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如何在不多花一分钱的前提下拯救教育系统 – 译学馆
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如何在不多花一分钱的前提下拯救教育系统

How to fix a broken education system ... without any more money | Seema Bansal

我们都有自己坚持的偏见
So we all have our own biases.
例如 我们有些人常常觉得
For example, some of us tend to think
改变失败的政府系统是特别困难的
that it’s very difficult to transform failing government systems.
当我们谈及政府系统
When we think of government systems,
常会觉得他们很老套 站在他们的角度
we tend to think that they’re archaic, set in their ways,
可能领导阶层也会过于官僚主义
and perhaps, the leadership is just too bureaucratic
以至于不能做出一些改变
to be able to change things.
那么 今天 我会尝试挑战下这个观点
Well, today, I want to challenge that theory.
我想说一个关于很大的政府系统的故事
I want to tell you a story of a very large government system
它不仅置身于改革的道路上
that has not only put itself on the path of reform
还得到了十分惊人的结果
but has also shown fairly spectacular results
在仅仅三年还不到的时间内
in less than three years.
这是印度的公立小学的常见景象
This is what a classroom in a public school in India looks like.
在印度有一百万个这样的学校
There are 1 million such schools in India.
甚至对于我这样一个一辈子都在印度的人来说
And even for me, who’s lived in India all her life,
走进这些学校也感到十分心痛
walking into one of these schools is fairly heartbreaking.
在孩子十一岁的时候
By the time kids are 11,
有百分之五十的孩子跟不上教育的节奏
50 percent of them have fallen so far behind in their education
他们没有机会再恢复到正常的教育水平
that they have no hope to recover.
十一岁的孩子不会做简单的加法
11-year-olds cannot do simple addition,
他们不能造出一个语法正确的句子
they cannot construct a grammatically correct sentence.
你和我觉得这些事
These are things that you and I would expect an 8-year-old
是一个八岁孩子就可以做到的
to be able to do.
当孩子到了十三或者十四岁
By the time kids are 13 or 14,
他们就要辍学了
they tend to drop out of schools.
在印度 公立学校不仅提供免费教育
In India, public schools not only offer free education —
他们提供免费的课本 练习本 免费的餐饭
they offer free textbooks, free workbooks, free meals,
有时甚至是现金奖学金
sometimes even cash scholarships.
然而现在有百分之四十的家长
And yet, 40 percent of the parents today
选择把孩子从公立学校带出来
are choosing to pull their children out of public schools
掏空所有的钱把孩子送去私立学校
and pay out of their pockets to put them in private schools.
作为一个对比 在一个更有钱的国家 美国
As a comparison, in a far richer country, the US,
这个比例只占百分之十
that number is only 10 percent.
这个数字印证了印度现在的公共教育系统有多糟糕
That’s a huge statement on how broken the Indian public education system is.
这和我在2013年接到一个电话有关
So it was with that background that I got a call in the summer of 2013
这电话是苏里拉瑞詹打来的 她是个极其出色的女性
from an absolutely brilliant lady called Surina Rajan.
在那是 她是学校教育部门的领导
She was, at that time, the head of the Department of School Education
在印度一个叫做哈里亚纳邦的州
in a state called Haryana in India.
她对我们说 看哪我在过去两年内
So she said to us, “Look, I’ve been heading this department
一直领导这个部门
for the last two years.
我尝试了做了很多事 但没有一件是有用的
I’ve tried a number of things, and nothing seems to work.
你能够来帮一下吗
Can you possibly help?”
让我来简单描述一下哈日亚纳邦
Let me describe Haryana a little bit to you.
哈日亚纳邦是印度一个有着三十万人口的城邦
Haryana is a state which has 30 million people.
有一万五千所公立学校
It has 15,000 public schools
加起来两万学生在这些公立学校学习
and 2 million plus children in those public schools.
基本上因为那通电话
So basically, with that phone call,
我答应去帮助这个州
I promised to help a state and system
和这个像秘鲁或者加拿大一样想进行自我变革的教育系统
which was as large as that of Peru or Canada transform itself.
当我开始着手这个项目时我很痛苦地发现两件事
As I started this project, I was very painfully aware of two things.
第一 我之前从来没有做过类似的事情
One, that I had never done anything like this before.
第二 许多其他人员可能没有太多的成功
And two, many others had, perhaps without too much success.
当我和我的同事看向这个国家
As my colleagues and I looked across the country
看向整个世界
and across the world,
我找不到一个类似的例子
we couldn’t find another example
我们可以直接拿过来 在哈日亚纳邦复制使用
that we could just pick up and replicate in Haryana.
我们意识到我们必须创造我们自己的旅途
We knew that we had to craft our own journey.
但不管怎么样 我们直接投身在这个项目中当我们开始时
But anyway, we jumped right in and as we jumped in,
所有的想法建议就纷纷向我们而来
all sorts of ideas started flying at us.
人们说 我们一起来改变一下老师的招聘方法吧
People said, “Let’s change the way we recruit teachers,
我们要雇佣校长 并且训练他们
let’s hire new principals and train them
把他们送去国际培训课程
and send them on international learning tours,
我们把科技引入课堂吧
let’s put technology inside classrooms.”
第一周周末 有五十个建议被摆上桌
By the end of week one, we had 50 ideas on the table,
所有的建议都令人惊奇 都听起来很正确
all amazing, all sounded right.
我们不可能把五十件事情都落实下来
There was no way we were going to be able to implement 50 things.
所以我说 等下 先等下
So I said, “Hang on, stop.
我们至少应该先决定我们要尽力得到什么
Let’s first at least decide what is it we’re trying to achieve.”
伴随着多次胶着的辩论
So with a lot of push and pull and debate,
哈里亚纳邦给自己设立了一个目标
Haryana set itself a goal which said: by 2020,
到2020年 我们希望百分之八十的孩子能达到符合年纪的知识水平线
we want 80 percent of our children to be at grade-level knowledge.
现在目标的细节不是重点
Now the specifics of the goal don’t matter here,
主要问题是我们的目标有多明确
but what matters is how specific the goal is.
因为这确实允许我们采取那些
Because it really allowed us to take all those ideas
被扔给我们的建议
which were being thrown at us
并且讨论我们要落实哪些
and say which ones we were going to implement.
这个想法能支持这个目标吗若能 我们就采纳接受
Does this idea support this goal? If yes, let’s keep it.
但如果不能或者我们也不确定能不能支持目标那就把这个想法放一边
But if it doesn’t or we’re not sure, then let’s put it aside.
这些听上去很简单 因为有具体目标在前面
As simple as it sounds, having a very specific goal right up front
所以在我们改革过程中
has really allowed us to be very sharp and focused
我们十分敏锐而且专注
in our transformation journey.
回头看过去的两年半
And looking back over the last two and a half years,
这对我们来说有积极的意义
that has been a huge positive for us.
所以我们有目标
So we had the goal,
现在我们需要知道哪些是问题 哪些被搞砸了
and now we needed to figure out what are the issues, what is broken.
在我们去学校之前 许多人告诉我们
Before we went into schools, a lot of people told us
那里的教育质量很差
that education quality is poor
因为老师不仅懒惰有时候都不去学校
because either the teachers are lazy, they don’t come into schools,
甚至是无能 他们实际上根本不知道怎么教学
or they’re incapable, they actually don’t know how to teach.
当我们进入学校时 我们发现事情根本不是这样
Well, when we went inside schools, we found something completely different.
其实大多数时候 几乎所有老师都在学校里
On most days, most teachers were actually inside schools.
当你和他们交谈时
And when you spoke with them,
发现他们完全有能力教小学课程
you realized they were perfectly capable of teaching elementary classes.
问题是他们的时间没花在上课上
But they were not teaching.
我到一所学校
I went to a school
在那里老师正在编制班级
where the teachers were getting the construction of a classroom
还在做厕所监督
and a toilet supervised.
我去到另一所学校
I went to another school
在那里有两个老师去附近的银行支行
where two of the teachers had gone to a nearby bank branch
给学生账户汇入奖学金
to deposit scholarship money into kids’ accounts.
午饭的时候 基本上所有的老师都动员起来
At lunchtime, most teachers were spending all of their time
开始做午饭 监督并且给学生上菜
getting the midday meal cooking, supervised and served to the students.
所以我们问老师
So we asked the teachers,
怎么了 为什么你们不教书呢
“What’s going on, why are you not teaching?”
他们回答 因为这就是我们被要求做的呀
And they said, “This is what’s expected of us.
当一个监督员来拜访我们
When a supervisor comes to visit us,
其实这些事都应该他来检查
these are exactly the things that he checks.
把厕所打扫干净 准备好饭菜
Has the toilet been made, has the meal been served.
当校长到总部开会
When my principal goes to a meeting at headquarters,
这些事情才被讨论
these are exactly the things which are discussed.”
看见了吗 这些就是在过去二十年内发生的事情
You see, what had happened was, over the last two decades,
印度为了让学生入学做了很多建立了足够的学校
India had been fighting the challenge of access, having enough schools,
并且努力地让适龄儿童进入学校读书
and enrollment, bringing children into the schools.
政府发起了一系列项目
So the government launched a whole host of programs
来保证中小学入学率
to address these challenges,
而老师们变成了这些项目实际上的执行人员
and the teachers became the implicit executors of these programs.
虽然没有明确要求 但是他们就是实际的执行者
Not explicitly, but implicitly.
现在我们真正需要的不是培训这些老师
And now, what was actually needed was not to actually train teachers further
现在我们真正需要的不是培训这些老师
or to monitor their attendance
现在我们真正需要的不是培训这些老师
but to tell them that what is most important
回到教室上课才是他们最重要的任务
is for them to go back inside classrooms and teach.
我们应该以课堂教学的质量
They needed to be monitored and measured and awarded
来跟踪、评价和奖励老师
on the quality of teaching
而不是用别的事情来考核他们
and not on all sorts of other things.
当我们对教育体系有了更深入的了解之后
So as we went through the education system,
我们找到了一些问题的根源所在
as we delved into it deeper, we found a few such core root causes
这些根源决定着教育系统中老师和其他人的行为
which were determining, which were shaping how people behaved in the system.
这些根源决定着教育系统中老师和其他人的行为
And we realized that unless we change those specific things,
否则我们可以做的其它的改革措施
we could do a number of other things.
例如教师培训、引入新技术
We could train, we could put technology into schools,
例如教师培训、引入新技术
but the system wouldn’t change.
例如教师培训、引入新技术
And addressing these non-obvious core issues
称为改革项目的重中之重
became a key part of the program.
现在我们已经设定好了目标也找到了问题根源
So, we had the goal and we had the issues,
现在就差解决方案了
and now we needed to figure out what the solutions were.
我们不希望闭门造车
We obviously did not want to recreate the wheel,
所以我们说 让我们四处看看 看我们能找到些什么
so we said, “Let’s look around and see what we can find.”
我们也确实在印度和世界范围内找到了一些成功案例
And we found these beautiful, small pilot experiments
规模不大 但效果非常好
all over the country and all over the world.
这些成功案例一般由NGO(非政府组织)或者基金会参与完成
Small things being done by NGOs, being done by foundations.
但是这些成功案例都有一个问题就是他们的规模有严重的局限性
But what was also interesting was that none of them actually scaled.
所有的案例规模都只有50所100所或者最多500所学校
All of them were limited to 50, 100 or 500 schools.
我们要找的是能适用于15000所学校的方案
And here, we were looking for a solution for 15,000 schools.
我们仔细分析了原因
So we looked into why,
如果这些项目效果显著为什么不能扩大规模?
if these things actually work, why don’t they actually scale?
我们发现 当NGO参与进来时
What happens is that when a typical NGO comes in,
他们不仅投入了他们的专业经验
they not only bring in their expertise
还能够投入额外的资源
but they also bring in additional resources.
NGO可能投入额外的资金,
So they might bring in money,
可能投入额外的人力
they might bring in people,
也有可能投入新的技术
they might bring in technology.
当NGO主持的项目的规模限制在50所或者100所学校的时候
And in the 50 or 100 schools that they actually operate in,
这些额外投入的资源产生了很好的效果
those additional resources actually create a difference.
但是想象一下
But now imagine that the head of this NGO
这些NGO的负责人跑到省教育厅 说:
goes to the head of the School Education Department
“让我们在15000所学校推广吧!”
and says, “Hey, now let’s do this for 15,000 schools.”
问题是到哪儿去募集到足够多的资金
Where is that guy or girl going to find the money
能同时支持15000所学校呢?
to actually scale this up to 15,000 schools?
他们没有这么多额外的资金
He doesn’t have the additional money,
也没有这么多额外的资源
he doesn’t have the resources.
所以这样的创新项目没办法大范围推广
And hence, innovations don’t scale.
所以在项目开始的时候我们就明确了
So right at the beginning of the project, what we said was,
“不管我们做什么都要能够大规模推广
“Whatever we have to do has to be scalable,
一定要能够同时支持15000所学校 “
it has to work in all 15,000 schools.”
因此 我们必须在现有的政府预算内
And hence, it has to work within the existing budgets
利用省内现有的资源达成目标
and resources that the state actually has.
说起来比做起来容易多了
Much easier said than done.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我想正是从这个时间点开始
I think this was definitely the point in time
我的同事开始”恨”我了
when my team hated me.
我们花了很多的时间 无论是在办公v室、咖啡馆
We spent a lot of long hours in office, in cafés,
甚至在酒吧
sometimes even in bars,
想破了脑袋
scratching out heads and saying,
“到底应该怎么办 怎样才能解决这些问题?”
“Where are the solutions, how are we going to solve this problem?”
最终 我觉得大部分的问题都找到了比较好的解决方法
In the end, I think we did find solutions to many of the issues.
我来举个例子
I’ll give you an example.
在”如何更有效率地学习”这个问题上
In the context of effective learning,
人们常说要通过动手操作来加深印象
one of the things people talk about is hands-on learning.
学生不应该死记硬背
Children shouldn’t memorize things from books,
而是应该做些课堂活动
they should do activities,
这样学习的效果更好
and that’s a more effective way to learn.
这个想法实现起来就是要给学生一些教具
Which basically means giving students things
例如(算术用的)小珠子、小棒子、算盘之类
like beads, learning rods, abacuses.
但是我们没有那么多预算
But we did not have the budgets to give that
提供给15000所学校的两百万学生
to 15,000 schools, 2 million children.
我们要想别的方法
We needed another solution.
但是始终没有想到解决方法
We couldn’t think of anything.
有一天 我们一个同事在一所学校里
One day, one of our team members went to a school
看到一个老师 从学校周围的花丛里捡了点小树枝和小石子
and saw a teacher pick up sticks and stones from the garden outside
拿到教室里
and take them into the classroom
分给了学生们
and give them to the students.
这一幕让我们灵光一闪
That was a huge eureka moment for us.
于是现在在哈里亚纳邦的课本里
So what happens now in the textbooks in Haryana
每一个新知识点的旁边都有一段注解
is that after every concept, we have a little box
为老师提供了一个操作清单
which are instructions for the teachers which say,
“教授这个知识点的时候你可以通过以下活动来促进学生理解
“To teach this concept, here’s an activity that you can do.
活动需要一些辅助的教具
And by the way, in order to actually do this activity,
而你可以在你周边环境中找到
here are things that you can use from your immediate environment,
无论是在室外还是教室内都可以就地取材
whether it be the garden outside or the classroom inside,
用于课堂教学 “
which can be used as learning aids for kids.”
我们后来看到哈里亚纳邦的老师们
And we see teachers all over Haryana
想出了各种创新的方法来教育学生
using lots of innovative things to be able to teach students.
从这个角度看 我们的方法虽然简陋
So in this way, whatever we designed,
但是起到了实实在在的效果
we were actually able to implement it
并且从第一天起就能推广到全省15000所学校
across all 15,000 schools from day one.
现在 让我阐述下最后一个观点
Now, this brings me to my last point.
你怎么样让一件事情贯彻到15000所学校
How do you implement something across 15,000 schools
贯彻到十万名老师身上呢?
and 100,000 teachers?
教育部门之前有一套
The department used to have a process
非常有趣的流程
which is very interesting.
我喜欢称这个流程为“希望的链条”
I like to call it “The Chain of Hope.”
从教育厅开始 写一封信件
They would write a letter from the headquarters
然后投递给下一级教育部门
and send it to the next level,
一般是市县级教委办公室
which was the district offices.
教育厅希望每个下级部门的
They would hope that in each of these district offices,
部门领导都能够阅读这封信件
an officer would get the letter, would open it, read it
然后再将信件转发给他们的下一级
and then forward it to the next level,
一般是区级教委
which was the block offices.
接下来你需要指望这些区级教委
And then you would hope that at the block office,
有人能够收到邮件
somebody else got the letter,
打开信件 读完它 并最终将它送到15000所学校的校长手里
opened it, read it and forwarded it eventually to the 15,000 principals.
最后 我们还要指望所有的校长
And then one would hope that the principals
都能顺利收到邮件 阅读并理解其中的意思
got the letter, received it, understood it
并开始实施
and started implementing it.
这个流程有点愚蠢
It was a little bit ridiculous.
现在 我们知道正确的方式是借助科技
Now, we knew technology was the answer,
但是我们也知道大部分的学校
but we also knew that most of these schools
甚至连个电脑或者电子邮件都没有
don’t have a computer or email.
但是每个老师现在都有智能手机
However, what the teachers do have are smartphones.
老师们都可以收发短信 登录Facebook和WhatsApp
They’re constantly on SMS, on Facebook and on WhatsApp.
现在 在哈里亚纳邦 我们是这么做的
So what now happens in Haryana is,
把所有的校长和老师分到几百个 WhatsApp 群里
all principals and teachers are divided into hundreds of WhatsApp groups
这样当我们需要传达一些信息的时候
and anytime something needs to be communicated,
我们就直接通过WhatsApp群发就行了
it’s just posted across all WhatsApp groups.
它就像野火一样迅速传达
It spreads like wildfire.
你还能随时知道哪些人收到了消息
You can immediately check who has received it,
哪些人已经阅读了
who has read it.
老师们如果有不明白的地方可以立刻提出
Teachers can ask clarification questions instantaneously.
有趣的是
And what’s interesting is,
不仅是教育厅会有人回答老师的问题
it’s not just the headquarters who are answering these questions.
有时候别的市县的老师
Another teacher from a completely different part of the state
也会主动提供答案
will stand up and answer the question.
大家在群组中更像是互助的关系
Everybody’s acting as everybody’s peer group,
很多事情就这么推动起来了
and things are getting implemented.
所以现在你去哈日亚纳邦的任何一所学校
So today, when you go to a school in Haryana,
情况都跟过去大不相同了
things look different.
老师们回到了课堂
The teachers are back inside classrooms,
重新走上了讲台
they’re teaching.
新的技术不断被引入到课堂中
Often with innovative techniques.
当教委领导视察学校时
When a supervisor comes to visit the classroom,
不仅会检查是否修了厕所
he or she not only checks the construction of the toilet
也会检查教学质量
but also what is the quality of teaching.
每个季度 全省的学生
Once a quarter, all students across the state
都要做一次全省的摸底考试
are assessed on their learning outcomes
考得好的学校会被奖励
and schools which are doing well are rewarded.
表现的不好的学校
And schools which are not doing so well
他们的校长会被教委找去谈话
find themselves having difficult conversations.
当然 这些学校会得到更多扶持
Of course, they also get additional support
并努力在未来表现得更好
to be able to do better in the future.
在教育领域
In the context of education,
很难看到立竿见影的成果
it’s very difficult to see results quickly.
当人们谈论大规模的、系统性的改革时
When people talk about systemic, large-scale change,
一般说的是7到10年为一个周期
they talk about periods of 7 years and 10 years.
但是哈日亚纳要快得多
But not in Haryana.
去年 三个相互独立的研究在哈日亚纳进行
In the last one year, there have been three independent studies,
都是研究学生的学习效果的
all measuring student learning outcomes,
它们都表明在哈日亚纳邦
which indicate that something fundamental,
一些根本性的东西正在变化
something unique is happening in Haryana.
学生的平均学习成绩不再下滑
Learning levels of children have stopped declining,
甚至开始有所上升
and they have started going up.
哈日亚纳邦是全印度为数不多的
Haryana is one of the few states in the country
学生成绩总体上在改善的省份
which is showing an improvement,
而且当之无愧是改善速度最快的省份
and certainly the one that is showing the fastest rate of improvement.
这些还只是起步阶段
These are still early signs,
还有很长路要走
there’s a long way to go,
但是我们从中看到了很大的希望
but this gives us a lot of hope for the future.
我最近去了一所学校
I recently went to a school,
当我准备离开的时候
and as I was leaving,
遇到了一位女士
I ran into a lady,
她叫帕尔瓦蒂
her name was Parvati,
她的孩子在这里上学
she was the mother of a child,
她正微笑着
and she was smiling.
我问她 “你在笑什么?有什么好玩的事情吗?”
And I said, “Why are you smiling, what’s going on?”
她说 “我也不知道发生了什么
And she said, “I don’t know what’s going on,
但是我知道我的孩子们开始学习了
but what I do know is that my children are learning,
学得还挺开心
they’re having fun,
现在我已经决定不再找私立学校
and for the time being, I’ll stop my search for a private school
让他们转校了”
to send them to.”
最后让我们回到开始的问题:
So I go back to where I started:
政府机构能够改革吗?
Can government systems transform?
我确信会如此
I certainly believe so.
我相信 如果你给他们提供了合适的方法
I think if you give them the right levers,
他们就能够克服一切困难
they can move mountains.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

Seema Bansal为印度哈日亚纳邦的15000所学校摸索出了一条公共教育改革的道路。她设定了一个远大的目标:到2020年,80%的中小学生成绩达标。她努力寻找着在不增加任何预算的情况下达到这一目标的方法。Bansal及其团队使用创新和简单直接的技术来达到目标,包括用短信群组跟教师直接联系等,并且他们的努力已经在哈日亚纳邦初见成效。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7sqeoYOQ4qg

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