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如何快速搞定作业

How to Finish Homework FAST

我们今天来聊聊西奥多·罗斯福
Let’s talk about TheodoreRoosevelt for a second.
早在1876年 罗斯福还不是美国总统
Back in 1876, before he waspresident of the United States,
还没有留他那著名的小胡子
before he grew his epic mustache,
他的小胡子我永远也比不上
that I sadly will never be able to equal,
他还只是哈佛大学的大一新生
he was just a freshman at Harvard University.
爱德蒙·莫里斯在他的传记中写到
And as Edmund Morris points out in his biography,
罗斯福当时兴趣极广
Roosevelt had a ton of interests at the time.
拳击 舞蹈课 健美 自然论
Boxing, dance lessons, bodybuilding, naturalism,
等等很多很多
and many, many more.
太多了以至于比起他的同学们
So many, in fact, that he had barely any time
他几乎没什么时间用来学习
to spend studying compared to his peers.
但是罗斯福在哈佛却是学霸
And yet Roosevelt excelled at Harvard.
在他大一的时候 他学了七门课
During his freshman year he took seven courses
其中有五门他都拿到了优秀
and out of those he earned honor grades in five of them.
他是怎么做到的呢
So how exactly did he do that?
在《深度工作》一书中 作者卡尔·纽波特提到
In the book Deep Work, the author Cal Newport explains
罗斯福安排自己的日程
that Roosevelt would begin his scheduling
只考虑早上八点半到下午四点半这八小时
by considering the eight hoursfrom 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
然后他会减掉上课 背诵
He would then remove the time spent in recitation and classes,
每天一次的运动训练 还有午饭的时间
his athletic training, which was once a day, and lunch.
剩下的碎片时间就只用来专心学习
The fragments that remained were then considered time dedicated exclusively to studying.
书中记录 这些碎片时间加起来并没有很多
As noted, these fragments didn’t usually add up to a large number of total hours,
但是他会有效利用这些时间
but he would get the most out of them
只用来完成学校作业
by working only on schoolwork during these periods,
并且在做作业时保持绝对专注
and doing so with a blistering intensity.
换句话说
To put that another way,
罗斯福利用紧凑的日程带来的压力
Roosevelt used the time pressure caused by his busy schedule
提升自己的专注度
to amplify his concentration.
所以 他才能比他的同学们
And as a result, he spent far fewer hours
少花很多时间做作业
doing studying and homework than his peers,
却仍然成绩优异
but he still did really well in his classes.
这也就是我们的总体目的了
And that’s the overall goal here.
你点开这个视频 是因为你想
You clicked this video because you wanna do homework faster,
把作业做的又快又好
but you also wanna do a good job of it.
你并不是要糊弄过去甚至不做
You don’t want to phone it in or just skip it altogether.
当然 树立像罗斯福那样强烈的工作意识
Of course, building an intense work ethic like Teddy Roosevelt
的确会对你有所帮助
will definitely get you part of the way there,
但是你还可以在策略上做点调整
but there are also some more tactical decisions and changes
改变一下学习方法
that you can make to the way you work
以便更快速地解决掉作业
that are gonna help you crush those homework assignments more quickly
这就是我这个视频的重点
and that’s what I wanna focus on in this video.
从难处入手
start with what’s difficult
首先我们要讲到的是一种叫做
To begin, we’re gonna look at something called
“遇难转易”的方法
the hard-start jump-to-easy technique,
也就是在芭芭拉·奥克利的书
which is a test-taking strategy talked about in the book,
《学习之道》中提到的一种考试方法
A Mind for Numbers by Barbara Oakley.
这个方法大体是说 考试开始答卷之前
To use this technique, essentially you look over your test before you start
先浏览一遍试题 分出难题和简单题
and identify which problems are difficult and which problems are easy.
然后直接开始做那些难题
Then you jump straight into one of the difficult ones.
但很重要的是 如果你在难题上卡住了
But crucially, once you get stuck on that difficult problem,
你要先放弃它 转而去做简单题
you have to disengage and go to one of the easy ones.
做完几道简单题之后
Then after you’ve solved a few of the easy ones,
再回头做难题 你常常会发现
you can jump back, and more often than not
之前没有过的新想法
you’re gonna find the insights that weren’t there before
就会出现在脑海当中
are gonna come to the forefront in your mind
你就能够解出那道难题了
and you’re gonna be able to solve that problem.
这个方法特别管用
This technique works so well because
因为它运用了我们最主要的两种思维模式
it engages both of your main modes of thinking,
专注模式和分散模式
your focused mode and your diffused mode.
《学习之道》花了大量笔墨探讨这两种模式
And A Mind for Numbers spends a lot of time talking about both of these modes
也解释了两种模式对解决难题的重要作用
and explaining why using both of them is crucial for solving tough problems.
简单来说 专注模式出现在
To go through it really quickly, the focused mode is what you use
你全神贯注地对待一个问题
when you directly concentrate on a problem
并试着用逻辑解开它的时候
and you try to work through it logically.
基本上解决任何难题 都是以专注模式开始
And this is the state of mind that you start in with pretty much any problem,
不管是解出一道微积分等式
whether it’s solving a calculus equation
还是在《守望先锋》中绕后绝杀
or trying to flank your enemy team in Overwatch.
相反 奥克利认为 分散模式出现在
By contrast, Oakley says that diffuse-mode thinking is what happens
你放松精神 思绪自由飘荡的时候
when you relax your attention and just let your mind wander.
放松可以使大脑的不同部位相互联系
This relaxation can allow different areas of the brain to hook up
产生有价值的想法
and return valuable insights.
她紧接着提到
And she goes on to note that,
分散模式的想法往往是从
diffuse-mode insights often flow from preliminary thinking
专注模式形成的初步想法中产生
that’s been done in the focused mode.
所以实际上 专注模式和分散模式
So really it’s this back and forth interplay
二者来回相互作用
between the focused mode and the diffused mode
使“遇难转易”法能够解决难题
that makes this technique so powerful for solving tough problems.
并且它还有附加的好处
But it also comes with an additional benefit
它能帮你高效利用时间
in that it helps you use your time effectively,
这在限时考试中十分重要
which is really important in a test when you have a limited amount of time,
但是这种方法同样适用于做作业
but it also can apply to your homework.
的确 做作业没有时间限制
Yes, you don’t have a limited amount of time per se with your homework assignments,
但是你要是想快速做完作业
but you do wanna get them done faster
这种方法特别好用
and this technique can do that for you.
不过我要提醒大家
I do have one little caveat though.
做作业的时候
With your homework, spend a little bit more time
要在你卡住的那道难题上多花一点时间
trying to solve a tough problem once you get stuck.
不要只做了一两分钟就放弃了
Don’t disengage after one or two minutes.
这是因为考试时
My reason for this is that with a test,
那些要用到的概念是你应该已经掌握的
you should ideally have those concepts buried somewhere in the back of your mind.
但是你做作业时实际上是在训练
But with your homework, that’s really the training ground
要建立起对核心概念的基本理解
where you’re gonna buildthat initial understanding of those core concepts.
所以做作业时要多花点时间
So in that situation, spend a little bit more time
试着解决那些难题
wrestling with those problems before stepping away
而不是很快放弃 进入分散思维模式
and letting the diffused mode take over.
关于例题
example problems
我的下一个建议 大家要在课堂上运用
My next tip is something that you should apply while you’re in class.
这在数学课 物理课等
And it’s gonna especially useful for when you’re taking math classes,
任何需要运用概念
or physics classes, or really any kind of class
解答复杂问题的课程上尤其重要
where you’re applying concepts and trying to solve complex problems.
当你的老师正在黑板上讲一道例题
When your professor or your teacher is going through an example problem on the board
或者引导你自己解例题时
or guiding you through the process,
一定要确保你记下了例题的每个步骤
make sure that you’re writing down every single step of that example problem.
这么做特别重要
This is incredibly important to do
因为跟着别人解题
because there is a huge gap between
和你自己真正理解并独立完成解题
being able to follow along with what someone else is doing
还是有很大差距的
and understand it and being able to do it on your own.
你可能记得以前很多次
And you probably could think of many time in the past
上课时详细讲过的例题
where you’ve gone through example problems in class,
你在老师的引导下解出来并且完全理解了
your professor is guiding you through them and you understand everything,
但是之后做作业时
but then you come to your homework later on,
用的是完全一样的的思路 你却卡住了
it’s using the same exact concepts, but then you’re stuck.
现在我明白 我原来做题卡住时十分沮丧
Now I know that I used to get really frustrated in these kind of situations,
实际上这只是一个培养能力的过程
but it’s just a reality of the skill-building process.
就像看到一个人做滑板特技
It’s just like watchingsomebody do a skateboard trick
然后也想自己做一样
and trying to do it on your own.
你必须培养肌肉记忆
You have to build that muscle memory
长时间地大量地认真地练习
and it takes a long time and a lot of deliberate practice.
所以把你笔记中的例题
So think of those example problems in your notes as the equivalent to
想象成看一个展示滑板翻转的油管视频
having like a YouTube video of someone doing a kick flip.
滑板翻转的相机角度越多
The more camera angles you have of that person doing the kick flip,
你就更容易看明白
the more easily you’ll be able to see
他是怎么做的 并且纠正自己的动作
what’s going on and what you’re doing wrong.
记笔记也是一样的道理
It’s the same story with your notes.
如果你对老师在黑板上的讲解
If you have a one-for-one representation
有一个详细的分步解析
of exactly what the professor did on the board,
你就可以一步一步对照
you’re gonna be able to go line by line through it
看你到底哪里不明白
and see exactly where you are confused.
而且不要仅仅停留在例题上面
And don’t just stop at thoseexample problems themselves.
当你在上课时 例题的每一步
While you’re in class, for each step in the problem,
都要问问自己是否真的理解了
ask yourself, do I truly understand what’s going on here?
如果你没有完全理解 就画一个小箭头出来
And if you don’t, simply draw a little arrow
在这一步边上写出解释
and make a little note in the margins that explains it
你之后做题时就能知道这一步是为什么了
so you’ll know later why you’re trying to implement it.
在学校做作业
do your homework at school
最后一个小建议就是 想快速完成作业
Finally, one additional tip for finishing those homework assignments more quickly
就要尽量在学校做作业
is to try doing your homework at school.
我在上大学的时候 偶尔会有一个学期是
When I was in college, I would occasionally have semesters
最后一节课和倒数第二节课之间
where there was like a one to two hour gap
有一到两个小时的空闲时间
between my last class of the day and the class that came before it.
这实际上是件挺好的事
And this actually turned out to be a pretty good situation
因为那两小时我基本上会待在校园里
because I was basically gonna stay on campus for those two hours,
而不会回家
I wasn’t gonna go home.
这段时间里我只能做作业
And really the only thing to do was my homework.
这段空闲时间里 我知道两小时之后要上课
Now having that gap of time where I had to be to class within two hours
这种时间压力使学习更有效率
created a little bit of time pressure that made me work more efficiently,
并且在校园里
but also being on campus,
周围的环境适合学习
I was in the right context to do the work,
不知道大家是不是和我一样
because I don’t know about you,
回到家里 就一点也不想学习了
but when I come home, the last thing I wanna do is work.
家里的环境完全不适合学习
This is the complete wrong context for it.
家里有床 还有游戏 厨房
This is where my bed is, where my video games are, where my kitchen is,
我就会想做各种其他的事情
there’s all sorts of different things that I want to be doing.
但是在学校就不会这样
But at school it’s a totally different story.
可能你和我不一样
Now maybe you are different.
可能你确实喜欢在家里学习
Maybe you do like to work at home.
如果是这样的话 我的确有个小建议
And if that’s the case, I do have one additional tip for you.
你不用在学校把整个作业都做完
Instead of doing your entirehomework assignment at school,
你可以下课之后尽快花点时间
take some time as soon as you can after class
先看一看你的作业
to simply preview your assignments.
当我为这段视频写稿子的时候
When I was writing the script for this video,
我和我的朋友马丁聊了聊 我问他
I talked with my friend, Martin, and I asked him,
“为什么你做作业时间比预计时间长?”
“What caused you to spend more time on homework than you would have liked?”
他说 主要是因为
And he said the main thing was
他做作业之前要花很多时间
that he had to spend a ton of time
重新熟悉作业要求
trying to re-familiarize himself with the requirements of the assignment,
搞明白要参考教材上笔记上哪些内容
figuring out all the places in his textbooks and notes that he had to reference,
准备时间太长 他也就失去动力了
and it just took a lot of time to set up and it would demotivate him.
如果你想节约这些时间
Now if you wanna cut down that lag time,
那你就下了课之后
then as soon as you can after class,
花几分钟熟悉一下作业的相关细节
spend just a few minutes going through the details of the assignment.
记下做作业要用到哪些概念
Mentally note the concepts that are gonna be covered
同时记下你要参考教材和笔记的
and then note where in your textbook and your notes
哪个部分
that you’re going to need to reference.
如果你想再做点什么
And if you want to take this a step further,
可以买点这些粘性塑料便签
you can actually get these little plastic sticky book notes
然后翻到笔记要用到的部分 做个记号
and you can go to those spots in your notes, mark them,
然后你回家做作业的时候
so that way when you come home and start working on your assignment,
就可以直接翻到要用的那一页了
you can easily turn right to the exact page.
当你掌握了快速完成作业的方法
Now once you’ve mastered the art of finishing your homework assignments quickly,
下一个挑战就是用空出来的时间做什么
the next challenge is deciding what to do with all the time you’ve gained.
当然 你可以用这些时间来
And of course, you could spend some of that time
玩《马里奥+疯狂兔子:王国之战》
playing Mario + Rabbids Kingdom Battle,which is exactly
像我录完这个视频就要去玩
what I’m gonna go do after I finish filming this video.
但是你也可以用一部分多余的时间
But you might also dedicate a portion of that time
学习一门你一直想掌握的技能
to building a skill that you’ve always wanted to learn,
比如剪辑视频 设计图表 或者写个iPhone小程序
like learning how to edit videos or design graphics or build iPhone apps.
如果你想像快速完成作业一样
And if you want to build that skill quickly,
快速掌握新技能
just like you finished those homework assignments quickly,
那么你可以在Skillshare开始学习
then a great place to start learning is over at Skillshare.
本周我要推荐Skillshare最新的课程
This week I want to highlight one of the newest courses on Skillshare,
Phil Ebiner关于Adobe PS的新手课程
which is Phil Ebiner’s complete beginners course on Adobe Photoshop.
我并不是很擅长摄影 但是做为一名油管博主
Now I am not much of a photographer, but as a YouTuber,
我必须学会用PS做缩略图
I’ve had to learn the ins and outs of Photoshop to create my thumbnails.
你可能觉得做缩略图一点也不难
And you might think that making a thumbnail is pretty easy,
但至少对我来说
but for me at least,
想要做出在油管首页上
it’s actually a pretty complicated process to get something
吸引眼球的图还是很复杂的
that really stands out on the YouTube home page.
选定我想用的那张图之后
After I’ve got the picture I want to use,
我必须用选择和蒙版工具
I have to cut myself out of the background cleanly,
把自己从背景中切出来
using the selection and masking tools,
加入一个有颜色的背景 然后将它模糊掉
I have to add a colored background and set its blending mode,
然后我还要加上图形和文字
and then I have to add shapes and text.
掌握这些技术还是花了我很多时间的
And these are are skills that took me quite a while to learn,
但是这些技术 都完全包括在菲尔的课程里
but they are also all skills that are covered comprehensively in Phil’s course.
所以如果你是一个新手油管博主
So if you’re a budding YouTuber
你想提高你的频道的图像设计水平
and you want to improve the graphic design on your channel,
从我个人的经验来看 这非常重要
which I can tell you from personal experience, matters a lot,
或者你是一个摄影师
or you are just a photographer and you want to learn
想学习怎样对照片进行颜色分级
how to correctly color grade your photos,
你可以听听这个课程 快速提高你的技术
you can take that course and amp your skills really quickly.
如果你还想学习其他的技能
And if there’s something else you want to learn,
Skillshare中还有超过17000种实用的课程
then Skillshare’s library has over 17,000 hands-on practical courses
足够满足你的需要
is almost guaranteed to have you covered.
Skillshare的会员入门每个月只要10刀
Membership on Skillshare starts at about 10 bucks a month,
差不多就是两杯拿铁的价钱
which is right around the cost of two lattes,
不过不幸的是他们不接受用拿铁购买会员
though I have checked and sadly they don’t take payment in lattes,
但是前500位
but the first 500 people
到下面的介绍 点击链接的观众
that go down in the description below and click that link
可以得到两个月免费试用期 没有限制
will get a two month free trial of unlimited learning,
所以大家一定要去看看
so definitely go check it out.
感谢Skillshare支持本视频和本频道
A big thanks to Skillshare for sponsoring this video and helping to support this channel.
一如既往 感谢大家的收看
And as always, thank you guys so much for watching.
如果你觉得 除了我提到的这些
Now if you have something I didn’t mention in this video
你还有其他对别人有帮助的建议
that would be helpful to other people,
可以在下面评论区留言
definitely go leave it in the comments below
如果你喜欢这次视频 请为它点赞
and give this video a like if you liked it,
如果你不喜欢的话 你知道你该怎么做的
and if you didn’t, you know what to do.
你可以在这里点击订阅 视频每周更新一次
Otherwise, you can subscribe right there for new videos every single week,
你也可以点击这里
or you can go right there
免费获取我写的关于如何取得好成绩的书
to get a free copy of my book on earning better grades.
你也应该看看这周的播客
You should also check out this week’s podcast episode
关于每个学生都应该了解的十大生活技能
where we talk about 10 essential life skills that every student should know.
这是我最近最喜欢的一集
This is one of my favorite recent episodes,
所以希望大家去听一听
so definitely go give it a listen,
你可以点击这里 获取本频道的其他视频
or you can find another video on this channel by clicking right there.
感谢收看 下周再见
Thanks so much for watching and I will see you next week.

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视频概述

本视频介绍了快速完成作业的几种方法,为提高作业效率提供的很多有用的小建议

听录译者

翻译译者

绮云

审核员

审核员_JO

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=363GWtra7X8

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