almost any video game,
因为如果你分析所有的电脑游戏
as it teaches the player a new skill,
当教给游戏玩家一项新技能时
it usually gives them a space where there’s some isolated practice.
通常会给他们一个空间去练习某个单项技术
Where you can basically practice the skill
在这里你会得到基本的训练
with not much else going on, very little threats,
没什么其它事情发生 几乎没有威胁
the opponents aren’t hitting back.
对手不还手
And then, once you’ve gotten it down there,
一旦你完成这一项任务
you move it into an actual situation
进入实战
where the opponents do hit back
对手是要还手的
or when things are happening faster
速度也变快了
and when there’s very low margin for error
允许犯错的机会有限
or there’s some consequences.
否则会有不好的后果
If you look at real word skills,
如果你看一下真实的语言技能
this principle applies just as well.
这个原则也适用
I mean look at learning a new language.
我指的是学习一门新的语言
When you know absolutely nothing,
在你一无所知的时候
you need some low stress periods to drill flashcards,
你需要压力较小时期去认单词卡片
or learn vocabulary,
学习词汇
but then to really up your skills and solidify what you’ve learned,
然后要真正提升技能 巩固你所学的知识
you might do something like scheduling a conversation with somebody on Skype
你可能在Skype上进行对话
or even going to a foreign country
或者去国外
and talking with people face-to-face.
和别人进行面对面的交谈
Now I know we went over a ton of different tips in this video,
我们在这个视频里讲了许多不同的技巧
and because of that there might be a temptation
因为或许会有一种诱惑
for you to wait for a perfect moment to start building your skill when you can plan everything out, when you can integrate every single tip,
让你等待完美的时机 也就是在你计划完一切 把所有的建议整合后 才开始学习你的技能
but if you take nothing else away from this video,
但是如果你从这个视频里什么也没学到
just take this away.
就记住下面这一点
The best time to start learning a skill is now,
学习新技能最好的时间就是现在
even if you have an imperfect implementation plan,
即便你的计划还不是很完美
even if you start really slowly.
即使你开始的时候进展真的很慢
If you can start making some mistakes,
如果你开始犯错
start learning some initial foundational pieces of that skill, that’s gonna help you build into the future.
开始学一些帮你塑造未来的技能的最基础部分
So whatever it is, whatever you want to learn,
所以无论什么 无论你想学什么
something career focused, something totally fun,
为了职业发展的或者为了兴趣的
make a plan for implementing it,
定个计划去学吧
use that four step process,
使用上面提到的四个步骤
and then just get started.
然后开始吧
Once again, I want to give a big thank you to Skillshare
再次重申 我十分感谢Skillshare
for sponsoring this video.
赞助这个视频的制作
This is actually my first sponsored video,
这确实是我第一个得到赞助的视频
so let me know what you thought about it in the comments down below.
在下面的评论区里 写下你们的想法
But I’m a big fan of Skillshare personally,
我个人是Skillshare的大粉丝
so it was a no-brainer for me.
对我来说就这很轻松
And if you want to try it,
如果你也想尝试
once again you can try that link in the description below
试一下下面的链接
for three months of unlimited use for just 99 cents.
三个月无限使用只需99美分
Or if you’re on the site,
一旦你使用了这个网站
you can use the promo code beard when you sign up,
可以使用注册时的优惠码
because hey it’s me.
因为 有我呀
Beyond that, if you enjoyed this video,
此外 如果你喜欢这个视频
I’d love to hear what you thought about it
我很愿意听到你们的想法
in the comments down below.
请在下面的评论区留言
Definitely ask me questions if you have them,
如果有想法一定要告诉我
and I’ll try to get ’em answered in future videos
我在今后的视频里会作出答复
or in the comments themselves.
或者在评论区进行答复
And also if you enjoyed this video,
如果你喜欢这个视频
give it a like to support this channel.
请点赞支持这个频道
You can subscribe right there
可以在这里订阅
if you want to get new videos very single week on being more productive and improving your learning capabilities.
如果你想每周看到新的有关富有成效地提高学习能力的视频
Or you can click right down there if you want to watch another video.
或者如果你还想看我们的其它视频 可以点击下面这个链接
See you in the next one.
下次节目见

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视频概述

根据《黄金20 小时法则》这本书介绍快速学习新技能的四个步骤。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

greenhoodie

审核员

W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0eItWeZFVHo

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