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如何有效集中注意力

How to Focus Intensely

This video was made possible by Brilliant.
本视频由Brilliant出品
A problem solving website that can help you improve your focus.
一个解决你注意力集中问题的网站
In a world that is growing in distraction,
在这个诱惑不断的时代
the ability to focus is becoming increasingly rare.
人们注意力越来越难以集中
It’s a skill that, simultaneously, is becoming increasingly valuable.
同时有效集中注意力也变得越来越难能可贵
Its demand is rising while its supply is decreasing, to put it in economic terms.
用经济学术语来说 当供给减少时需求会增大
In this essay, we’ll establish a philosophy for focusing
接下来 我们将会建立一种关于注意力的哲学
and learn how we can get better at it.
并学习如何在这方面做到更好
But before we discuss the tactical advice,
但是在我们探讨战术建议前
let’s construct a thought experiment
让我们先来做一个思维实验
that will let us get to the heart of what it actually means to focus.
这会让我们理解专注的核心到底是什么
Imagine that our company, Robot Inc.,
假想我们的公司 Robot Inc.
has built an extremely complex AI
研发了一种精密的人工智能机器人
that works in one of our company warehouses
它在我们公司的一个仓库工作
Let’s call it Robo3000.
就叫它Robo3000吧
Robo3000 has been programmed to insert a key into a keyhole.
Robo3000有将钥匙插入钥匙孔的能力
Turn it at a specific number of rotations per minute
并以每分钟特定的旋转次数转动钥匙
and produce as many boxes as it can.
然后尽可能多地生产盒子
Because our AI is extremely complex and expensive,
因为我们的机器人极其复杂且造价昂贵
it’s been programmed to sense any threats in its surrounding.
它被设置成可感知周围一切隐患
A fire in the building, for example.
例如建筑物内的火灾
In the event of an emergency,
在紧急事件中
that AI should leave the building safely
它能安全地逃离建筑物
so that we can avoid the cost of replacing it.
以至于我们能避免换掉它而付出成本
However, the Robo3000 must also communicate with the people in the building.
不过 Robo3000也要和工作人员进行交流
It has to help them with lifting heavy objects.
它需要帮助他们抬重物
Or in an emergency, we hope that, in a case of fire,
或在类似火灾的紧急事件中我们希望
it will be able to accurately gauge threat levels,
它能够准确地预测危险级别
save as many people as possible, and save itself.
除了自救 还能救更多其他的人
Our company has also invested
同时我们公司也耗资购买了
in an even more expensive and complex AI, the Robo5000.
一个更加昂贵并且精密的智能机器人 Robo5000
It can update all of our Robo3000s and make them more efficient.
它能升级Robo3000的系统并使它们更加高效
Because Robo5000s are so expensive, we only have one.
由于Robo5000太贵所以我们只买了一个
Furthermore, it can only update one robot at a time,
而且 它一次仅能更新一个机器人
and that process takes several hours.
更新过程需要好几个小时
So travels around the building.
所以他在大楼里搜寻
And our Robo3000s have to interact with that Robot5000
Robo3000们只有和Robo5000互动
to help maximize our productivity.
才能使我们的产能实现最大化
When a Robo3000 goes to interact with the Robo5000,
当Robo5000和Robo3000互动时
it leaves its station and doesn’t produce any boxes.
它就会离开工作台并且停止生产
So must be careful not to leave its station without a good reason.
如果没有适当原因 尽量使它不要离开工作台
Robo3000s have to periodically communicate with the Robo5000,
Robo3000必须定时和Robo5000对接
to see if an update is worth getting.
来判断它是否需要更新
They have to determine whether the benefits of an update
它们必须明确更新带来的收益
outweigh the loss in production.
是否超过了生产的损失
Ok, at this point in the thought experiment,
在这个思维假设实验中
I’d like to lay out some definitions.
我将给出一些定义
Consider the action of the AI:
思考机器人的行为
putting its key into the keyhole,
比如将钥匙插入钥匙孔
producing boxes and ignoring all the environmental stimuli.
进行生产 并忽视一切周边环境的影响
Let’s call this a state of directed focus.
我们称这种状态为定向专注
Directed focus is directing attention at a single thought or action.
定向专注是指把注意力集中于一个想法或动作上
And narrowed attention is providing undivided attention
简单来说就是指全神贯注
while ignoring all environmental stimuli.
可以忽视周围环境的影响
The opposite state will be called generalized focus.
与之相反的状态称为普遍关注
Generalized focus is broadly distributed attention.
普遍关注指广泛分散注意力
It’s reacting to environmental stimulus.
它会应对周边环境的影响
In a state of generalized focus,
当普遍关注时
our AI will do things such as
我们的机器人将会采取行动
analyzing if anyone needs series of help,
比如分析是否有人需要帮助
If there’re any imminent threats and communicating with the Robo5000
是否有危险将发生或是否要与Robo5000交流
to see if an update is worth getting.
据此判断是否有必要进行一次更新
Clearly maximizing the amount of time spent
显然 定向专注的时间越长
directing focus towards the production of boxes will produce the maximum amount.
盒子的产量就越大
But if the Robo3000 stays in a state of directed focus for too long
但是如果Robo3000长时间处于全神贯注的状态
It might not catch with what’s going on in the environment.
它可能无法兼顾周围的环境
This could lead to disasters
这可能会导致灾难发生
such as getting trapped in a burning building.
例如它可能会被困在着火的大楼里
Clearly there’s a dilemma here.
很明显 这是个进退两难的问题
Let’s explore the problem further.
让我们来进一步地探讨这个问题
How can our AI maximizes its production of boxes
如何使我们的机器人最大化生产盒子
while also reacting appropriately to its environment?
同时也可以应对突如其来的情况?
How does it decide how much time to spend in a state of directed focus producing boxes?
如何让它决定要花多少时间全神贯注地生产?
And how much time to spent in a state of generalized focus analyzing its environment?
同时要花多少时间分神去分析周围的环境?
How can the AI separated a fire from someone cooking in the kitchen?
如何让它从厨房的火灾中救人
How can it separate a trivial request from an important request?
如何让它分清事情的轻重缓急?
How can it run optimally?
怎样能让它完美地运作?
As the coders,
作为程序员
we have to decide what actions the Robo3000 prioritizes.
我们必须确定Robo3000行为的优先级
There has to be a system for operating in a hierarchy of priorities.
它必须配备一个决定优先级的系统
There’s an example of an operating system.
以操作系统举例
For every 30 seconds the Robo3000 spends in the state of directed focus,
Robo3000处于定向专注状态30秒
it must spend 5 seconds in the state of generalized focus.
就必须有5秒处于普遍关注状态
During this period of generalized focus,
在普遍关注期间
the Robo3000 has to prioritize
Robo3000必须给环境中的事件排出优先次序
the stimuli it directs in its environment and act accordingly.
并采取相应的行动
How will it do this?
它会怎么做呢?
What if we assigned it a point system based on actions and priorities.
我们可以给它配备一个基于行动和优先次序的评分系统
For example: Helping others with menial tasks, low to no priority, 20 points.
例如 帮助人们干体力活 优先级别最低 20分
Maximizing the production of boxes, median priority, 40 points.
最大化盒子产量 优先级别设置中等 40分
Helping others with heavy lifting, high priority, 60 points.
帮助其他人抬重物 优先级别高 60分
Saving its own life, higher priority, 80 points.
救自己 优先级别更高 80分
And then saving the lives of others,
救其他人
that’s the highest priority at 100 points.
优先级别最高 100分
Now, if we code the Robo3000
现在 如果我们给Robo3000编码
to maximize the amount of points it achieves each day.
来使它每天得到最高的分数
It should direct its focus appropriately.
它应该适当地转移注意力
It will maximize our production of boxes
这将使产能最大化
while also accomplishing more important tasks.
同时也能完成更多重要的任务
If the robot does not maximize its points.
如果机器人没有使得分最大化
That means it has been inaccurate in its ability to prioritize actions.
这意味着优先级别功能已经出错了
There’s a fault in its code.
它的代码里有错误
How does this relate to us?
这个例子跟我们有什么关系呢?
To change our ability to focus
为了提高我们的专注能力
we must, like the AI, change our code.
我们必须 像人工智能机器人一样 改变我们的行为模式
We have to optimize our action priority point system.
我们必须优化我们的行为优先级系统
But I would like to borrow some terminology from the philosophy of hedonism
不过我想借用一下享乐主义学的一些术语
which we talked about in the virtual reality video for our condition.
就是我们在虚拟现实那一期中谈论到的相关知识
Instead of maximizing points,
人类不是得到最高积分
you can think of humans as maximizing net pleasure.
而是得到最大的净快乐值
In this case, pleasure refers to any state that we would enjoy being in.
既然这样 那快乐就是指的是我们喜欢的任何状态
The Robo3000 uses focus as a tool
Robo3000把专注作为一个工具
to maximize the amount of points it achieves over its life.
来实现获得分值的最大化
Likewise, focus is a tool that we use
同样 专注也是一个帮助我们的工具
to maximize our pleasure over an entire life.
使我们获得一生中最多的快乐值
Like the robot, we do this in an action priority system.
像机器人一样 我们配置行动优先级系统
You would be correct in thinking that there is,
但是 你会发现
however, an asymmetry between humans and AI.
人类和机器人是不一样的
For the AI, the action that we produce the most pleasure were very clear
对机器人来说 使其获得最多快乐的行为很明确
that AI knew exactly what it have to do to maximize its pleasure.
它能够很清楚的知道如何使它的快乐最大化
For us, this is not so simple.
对我们来说 没那么简单
Determine the net pleasure of an activity is not always intuitive
直觉并不能决定所有活动的净快乐值
and it’s highly subjective.
因为这是非常主观的事情
Furthermore, as coders,
此外 作为程序员
we can easily change how the robot operates
我们可以轻易改变机器人的操作模式
and what it prioritizes by altering its code.
通过修改代码来改变它的优先级
As humans some of our code is decided by natural or genetics.
但作为人类 我们的有些行为模式是由天性和基因所决定的
And what’s left typically has to be changed by ourselves.
其他的行为需要我们自身去改变
We will explore how we might do this in a bit
我们将会探索如何做出这种改变
but first a summary.
这里我们先做一个小结
At its core, this is what the AI thought experiment is about.
这就是机器人思想实验的核心
A robot is trying to maximize its pleasure in a very complex environment
机器人在一个复杂的环境里通过适当地调整专注
by appropriatly directing its focus.
尝试使自己的快乐最大化
How can it accomplish that?
它是如何做到的?
I claim that it can accomplish this
我认为它可以通过准确识别其行为的优先级
through an accurate prioritization and understanding of its actions.
并理解其任务来达成
Likewise, I argue that the same rule applies for us.
而我认为此原理同样也适用于人类
Before we discuss how to improve our focus.
在我们讨论如何提高专注力之前
Let’s take a look at some reasons why we can’t focus.
让我们先来看看注意力不集中的原因
There’s another definition I want to discuss here.
我想先提出另一个问题
What does it actually mean to not focus?
不专注到底意味着什么?
Not focusing means there is a difference
无法专注意味着
between where an individual wants to direct their attention
一个人希望将注意力集中到的点
and where it’s actually being directed.
和实际上关注的点上之间的不同
People direct their focus all the time
人们一直在努力集中注意力
but it’s not always towards what they want.
但却没有将注意力引导至他们想要的方向
Let’s discuss some reasons why.
让我们来讨论其原因吧
Reason No.1: Stress.
原因一:压力
Some people will find it difficult to direct their focus because it lead a high stress lifestyle.
有些人难以集中注意力是因为他们高压的生活方式
This is equivalent to the robot being in a burning building.
这和在燃烧的建筑物中的机器人相同
It will enter into a state of generalized focus
它会进入普遍关注状态
determine an imminent threat and begin saving people or evacuating.
发现当下的危险 并开始救人或者疏散人群
It can not possibly focus on creating more boxes amidst the chaos.
这样它就不会在混乱的情况下还去专注于生产更多盒子
It would be more pleasurable for it to save the people and itself.
对它来说救人和自救会让自己更快乐
That’s where it must direct its focus.
这是它要集中注意力去做的事情
That’s the higher priority.
所以这些事情的优先级更高
I will argue that many of us are programmed in the same way.
许多人是按照这种行为模式来的
We loss the ability to direct our focus to what we want.
我们不能集中注意力于我们想要的方向
Homework, for example, when our stress levels are very high,
当我们压力大的时候 比如家庭作业
in other words, high stress situations command our attention like a black hole.
换句话说 高压力就像黑洞一样吸引着我们的注意力
They are high priority of events and rightfully soul.
要先处理高优先级事件 以及不得不做的事情
So why is this important to know?
那为什么认识这一点很重要呢
I think this is important to realize
我认为重要的是意识到这点
because some people need to deal with their high levels of stress
因为有些人需要解决完这些高压事情之后
before they can focus on other tasks.
才能转移注意力到其他事上
Furthermore, I hope that it will occurs some compassion for those who are suffering.
此外 我希望人们能理解忍受高压的人群
Sometimes the students who perform the best are the ones that are the most stress free.
有时候 表现最好的是最没有压力的学生
and not the ones that are the most intelligent.
而不是那些最聪明的学生
I believe it’s also in our interest to help alleviate the suffering of the last unfortunate,
我觉得需要帮助缓解那些不幸的人的痛苦
so that they may focus on non-emergencies,
这样他们就可以专注于非紧急的事情
improve their situation and contribute positively to society.
改善他们的环境并且对社会做贡献
Reason No.2: Doing things we dislike.
原因2:做不喜欢的事
Directing our focus for extended periods of time is much easier
当我们享受手头上的任务时
when we enjoy the task at hand.
我们专注的时间会更长
Think about things you may enjoy doing
想想那些你喜欢的事情
such as watching a movie at the theatre,
比如 在电影院看电影
playing a video games,
玩电子游戏
having a good conversation, making music,
进行一次愉快的交谈 创作音乐
doing arts and craft or reading.
做手工或者阅读
Do you ever think about how easy it is
你是否想过
to maintain a state of directed focus when doing these activities.
保持专注的状态做这些事情有多容易吗
This is likely due to the fact
这可能是因为
that we find these activities intrinsically pleasurable.
这是真正使人快乐的事情
It’s not difficult to determine that a good conversation with a friend would be enjoyable
所以与朋友愉快地聊天也能让人感到快乐
or that playing a good game would be pleasurable.
好好玩一场游戏同样使人感到愉悦
We focus because we know that
我们能够专注是因为我们知道
we will enter into a pleasurable state.
我们会很开心
There’s little to no uncertainty.
这一点毋庸置疑
I’d like to make a distinction between 2 kinds of pleasure:
在这里 我想将快乐分为2种
Extrinsic and Intrinsic.
外在的和内在的
Intrinsic pleasure is derived from the activity itself.
内在的快乐来自活动本身
For example, a good conversation.
例如 一次愉快的交谈
Extrinsic pleasure is doing an activity that leads to pleasure.
外在的快乐是做能带来快乐的事
For example, working a job you hate for good money.
例如 为了赚钱做你不喜欢的工作
Activities that are extrinsically pleasurable are harder to focus on
人们会更难集中注意力在那些
because activity itself is not pleasurable.
本身不是很愉悦的事情上
Not only do they not produce pleasurable states,
这些事情不仅不会让你快乐
it’s often hard to determine
有时候也很难确定
whether they will lead to future states of pleasure.
它们将来是否会让你快乐
For example, let’s say I work a job I hate
假设我做着一份我不喜欢的工作
and I find it unpleasurable.
我做这份工作不开心
I also don’t know if I’m going to get a raise,
我也不知道我是否会因为
if that raise will bring me anymore pleasure,
加薪而感到快乐
if I get a promotion,
或者是否会因升职
or if that promotion will bring me anymore pleasure.
而感到快乐
I originally took this job
我最初接受这份工作
because it gave me that extrinsic pleasure of money.
是因为它带给我来自金钱的外在的快乐
Now I’m more uncertain about the pleasure
但现在我更加不确定 这份工作
it will continue to produce for me.
所带给我的这种乐趣是否真的使我快乐
This job will become very hard for me to focus.
我会特别难以集中注意力在这份工作上
And instead, I’ll begin to direct my focus on activities
相反的 我会把我注意力更多地集中在
that I know will produce pleasure.
我喜欢的事情上来
Such as texting or going on social media.
例如发短信或者沉浸在社交媒体中
On the other hand,
另一方面
intrinsically pleasurable activities are much easier to focus on
人们更容易专注于带来内在快乐的事情上
Because, again, there’s little to no uncertainty
原因是 这些活动带来的快乐
about the pleasure they will bring.
很少是我们意料之内的
This example doesn’t map nicely onto our robot analogy.
机器人的快乐显然不符合这一类
Because it describes an action that our robot will never take.
因为 它所描述的是一种机器人永远不会做的行为
Our robot would never do activities that are extrinsically pleasurable
机器人永远不会做带来外在快乐的事情
It can only function by doing activities
它只能做出
that are intrinsically pleasurable.
能带来内在快乐的事情
The last reason I’d argue is that many individuals
我想说的最后一个原因是 许多人
have coded themselves to constantly seek small shot-term pleasure.
已经把自己变成不断地寻求短期快乐的人
This is equivalent to coding their robot
这相当于将他们的机器人编码成
such that it does not saving itself,
一种不会自救的
doesn’t help anyone else and never goes to get upgrades.
不会帮助他人的以及从不去升级的机器人
It produces a consistent,
在它的一生中所产生的快乐是固定的
predictable, and repeatable amount of pleasure over its life.
可预见的 并且是可重复的
But it does not maximize its pleasure.
但它不会使这种快乐最大化
Maybe in a state of directed focus its whole life
或许它会全神贯注一辈子
but to what end.
但目的是什么?
Directed focus is a means to an end
定向专注是达到目的的一个途径
and not an end itself.
而不是终点
In our example, maximizing pleasure is the end goal
在我们举的例子中 最终目标是将快乐最大化
and directed focus is the tool or means to achieve it.
而定向专注只是实现这一目标的工具或途径
Now how can we address all of the problems?
那么我们怎样才能解决所有的问题呢
So two out of the 4 problems were solved above
我们所说的4个问题已经有2个已经解决了
which are dealing with stress and doing intrinsically valuable activities.
分别是缓解压力和做有内在快乐的事情
So let’s discuss the other two.
那我们来谈另外两个问题
The first habit would be abstaining from short-term pleasure seeking.
第一个习惯就是不要去寻求短暂快乐
The best way to change our code arguably is through our habit.
改变我们行为模式的最好方法就是形成习惯
By cultivating the ability to abstain from short-term pleasure seeking,
形成放弃寻求短暂快乐的能力
we can focus on activities that produce more long-term pleasure.
来将注意力集中在那些带来更多长久快乐的事情中
So here are some practices that can help us build a habit of abstaining.
以下是一些能帮我们养成这种习惯的方法
The first practice is meditation.
第一个:冥想
Meditation allows you to embrace boredom
冥想会让你接纳令人厌烦的事物
and to be not bother by it.
并且不再感到厌烦
It trains the brian to not seek out immediate pleasure in boredom.
冥想训练大脑不去寻找使人厌倦的事物中的即时快乐
It allows us to stay calm
它让我们保持冷静
and working on activities that require more patience to produce pleasure.
并且帮助我们做那些需要更多耐心来产生快乐的事情
The second practice is deep work.
第二个方法法是深度工作
I talked about this one many times.
我已经谈到这个很多次了
So I don’t really want to go over it again.
所以我再也不想重提它了
But I have a video on it.
我在一个视频专门提到过这个
And I’ve discussed it in a podcast
我也在我的播客中谈到过这个
with Dr. Jabal from Med School Insiders.
是和医学院人士 Jabal博士一起谈的
I’ll leave links to both of these in the description.
我会在下面放上两个视频的链接
The third practice is to create a not-to-do list.
第三个方法是创建一个不做的事情的目录
This is an inverse of a to-do list.
这与必须要做的事情目录正好相反
Instead of telling you what to do for the day,
它不是告诉你每天要去做些什么
it tells you what activities to abstain from.
而是告诉你不去做什么事情
The real difficulty isn’t sticking to this list.
真正的困难不在于去坚持列表上的事情
But if you keep it out and in front of you
而是把他们放在前面去做
by use a post-it, for example,
例如 使用便利贴
it can be a great reminder to abstain from short-term pleasures.
它就可以提醒你不去做带来短暂快乐的事
However, there is a problem with abstaining.
然而 在进行这种自律的同时也会产生一个问题
Abstaining behaviors can be really powerful for training the brain.
自律行为会在训练大脑中发挥巨大作用
But I think they have to be met with some skepticism.
但是我想这个方法不得不面临一些怀疑
Let’s assume that doing an activity will not give me any pleasure for 80 years.
想象一下 做一件80年内不会带来快感的事
I start doing it at age of 10.
我十岁的时候就开始做
But when I hit 90 years of age,
但当我九十岁时
this activity will produce extreme amounts of net pleasure in my life.
这个事情会在我的人生中带来大量快乐
There’s a big problem if I die before that.
但如果我这在之前死去 这就会是一个大问题
While trying to maximize my pleasure,
我努力使快乐最大化
I died with an absolute minimum.
却在快乐最少时死去
I call this the abstaining problem.
我把它称为自制的问题
To avoid dying with a minimum of pleasure,
为了避免这种情况
it’s important to inject a controlled amount of short-term pleasures.
控制部分短期快乐的摄入很重要
So that leads us to habit #2: Control injection of pleasure.
所以 第二个习惯就是 控制获得快乐的量
One of most powerful ways to inject controlled pleasure into your life
控制生活中的快乐的最有力措施是
is to separate it into periods where you pursue long-term pleasures
在追求长期快乐的同时
and periods you pursue shot-term pleasures.
留出一部分追求短期快乐的时间
Here are some practices that can help with that.
这些措施可以帮助你实现它
Practice #1: Controlling media.
措施1 控制用于媒体上的时间
Carefully select times in a day
认真地选择 在一天中的某个时间段
when you’ll check social media, watch tv, or play video games.
专门刷社交媒体 观看电视 或者玩游戏
Choose what devices they’ll be on too.
以及用什么设备观看
Maybe you only check social media while you on your desktop.
也许 你只会在自己的台式电脑上刷社交媒体
And you only play video games on the living room TV
可能你只在客厅的电视上玩游戏
which you have limited access to.
但这些事已经被限制了
We deliberate about when you engage in these short-term pleasures.
我们需要仔细考虑何时投身于短期快乐中
Dictate when you use them.
由你来命令它们
Don’t let them dictate you.
而不是让它们命令你
If want to learn how I control social media,
如果想了解我是如何控制使用社交媒体的
you can watch my video on it which I’ve linked into the description.
你可以浏览我的其他视频 我有相关的讲解
The second practice would be having a quitting time.
第二个措施是 有一个取舍的时间
Imaging these two scenarios.
想象这样两种情况
I tell you to run hard for 200m or I just tell you to run hard.
跑步时 我告诉你说 “前200米冲刺” 或是“一直冲刺”
Your time would likely be faster in the former case
而前者对你来说会更容易完成
because you know how long you have to spend yourself for.
因为你知道你还要花多少力气
The the latter example you’ll likely preserve your energy
而后一个例子的方法就是 保存你的精力
Because you don’t know when I’ll tell you to stop.
因为你不知道我会在什么时候让你停下来
Likewise, it’s a lot easier to direct focus
同样 当知道什么时候开始和结束时
when we know the bounce of when to start and when to end.
我们能够更好地集中注意力
Set a quitting time for each day after which you’ll do no more work.
每天留出一定的休息时间 不做任何工作
After the quitting time there are no limits on your short-term pleasures.
在休息时间中不限制短期快乐的追求
Before the quitting time you have to limit them.
而在休息之前这是被限制的
The third practice is to create blocks of work.
第三个措施是 把工作分成几部分
A good way to balance short-term and long-term pleasures before your quitting time
在小段的放松时间中转移工作时紧张的注意力
is to distract your periods of intense focus follow by periods of breaks.
是个在休息之前平衡长期和短期快乐的好方法
A common technique for this is a Promodoro Technique.
这一常见的技巧就是番茄时间管理法
Typically the Pomodoro Technique entails someone working for 25 minutes
通常番茄工作法要求我们工作25分钟
followed by a five-minute break.
然后休息五分钟
After four 25-minute working sessions they take a longer break of 30 minutes.
结束四个25分钟工作周期后 即可拥有长达30分钟的休息时间
In those break times, they can indulge in whatever short-term pleasure they want.
在这些休息时间里 他们能够沉浸于他们想要的短期快乐
During the periods of focus,
在专注的时间中
they should do activities that produces long-term pleasures.
他们能够活跃地做那些带来长期快乐的内容
This is a good way to balance
这是一种很好的
both short-term and long-term pleasures on a daily bases.
在日常生活中平衡长期和短期快乐的方法
And the 4th practice is to create a priority list.
而第四个措施是 创建优先级列表
This one is a variation of the not-to-do list.
这是个不做的事情列表的变体
You write down the list of all the activities you can do in a day.
写下每天可以完成的事件列表
And then you prioritize them on a scale of 0-100.
然后按优先级0-100分打分
Activities that receive a score of 0 or activities that you shouldn’t do.
事项评分为0是那些你不应该做的
All activities should add up to a total score of 100.
所有的事项分数相加总和为100
This can help you prioritize your time like the robot.
这将帮助你像机器人一样规划好时间
Everyone can determine their own percentages of how to spend their time.
每个人都能决定自己怎样得到高分值
But I like to follow an 80-20 rule.
但是我喜欢遵循80-20规则
80 percent of my time should be spent on activities that produce long-term pleasure.
80%的时间应该花在能带来长期快乐的事情上
And 20 percent of it should be spent on activities that produce short-term pleasure.
而20%的时间应该花在能带来短期快乐的事情上
Like the not-to-do list,
像不做的事情列表一样
it’s a good idea to keep your priority list out in front of you.
这是一个使你坚持优先级列表的好方法
It’s also a good practice to write a new one each day before you start working.
每天都重写一张列表也很重要
Just put it all together until it give you an example of
把所有事件都写下来 直到它告诉你
how these tactics can be implemented.
如何有效执行这些事件
My day is structured like this.
我的一天大概是这样的
80 percent focus on long-term activities like writing, animating and going to the gym.
80%的时间用于长期事件 像写作 制作动画和健身
20 percent focus on short-term pleasures.
而20%用于短期快乐
Right now this mostly consists of reading.
现在主要是阅读
Then I’ll start writing or animating at 1:00 p.m.
然后我会在下午1点开始写作或制作动画
and my quitting time is 10:00 p.m. .
而在晚上10点休息
I separate my work time using the Standard Pomodora Blocks
我用标准的番茄工作法将工作时间分成几部分
of 25 minutes followed by a 5-minute break.
25分钟工作 然后5分钟休息
And a longer 30-minute break after every 4th promodoro.
在每四个番茄钟后 休息时间长达30分钟
In summary keep yourself optimally pleasured in the short-term
总之 在短期休息时使你保持最佳的愉悦状态
with enough thought for the long-term
而为长期工作做好准备
This is mainly done through prioritization of activities
这主要通过确定活动的优先次序实现的
that will maximize your net pleasure in life.
它将会使你的生活乐趣最大化
That’s the philosophy of focus laid out in this video.
这就是这期视频里蕴藏的关于注意力的哲理
I’d like to close out with an amazing quote from Steve Jobs.
我想引用史蒂芬·乔布斯的一句名言作为结束
May he Rest In Peace.
愿他能够安息
“People think focus means saying yes to the thing you’ve got to focus on.
“人们认为专注就意味着肯定你正专注的事情
But that’s not what it means at all.
但是它根本不是这个意思
It means saying no to the hundred other good ideas that there are.
它意味着拒绝许多其他的事情
You have to pick carefully.
你要认真地选择
I’m actually as proud of the things we haven’t done as the things I have done.
实际上 我对做过的事情和没做过的事情一样自豪
Innovation is saying no to a thousand things.”
创新就是拒绝一千件事”
One way to get better at focusing
一个更好地集中注意力的方法就是
is to build up a resistance system to short-term pleasure seeking.
建立一个抵制寻求短期愉悦的模式
For me, that means checking my phone and social media less.
对我来说 这意味着 少看我的手机和社交媒体
To get rid of the compulsion to check my phone for pleasure.
改掉仅仅为了娱乐而看手机的强迫症
I have to substitute that habit
我要改掉这个坏习惯
with one that encourages my long-term growth.
用一个帮助我长期成长的习惯替代它
That’s why I enjoy spending time on Brilliant during my pomodoro breaks.
这就是我喜欢把在番茄工作法中的休息时间花在Brilliant上的原因
Brilliant has hundreds of intriguing puzzles that are fun to think about
这里有成百个有趣的问题值得思考
which inspire you to put in the effort to achieve that pleasure.
能激励你努力从中获取乐趣
On top of that, the problems on Brilliant get progressively more difficult.
除此之外 Brilliant上的问题会逐渐变难
So the first problem you solve on logic may only require 2 minutes to solve it.
所以你解决第一个逻辑问题可能只需要两分钟
But the final one may take 30 minutes.
但是最后一个可能需要30分钟
This gradual increase in difficulty
难度的逐渐增加
helps build a stronger resistance to short-term pleasure seeking.
能够帮助我们更好地抵制寻求短期愉悦
Just go to Brilliant.org/freedominthought,
来Brilliant这个网站
or click the link in the description below and you can sign up for free.
或者点击下方链接你就可以免费注册
As a bonus for those who’re ready to push yourself even further.
这里有个对那些想更上一层楼的人的福利
The first 200 people will be hooked up with 20% off the annual subscription.
前200个注册者的年费打8折
Now that you’ve improved your focus.
既然你已经提升了你的注意力
Why not learn to study way more effectively using the fine-man technique.
为什么不学学如何更有效地发挥好人的作用呢?
You can click the video on screen to take you over there.
你可以收藏这个视频 以便再次观看
As always, thanks for watching and I’ll see you next time.
再次感谢你的观看 我们下次再见

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视频概述

无法集中注意力?总想看手机?点击这个视频你一定有所收获

听录译者

Jade珏

翻译译者

彩虹与猫

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfKv2qG8d_w

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