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如何使人类偏见远离人工智能? – 译学馆
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如何使人类偏见远离人工智能?

How to keep human bias out of AI | Kriti Sharma

今天或这周 今年 大家的多少决定
How many decisions have been made about you today,
是通过人工智能做出的?
or this week or this year, by artificial intelligence?
我以做人工智能为生 所以 充分展示出某种意义上我是个书呆子
I build AI for a living so, full disclosure, I’m kind of a nerd.
因为某种意义上我是个书呆子
And because I’m kind of a nerd,
无论什么地方出现关于人工智能抢了我们饭碗
wherever some new news story comes out about artificial intelligence stealing all our jobs,
或机器人在真实国家获得公民身份的新故事
or robots getting citizenship of an actual country,
朋友和粉丝都会给我发消息表示对未来的担忧
I’m the person my friends and followers message freaking out about the future.
这种情况随处可见
We see this everywhere.
这种媒体对机器人称霸的恐惧占了上风
This media panic that our robot overlords are taking over.
我们可以把它归咎于好莱坞电影
We could blame Hollywood for that.
但事实上 那并非我们应该关注的问题
But in reality, that’s not the problem we should be focusing on.
现在有一个更为紧迫的危险
There is a more pressing danger,
一个我们应首先解决的有关人工智能的更大风险
a bigger risk with AI that we need to fix first.
我们回到这一问题:
So we are back to this question:
你今天的多少决定是由人工智能做出的?
How many decisions have been made about you today by AI?
有多少决定是基于你的性别 人种 或背景?
And how many of these were based on your gender, your race or your background?
我们每时每刻都在使用算法来决定我们是谁以及我们想要什么
Algorithms are being used all the time to make decisions about who we are and what we want.
这间屋子里一些女性会明白我在说什么
Some of the women in this room will know what I’m talking about
如果你曾不得不耐着性子看完油管上成百上千的怀孕测试广告
if you’ve been made to sit through those pregnancy test adverts on YouTube like 1,000 times.
或在刷脸书时看到过生育诊所广告
Or you’ve scrolled past advertsof fertility clinics on your Facebook feed.
或者 就我而言 看过印度婚介所的话 就会明白
Or in my case, Indian marriage bureaus.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
但人工智能不仅仅被用来决定我们想买什么产品
But AI isn’t just being used to make decisions about what products we want to buy
或是我们下一场演出想看什么
or which show we want to binge watch next.
我很好奇你们对有人这样想事情会怎么看:
I wonder how you’d feel about someone who thought things like this:
“黑人或拉丁人比起白人 更不可能及时还贷”
“A black or Latino person is less likely than a white person to pay off their loan on time.”
“一个叫约翰的人做的节目比叫玛丽的人好”
“A person called John makes a better programmer than a person called Mary.”
“黑人比白人更可能是惯犯”
” A black man is more likely to be a repeat offender than a white man.”
你或许会想“天呐 这听起来像个极品性别歧视者 种族歧视者”对不对?
You’re probably thinking, “Wow, that sounds like a pretty sexist, racist person,” right?
这是人工智能最近做出的真实决定
These are some real decisionsthat AI has made very recently,
这些决定基于它们从我们人类身上学到的偏见
based on the biases, it has learned from us, from the humans.
人工智能被用来帮助决定你是否能得到面试机会
AI is being used to help decide whether or not you get that job interview;
你该为车保付多少钱 你的信用评分有多好
how much you pay for your car insurance; how good your credit score is;
甚至还有你的年度业绩评价排名多少位
and even what rating you get in your annual performance review.
但这些决定都被过滤了
But these decisions are all being filtered through
它假定了我们的身份 人种 性别 年龄
its assumptions about our identity,our race, our gender, our age.
这是怎么发生的呢?
How is that happening?
现在 想象一下人工智能正在帮助招聘经理
Now, imagine an AI is helping a hiring manager
寻找公司下一个技术领头人
find the next tech leader in the company.
目前为止 经理大多数招的都是男人
So far, the manager has been hiring mostly men.
所以人工智能得知男人比女人更可能成为程序员
So the AI learns men are more likely to be programmers than women.
并且很容易从这个观点跨越到:
And it’s a very short leap from there to:
比起女人 男人是更好的程序员
men make better programmers than women.
我们把自己的偏见强加到人工智能中
We have reinforced our own bias into the AI.
并且现在 人工智能屏蔽掉了我们的女性候选人
And now, it’s screening out female candidates.
等等 如果一个人类的人事部经理这样做
Hang on, if a human hiring manager did that,
我们会义愤填膺 我们不会允许这样的事发生
we’d be outraged, we wouldn’t allow it.
这种性别歧视不会得到认同
This kind of gender discrimination is not OK.
然而不知为何 人工智能已经凌驾于法律之上 因为是机器在做决定
And yet somehow, AI has become above the law, because a machine made the decision.
并非如此
That’s not it.
在与人工智能相互影响中也在强化我们的偏见
We are also reinforcing our bias in how we interact with AI.
你多久用一次Siri Alexa Cortana这种语音助手?
How often do you use a voice assistant like Siri, Alexa or even Cortana?
它们有两个共同点:
They all have two things in common:
第一点 它们从未念对过我的名字
one, they can never get my name right,
第二点 它们都是女性
and second, they are all female.
她们被设计成顺从的仆人 开关灯 管理购物
They are designed to be our obedient servants, turning your lights on and off, ordering your shopping.
也有男性人工智能 但他们一般权力更高
You get male AIs too, but they tend to be more high-powered,
比如IBM的沃森 做商业决策
like IBM Watson,making business decisions,
软件营销部队公司的爱因斯坦或罗斯 做机器人律师
Salesforce Einsteinor ROSS, the robot lawyer.
可怜的机器人 即便是它们 都遭受着工作领域的性别歧视
So poor robots, even they sufferfrom sexism in the workplace.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
想想这二者在当今四处是人工智能的世界
Think about how these two things combine
是怎么结合并影响一个孩子的成长的
and affect a kid growing upin today’s world around AI.
他们正在给一个学校项目做一些研究
So they’re doing some researchfor a school project
他们谷歌搜索了首席执行官的肖像
and they Google images of CEO.
算法向他们展示的结果大多是男性
The algorithm shows themresults of mostly men.
然后现在 他们谷歌搜索私人助理
And now, they Google personal assistant.
正如你能想到的那样 它向他们展示的多为女性
As you can guess,it shows them mostly females.
然后 他们想要放一些音乐 或者可能点些吃的
And then they want to put on some music, and maybe order some food,
然后现在 他们向一个顺从的女性语音助手厉声说出命令
and now, they are barking orders at an obedient female voice assistant.
我们中最聪明的一些人创造了今天这项技术
Some of our brightest mindsare creating this technology today.
一些以他们想要的方式能创造出来的技术
Technology that they could have createdin any way they wanted.
他们还选择用20世纪50年代“广告狂人”秘书的风格创造它
And yet, they have chosen to create itin the style of 1950s”Mad Man” secretary.
哇!但 行 别担心
Yay! But OK, don’t worry,
这还将持续 我要告诉你的是
this is not going to end with me telling you
我们所有人都在向被性别歧视者 种族歧视者的机器运转的世界迈进
that we are all heading towards sexist, racist machines running the world.
关于人工智能的好消息是 它完全在我们的控制范围内
The good news about AI is that it is entirely within our control.
我们会教人工智能正确的价值观 伦理观
We get to teach the right values, the right ethics to AI.
所以 有三件我们能做的事
So there are three things we can do.
第一 我们能意识到自己的偏见以及存在于周围机器的偏见
One, we can be aware of our own biases and the bias in machines around us.
第二 我们能确保多样的团队在开发这项技术
Two, we can make sure that diverse teams are building this technology.
以及第三 我们应该提供多样化的经验供其学习
And three, we have to give it diverse experiences to learn from.
我可以从个人经历谈谈前两点
I can talk about the first twofrom personal experience.
当你从事技术领域工作时 你看上去并不像马克·扎克伯格或是埃隆·马斯克
When you work in technology and you don’t look like a Mark Zuckerberg or Elon Musk,
你的生活有一些困难 你的能力会遭到质疑
your life is a little bit difficult,your ability gets questioned.
这里就有一个例子
Here’s just one example.
就像多数开发者 我常常参加线上技术论坛
Like most developers,I often join online tech forums
并且和其他人分享我的知识
and share my knowledge to help others.
然后我发现 当我以自己的身份登录 用自己的头像 名字时
And I’ve found, when I log on as myself, with my own photo, my own name,
很容易收到这样的质疑或评论:
I tend to get questionsor comments like this:
“你凭什么觉得你有资格讨论人工智能?”
“What makes you thinkyou’re qualified to talk about AI?”
“你凭什么觉得你了解机器学习?”
“What makes you thinkyou know about machine learning?”
真不容易啊 我填了个新简介
So as you do, I made a new profile,
这次 我没有再用我自己的照片
and this time, instead of my own picture,
我选择了一只有喷气发动机的猫
I chose a cat with a jet pack on it.
然后选了一个不会暴露我性别的名字
And I chose a namethat did not reveal my gender.
你大概能猜到会发生什么 对吗?
You can probably guess where this is going, right?
这次 我没有收到那些自以为是的关于我能力的评论
So, this time, i didn’t get any of those patronizing comments about my ability
而且实际上我还能找到些事做
and I was able to actually get some work done.
各位 这很糟糕
And it sucks, guys.
我从15岁开始就在打造机器人
I’ve been building robots since I was 15,
我有一些计算机科学的学位证书
I have a few degrees in computer science,
然而 为了让我的工作被认真对待 我不得不隐藏我的性别
and yet, I had to hide my gender in order for my work to be taken seriously.
所以 这到底怎么回事?
So, what’s going on here?
难道男性在技术上就比女性厉害?
Are men just betterat technology than women?
另一项研究发现 当一个平台上的女性编码员像我一样隐藏性别时
Another study found that when women coders on one platform hid their gender, like myself,
她们的代码会比男性写的代码多出4%的几率被接受
their code was acceptedfour percent more than men.
所以 这并非事关天赋 这事关人工智能的精英主义
So this is not about the talent. This is about an elitism in AI
它指出程序设计员需要看上去像某个特定的人
that says a programmerneeds to look like a certain person.
为了使人工智能更好 我们真的需要
What we really need to doto make AI better
让所有来自不同背景的人聚在一起
is bring peoplefrom all kinds of backgrounds.
我们需要能写故事 讲故事的人
We need people who canwrite and tell stories
来帮助我们创造人工智能的个性
to help us create personalities of AI.
我们需要能解决问题的人
We need people who can solve problems.
我们需要面临困难挑战的人
We need peoplewho face different challenges
我们也需要能够告诉我们
and we need people who can tell us
有哪些真正需要解决的问题
what are the real issues that need fixing
并帮我们找到能用技术实际解决问题的方法的人
and help us find waysthat technology can actually fix it.
因为 当来自不同背景的人聚在一起
Because, when people from diverse backgrounds come together,
当我们在正确的方向上建造东西
when we build things in the right way,
潜能是无限的
the possibilities are limitless.
这就是我最后想要告诉大家的
And that’s what I want to end by talking to you about.
少一些种族歧视的机器人
Less racist robots,
少一些要抢我们饭碗的机器
less machines that are going to take our jobs —
更多一些技术实际上能做到的事情
and more about what technologycan actually achieve.
所以 是的 在人工智能的世界 在技术世界 有一些能量
So, yes, some of the energyin the world of AI, in the world of technology
将决定你看到什么样的推送广告
is going to be about what ads you see on your stream.
但它们中很多将致力于让世界变得更好
But a lot of it is going towards making the world so much better.
想象一下 一个刚果的孕妇
Think about a pregnant womanin the Democratic Republic of Congo,
需要走17个小时才能到最近的农村产前诊所做个健康检查
who has to walk 17 hours to her nearest rural prenatal clinic to get a checkup.
如果她能用手机完成诊断来替代会怎样呢?
What if she could get diagnosison her phone, instead?
或者想想人工智能可以为那三分之一遭家暴的南非女性做什么
Or think about what AI could do for those one in three women in South Africa who face domestic violence.
如果大声地说出来不安全
If it wasn’t safe to talk out loud,
她们可以用人工智能服务发出警报 能得到财务 法律的建议
they could get an AI service to raise alarm, get financial and legal advice.
所有这些都是包括我在内的使用人工智能的人们
These are all real examples of projectsthat people, including myself,
现在正致力于的项目的真实案例
are working on right now, using AI.
所以 我确信在接下来一段时间 还是会有一些
So, I’m sure in the next couple of days there will be yet another news story
比如机器人称霸并且要抢你饭碗的新故事
robots taking over and coming for your jobs.
并且那样的事发生时 我知道我会收到同样担忧未来的消息
And when something like that happens, I know I’ll get the same messages worrying about the future.
但我对这项技术的想法非常乐观
But I feel incredibly positiveabout this technology.
这是我们重塑世界使之更为公平的机会
This is our chance to remake the world into a much more equal place.
但要做到那样 我们需要根据既定的目标以正确的方式建造它
But to do that, we need to build it the right way from the get goal.
我们需要不同性别 人种 性征和背景的人
We need people of different genders,races, sexualities and backgrounds.
我们需要女性成为制作者
We need women to be the makers
而非仅仅是服从制作者命令的机器
and not just the machineswho do the makers’ bidding.
我们需要仔细想想 我们要教机器什么 我们要给它们什么数据
We need to think very carefullywhat we teach machines, what data we give them,
这样它们才不会重蹈我们的覆辙
so they don’t just repeat our own past mistakes.
所以我希望大家能思考两件事
So I hope I leave you thinking about two things.
第一 希望大家今天离开时能思考一下偏见
First, I hope you leave thinking about bias today.
下次当你们划过那些
And that the next time you scroll past an advert
假定你对生育诊所或线上赌博网站感兴趣的广告时
that assumes you are interestedin fertility clinics or online betting websites,
思考并记住 同样的技术也在假定黑人会再次犯罪
that you think and remember that the same technology is assuming that a black man will reoffend.
或女性更可能成为私人助理而非首席执行官
Or that a woman is more likely to be a personal assistant than a CEO.
然后我希望这能提醒你 我们应该对此做些什么
And I hope that reminds you that we need to do something about it.
第二 希望大家想想这个事实
And second, I hope you think about the fact
要打造在未来会成为非凡力量的人工智能
that you don’t need to look a certain way or
你不需要长成某个特定样子
have a certain background in engineering or technology to create AI,
也不必在工程或技术上有一定背景
which is going to be a phenomenal force for our future.
你不需要看上去像马克•扎克伯格 你可以看上去和我一样
You don’t need to look like a Mark Zuckerberg, you can look like me.
这取决于在坐的每一位去说服政府和公司
And it is up to all of us in this room to convince the governments and the corporations
为所有人打造人工智能技术 包括一些边缘案例
to build AI technology for everyone, including the edge cases.
并且让我们所有人在未来能学习这项非凡技术
And for us all to get education about this phenomenal technology in the future.
因为如果我们那么做了
Because if we do that,
那我们只掌握了能用人工智能实现东西的皮毛
then we’ve only just scratched the surface of what we can achieve with AI.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

少一些种族歧视者,性别歧视者机器人。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Zeitgeist

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BRRNeBKwvNM

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