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我们可以十年就种出一片森林

How to grow a forest in your backyard | Shubhendu Sharma

这是一片人造森林
This is a man-made forest.
它能长到几亩地
It can spread over acres and acres of area,
也能在一个小空间成长
or it could fit in a small space —
比如你的后花园
as small as your house garden.
这些树林都只生长了两年
Each of these forests is just two years old.
我在自家后院也有一片森林
I have a forest in the backyard of my own house.
它吸引了很多不同的物种
It attracts a lot of biodiversity.
(鸟鸣声)
(Bird call)
我每天早上都被鸟鸣声叫醒
I wake up to this every morning,
就跟迪士尼电影的公主一样
like a Disney princess.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我是一个企业家
I am an entrepreneur
专门种植和管理这些树林的企业家
who facilitates the making of these forests professionally.
我们帮助过工厂
We have helped factories,
农场
farms,
学校
schools,
住宅
homes,
度假胜地
resorts,
公寓楼
apartment buildings,
公园
public parks
甚至还有动物园
and even a zoo
种植这些树林
to have one of such forests.
树林不只是和动物住在一起的偏僻地方
A forest is not an isolated piece of land where animals live together.
一片森林可以与我们的城市融为一体
A forest can be an integral part of our urban existence.
一片森林对我来说
A forest, for me,
是一片树木密到你都走不进去的地方
is a place so dense with trees that you just can’t walk into it.
无论森林是大是小
It doesn’t matter how big or small they are.
我们曾经居住的大部分地方都是森林
Most of the world we live in today was forest.
在人为干扰之前都是森林
This was before human intervention.
然后我们在森林上面建起了城市
Then we built up our cities on those forests,
比如说圣保罗
like São Paulo,
不要遗忘我们和地球上
forgetting that we belong to nature as well,
八百四十万物种一样 属于大自然
as much as 8.4 million other species on the planet.
我们的栖息地不再是 大自然栖息地
Our habitat stopped being our natural habitat.
但我们有些人可不这样认为
But not anymore for some of us.
有些人像我一样 以种植森林为业
A few others and I today make these forests professionally —
让森林遍布我们大地的每个角落
anywhere and everywhere.
我是一个工业工程师
I’m an industrial engineer.
我的职业是制造汽车
I specialize in making cars.
之前我供职于丰田公司的时候
In my previous job at Toyota,
我学会了怎样把自然资源变成产品
I learned how to convert natural resources into products.
举个例子
To give you an example,
我们从橡胶树上提取树液
we would drip the sap out of a rubber tree,
制成生橡胶
convert it into raw rubber
然后做成产品——轮胎
and make a tire out of it — the product.
不过这些产品再也不能变成自然资源了
But these products can never become a natural resource again.
我们从自然资源中分离出元素
We separate the elements from nature
并它们进行了不可逆转的变化
and convert them into an irreversible state.
这就是工业生产
That’s industrial production.
自然正好以相反的方式运作
Nature, on the other hand, works in a totally opposite way.
自然系统通过一个个原子聚集
The natural system produces by bringing elements together,
来创造物质
atom by atom.
所有的自然产品都能再变成自然资源
All the natural products become a natural resource again.
这是当我在自家后院 种出一片森林的时候
This is something which I learned
我心里的收获
when I made a forest in the backyard of my own house.
这是我第一次顺应自然行事
And this was the first time I worked with nature,
而不是逆自然行事
rather than against it.
从那时开始
Since then,
我们在世界上的25个城市 种植了75片森林
we have made 75 such forests in 25 cities across the world.
每到一个新地方
Every time we work at a new place,
我们发现 要种出一片森林
we find that every single element needed to make a forest
所需的所有东西就在身边
is available right around us.
我们要做的就是把这些成分集合起来
All we have to do is to bring these elements together
然后让自然来接手
and let nature take over.
种植一片森林首先需要土壤
To make a forest we start with soil.
我们通过触摸、感受甚至品尝土壤
We touch, feel and even taste it
来识别它缺乏什么
to identify what properties it lacks.
如果土壤是由小颗粒组成的 它就会紧凑
If the soil is made up of small particles it becomes compact —
如果太过于紧凑 水就渗不进去
so compact, that water cannot seep in.
我们就会加入一些 当地能找到的生物质
We mix some local biomass available around,
让土壤更加疏松
which can help soil become more porous.
让水能够渗入
Water can now seep in.
如果土壤不能够涵养水分
If the soil doesn’t have the capacity to hold water,
我们就会再多加一点生物质
we will mix some more biomass —
一些像泥炭或者米粒 这样的吸水物质
some water-absorbent material like peat or bagasse,
让土壤能够涵养水分 保持潮湿
so soil can hold this water and it stays moist.
植物要有水分、阳光和养料才能生长
To grow, plants need water, sunlight and nutrition.
如果土壤没有养分怎么办呢?
What if the soil doesn’t have any nutrition in it?
我们并不是直接向土壤中加养料
We don’t just add nutrition directly to the soil.
这是工业化的做法
That would be the industrial way.
是违背自然的
It goes against nature.
而我们是把微生物加到土壤中去
We instead add microorganisms to the soil.
它们会自然而然地制造养料
They produce the nutrients in the soil naturally.
它们以我们加到土壤中的生物质为生
They feed on the biomass we have mixed in the soil,
它们只要吃和繁殖就行了
so all they have to do is eat and multiply.
当它们繁殖到一定数目
And as their number grows,
土壤的透气性就又有所改善了
the soil starts breathing again.
它会变得有生命力
It becomes alive.
我们调查当地树种
We survey the native tree species of the place.
我们怎样判断那些是当地物种呢?
How do we decide what’s native or not?
在人为干预前就存在的物种 就是当地的物种
Well, whatever existed before human intervention is native.
这是个简单的道理
That’s the simple rule.
我们调查国家公园
We survey a national park
找出最后一片自然森林
to find the last remains of a natural forest.
我们调查罕见的小树林
We survey the sacred groves,
或者旧庙宇周围的罕见树林
or sacred forests around old temples.
如果我们什么都找不到
And if we don’t find anything at all,
我们就去博物馆
we go to museums
看看很久以前 这里生长的树木 或者种子是什么
to see the seeds or wood of trees existing there a long time ago.
我们从当地的旧画作、诗歌和文学作品中寻找痕迹
We research old paintings, poems and literature from the place,
来识别当地物种
to identify the tree species belonging there.
一旦我们知道是什么树种
Once we know our trees,
我们就把它们分成四种:
we divide them in four different layers:
灌木层、草本层、乔木层和树冠层
shrub layer, sub-tree layer, tree layer and canopy layer.
我们平衡各个层之间的比例
We fix the ratios of each layer,
然后我们确定各个树种 在总体中所占的比例
and then we decide the percentage of each tree species in the mix.
如果我们种植的是果林
If we are making a fruit forest,
我们就增加果树的比例
we increase the percentage of fruit-bearing trees.
也可能是观赏性树林
It could be a flowering forest,
那种会吸引很多鸟和蜜蜂的树林
a forest that attracts a lot of birds or bees,
也有可能只是一片本地野生常绿林
or it could simply be a native, wild evergreen forest.
我们收集种子 播撒它们 让它们长成幼苗
We collect the seeds and germinate saplings out of them.
确保同一树层的树木
We make sure that trees belonging to the same layer
不会种在一起
are not planted next to each other,
不然它们就会竞争 同一个高度上的空间
or they will fight for the same vertical space when they grow tall.
我们把幼苗密集地种在一起
We plant the saplings close to each other.
我们会在表面上 复盖上厚厚一层护盖物
On the surface, we spread a thick layer of mulch,
这样即使室外温度很高 土壤也能保持湿润
so when it’s hot outside the soil stays moist.
室外温度很低时
When it’s cold,
也只有护盖物上会结霜
frost formation happens only on the mulch,
这样外面很冷的时候 土壤仍能透气
so soil can still breathe while it’s freezing outside.
土壤很柔软
The soil is very soft —
非常柔软 让植物的根部容易舒展
so soft, that roots can penetrate into it easily,
快速舒展开
rapidly.
一开始 树林好像没什么变化
Initially, the forest doesn’t seem like it’s growing,
不过它们在地表下生长
but it’s growing under the surface.
在最初的三个月里
In the first three months,
树根能够扎到一米深
roots reach a depth of one meter.
这些树根形成网状物
These roots form a mesh,
紧紧地抓住土壤
tightly holding the soil.
微生物和菌类佈满在 错综複杂的根部网路中
Microbes and fungi live throughout this network of roots.
所以 如果树木周围缺乏某种养分
So if some nutrition is not available in the vicinity of a tree,
它们就能够提供该种养分
these microbes are going to get the nutrition to the tree.
每当下雨的时候
Whenever it rains,
蘑菇就会像魔法一样
magically,
在一夜之间冒出头来
mushrooms appear overnight.
这证明了土壤拥有正常的菌群
And this means the soil below has a healthy fungal network.
根系建立起来之后
Once these roots are established,
森林就在地表上生长
forest starts growing on the surface.
森林生长的时候我们不断灌溉
As the forest grows we keep watering it —
在接下来的两三年里主要任务就是灌溉
for the next two to three years, we water the forest.
我们想让树木得到所有的养料和水分
We want to keep all the water and soil nutrition only for our trees,
所以要不断除草
so we remove the weeds growing on the ground.
森林生长起来后 会遮住阳光
As this forest grows, it blocks the sunlight.
最终 森林变得十分密集
Eventually, the forest becomes so dense
阳光无法再照射到地面
that sunlight can’t reach the ground anymore.
野草因为照不到阳光而无法再生长
Weeds cannot grow now, because they need sunlight as well.
在这个阶段
At this stage,
落到树林里的每一滴水
every single drop of water that falls into the forest
都不会蒸发回大气层
doesn’t evaporate back into the atmosphere.
密集的树林使空气变得湿润
This dense forest condenses the moist air
而且使它保持这种湿度
and retains its moisture.
我们慢慢减少浇灌量 最终停止浇灌
We gradually reduce and eventually stop watering the forest.
现在即使不浇水
And even without watering,
森林的地表也能保持湿润 甚至肥沃
the forest floor stays moist and sometimes even dark.
现在 当一片树叶落到地面上
Now, when a single leaf falls on this forest floor,
它会立即开始腐烂
it immediately starts decaying.
腐烂的生物质形成森林的食物
This decayed biomass forms humus,
腐殖质
which is food for the forest.
森林继续生长
As the forest grows,
更多的树叶会落到地上
more leaves fall on the surface —
产生更多的腐殖质
it means more humus is produced,
森林的养分更加充足 能长得更大
it means more food so the forest can grow still bigger.
这片森林会迅速生长
And this forest keeps growing exponentially.
一旦种植成功
Once established,
这些树林会不断繁衍
these forests are going to regenerate themselves again and again —
永不停息
probably forever.
在这样的自然森林中
In a natural forest like this,
不用管理就是最好的管理方式
no management is the best management.
就像这个小型的“丛林聚会”
It’s a tiny jungle party.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这片森林聚集了各种树种
This forest grows as a collective.
如果将同一种树
If the same trees —
同一个物种
same species —
分开种植的话
would have been planted independently,
它不会长得这么快
it wouldn’t grow so fast.
这就是在十年之内种出
And this is how we create a 100-year-old forest
一百岁森林的办法
in just 10 years.
谢谢
Thank you very much.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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译制信息
视频概述

如何种出一片森林:人工栽种森林之后,任其自然生长,通常至少需要经过一百年才能长大成熟。但是如果我们能让这个过程快十倍会如何呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ljimnn

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjUsobGWhs8

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