ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

画画让我们记得更多 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

画画让我们记得更多

How to draw to remember more | Graham Shaw | TEDxVienna

我想知道你是否有过这种情况
I wonder if you can relate to this.
你有没有觉得记东西
Have you ever had trouble remembering information?
或是记这种线型的笔记很困难
Lines of writing like this?
当我在上学的时候 我记东西的方式之一就是如此
When I was at school, one way I used to learn was this:
我习惯于阅读
I used to read.
阅读是一种学习的好方法 不是么
And reading’s a great way to learn, isn’t it?
但是你知道 有的时候我的表情可能有点像这样(撅嘴状)
But you know, sometimes my expression would be a bit like this.
因为我发现在阅读这些线型笔记的时候
Because what I used to find was that sometimes I’d be reading all these lines
它们就是进不了我的脑子 你们熟悉这种感觉么
and they just weren’t going in. Is this familiar to you?
有时我翻过这页纸试着回忆纸上的内容
And I’d sometimes turn the paper over and try to remember it
但我的大脑一片空白 记不住任何东西
and my mind had just gone blank and I couldn’t remember anything.
于是我为此感到非常烦恼
And then I’d start to get really worried.
我开始着急
I’d start to sweat
烦躁
and fret
非常焦虑
and get all anxious,
尤其是当考试临近的时候
especially if it got near to the examination.
心想 我一丁点都记不住了
And I thought to myself, “I’m never gonna remember any of this!”
同时我对自己说 一定有更简单的记忆办法 不是么
And I also thought to myself, “There must be an easier way, mustn’t there?”
是的 有
And there is.
当我们将需要记忆的信息用画笔转化为图片的形式
Because if we take that information and we turn it into a picture with a drawing,
我们会记住它 因为在作画的时候 我们将记住更多的信息
we remember it. Because when we draw, we remember more!
但是你知道这么做的问题是什么么
But you know the only trouble with that?
人们会说 这真是个好办法 可惜我不会画画
People say, “That’s a great idea but I can’t draw.”
可我相信每个人都可以画出适合记忆的图像
But I believe everybody can draw certainly well enough to make learning memorable.
今天我将展示给各位如何做到这一点
And today I’d like to show you how to do that.
首先 我们将以一个圆圈开始构建我们的视觉工具包
We’re gonna start building up our visual tool kit with, firstly, a circle.
准备好你的纸 我们开始吧
So get your paper ready. Let’s have a go.
将你的纸摆成展示板这样
Have your paper this way around like the flip chart.
首先 我们简单地画一个圆圈 就像这样
And we are gonna start by simply drawing a circle like that.
接下来再画出两个圆圈
Next, what I’d like you to do is draw two more circles
使它们成为一双眼睛
and make them into eyes.
然后是一只鼻子
Then a nose.
以及一个微笑
And then a nice smile.
接下来在这边我们再画一个圆圈
And now over here let’s try another one.
画出眼睛 这次朝向这边看 还有一只鼻子
Some more eyes, this time looking in this way and a nose.
这次我们画出不一样的表情
And this time let’s do a different expression
一个涂满阴影的圆圈 这样我们就画出了一个震惊的表情
a circle which we can shade in and we’ve got a shocked expression.
我们再试一个
Let’s try one more
就画在下方
just down here.
另一个圆圈
Another circle!
这次画出向上看的眼睛
And this time draw the eyes, but looking upward,
一只鼻子
and then a nose.
现在请仔细看好 如果你眨眼 很可能会错过哦
And now watch carefully, if you blink, you might miss it.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这是一个思考的表情
A thoughtful expression.
所以 这是我们视觉工具中的第一个模型 一个圆圈
So that’s our first shape in our visual tool kit, a circle.
我们接下来要做的和之前一样容易
And everything we’re going to do is gonna be as easy as that.
请翻到下一页
So just turn your page over
我们继续构建视觉工具包
and we’re gonna build our visual tool kit up.
这次依旧走肖像画的风格
This time again have your page in portrait style
我们将从这里开始
and we’re gonna begin over here.
我们要画出的第一个模型是一个菱形
And the first shape we’re going to do is a diamond.
画成这样就好
So just draw that.
接下来思考 我们可以在里面加上什么呢
Then we think, “What could we make it into?”
在尾部画一个三角形
Put a triangle on the end.
现在我要在这里画出一只小小的眼睛
Now I’m gonna put a little eye there
和一个笑脸
and a smile.
我们得到了一只小鱼耶
Got a little fish!
还可以有一些泡泡
Perhaps some bubbles.
就是这样啦
There we are.
在纸的中心画一个圆圈
In the centre draw a circle.
现在将圆圈和小鱼以一条线连接起来
Now connect the circle with a line to the fish.
我们将其称为一号
We’ll call that number one.
向上边画一条线
Now draw a line up here.
我们称它为二号
We’ll call that number two.
我们要再画一个圆圈
We’re gonna do a circle again.
请看好 画在这里
Just watch. Here it goes.
接着是一双看向那边的眼睛
And next a couple of eyes looking that way.
一只鼻子和一个微笑
And now a nose and a smile.
来点不一样的 在顶部画两个三角形
Something different. Two triangles on the top
接下来 这边画三笔 那边也画三笔
and next, three lines this way, three lines that way
我们画出一只小猫啦
and we’ve got a cat!
我们继续在这边画
Let’s go over this way.
三号
Number three.
在上边画一个小圆圈
Let’s draw a circle at the top.
向下画出一条直线
Now let’s draw a line down
在这边再画一条线作为腿
and then another line here to make a leg.
在另一边画一条线
Next, we’re gonna draw a line at that way
在这边画出一只胳膊
and now an arm to the side
另一边也是这样
and the other one up like that.
这样我们就画出一个小人
So we’ve got a figure.
如果我们在这边
And if we put
画出两条短线
two little lines there
他就是一个跳舞的人
could be a dancer.
我们继续画四号
Let’s draw number four.
它是一个三角形
That’s gonna be a triangle.
让我们来看看可以把它转化成什么模型
And let’s see what shape we could make that into
以及可以将其变为什么图画
and what picture we could make it into.
加上一个三角形并在下边画一条短线使它看起来像一只帆船
It looks like a boat with another triangle and a little line underneath.
我们甚至可以在上面插只小旗
We could even put a flag on top
再加上一些水
and a bit of water there.
接下来 向下画
Next, come down here.
五号
Number five.
我们要画一个长方形
We’re gonna draw a rectangle.
看着就好
Just watch.
就像这样
Just like that.
我们画一些圆圈作为车轮
And let’s put some circles here for wheels.
我们可以把这个长方形变成公交车
We could make a little bus out of that rectangle.
一条水平线
A horizontal line,
两条竖直线
two lines vertically
作为窗户
for windows,
车里有一些乘客
and some people who are inside the bus.
继续 我们画一条竖直线
Next, let’s draw a vertical line.
六号
Number six.
这次是一个完全不同的形状
A totally different shape this time.
我们画一个像云朵一样的图案
Let’s go with a shape that looks a bit like a cloud.
但是下方多出两条竖线
But two vertical lines below
这样就是一棵树
and we can make it into a tree.
最后 在下面是七号
Finally, number seven down here.
我们还没画过正方形对吗
We haven’t done a square yet.
那么画一个正方形
Let’s do a square
在上方画一个三角形 这样就组合成了一栋房子
and we can put a triangle on top, so we combine the shapes in our visual tool kit.
一扇小门
A little door
一对窗户
and a couple of windows.
好了我们进行到这里
So there we are.
我们利用视觉工具包中的这些形状创造画面
We’ve used the shapes in our visual tool kit to create pictures
当然我们可以创作出
and of course we could create
更多不同的图画
many more different pictures with that.

So…
但是最棒的事情是
But the wonderful thing is
当其消失的时候你的大脑能够回忆起它们的这种惊人的能力
the amazing power of your mind to see pictures when they are not there.
因为就在你现在看着图画的时候
Because as you look at the picture now
仅仅通过画出记忆图像 你的大脑就做出了“咔哒”的选中操作
by just taking a mental picture, it kinda going ‘click!’ in your mind.
实际上你不仅能记住这些图画
You can actually remember not only the pictures
还能记住它们在页面上的位置
but exactly where they are located on the page.
请将纸翻转过来这样你就看不见它们了
So just turn your paper over so you can’t see
让我们做一个小实验来验证一下
and let’s do a little experiment here and just have a look.
现在我要让你们做的事情是
What I’m gonna ask you to do now:
我在展示板上指出不同的位置
I’m gonna point to different places on the flip chart
只有当我指向那条鱼的时候 我希望你们能将手举起来
and only when I point to the fish, do I want you to put your hand up.
你觉得鱼在上方么
So do you think the fish is up here?

No.
在这么
Is the fish over here?
在这么
Is the fish here?
谢天谢地
Thank goodness for that.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
那么公交车呢
What about the bus?
在上边么
Is the bus up here?
在下面么
Is the bus down here?
你们记住了 不是么
You’ve got it, haven’t you?
所以呢 事实上你能记住我所问的任何一个
So, in fact you could remember any of them that I’d asked.
即便我将它复杂化
And even if I’d made it more complicated,
你也能记住它们的大多数
you probably could remember most of those drawings.
所以画图是一种很好的记忆方式
So drawing is a good way of remembering
在这方面已经有不少深入的研究
and there’s some terrific research around this.
加拿大的沃特卢大学曾做过一项专门的实验
A particular study was done at the University of Waterloo in Canada.
实验要求受试者记忆三十个单词
And what they did was they asked people to remember 30 words
每个单词有四十秒的时间
and they gave them 40 seconds per word.
他们可以将它们罗列着写四十秒
And they could either write the words for 40 seconds and list them.
比如“气球”这个单词
So say a word like ‘balloon’.
全部是这种简单的单词
They were all simple words like that.
他们不停地写着
They wrote them.
在另一个任务里则要求受试者画出与单词有关的图案
Or the other task they were asked to do was draw a simple picture of it.
这是我的“气球”
So there’s my balloon.
然后给予他们一些分散注意力的任务
Then they were given a sort of distraction task
比如一些完全不同的和音乐相关的填充性任务
like a kind of filler task that was to do with music, so completely different,
接着是一个突击记忆检测
and then a surprise memory test.
他们发现了什么呢
What did they find?
作画的受试者所记住的单词量
What they found was that people typically remembered twice as many pictures
是抄写组的两倍
when they’d drawn them compared with when they’d written them.
所以当单词被画出来的时候 记忆可以翻倍
So double the number of words were remembered when they’d been drawn.
当然 我觉得这棒极了
I thought that was terrific, of course.
另一件使我感到很赞的事情是
And the other thing I thought was really fascinating about it was:
图画的质量与记忆的关系并不大
the quality of the drawings didn’t appear to matter.
换句话说 人们并不需要拥有强大的艺术天分
In other words, people didn’t need to be artistically brilliant
以便于创作出印于脑海中的图画
in order to create a drawing that stuck in their mind.
实验者还比较了其他记忆方式
And they even looked at other ways of remembering to compare with drawing.
例如 让受试者想象单词的图像
For example, they got people to visualize words,
他们让一些人通过写下对于单词的描述(来记忆)
they got people to write descriptions of words,
让另一些人看单词相关的图片
and they got people to look at pictures of words.
在每种情况下 画图的记忆效果都占据上风
In every single case drawing always came out on top.
所以画图是记忆单词的好方法
So drawing was a great way to remember that list of words.
就个人经验来说图画可以帮助记忆更多的东西
And in my experience, drawing can help us to remember much more than lists.
可以用于记忆事实
We can remember facts,
抽象的概念 甚至一个完整的主题
we can remember abstract concept, even whole topics with drawing.
我将展示给大家这是如何完成的
And I’d like to show you how we can do that.
关键之一是将图画和意义联系在一起
One of the keys is to link a picture and a meaning.
我来举个例子
So let me give you an example.
我们继续
Here we go.
我们之前见过这个
We’ve seen this before.
画出一棵树
We’ve got our tree.
可以问问自己 这棵树代表什么呢
We could ask ourselves, “What does the tree mean?”
它可以意味着很多事情 不是吗
It could mean lots of things, couldn’t it?
也许是 生命
It might mean ‘LIFE’.
可以是 成长
It could mean ‘GROWTH’.
可以是 恒心
It could mean ‘STABILITY’.
你会想到更多其他的含义
And you could think of lots of other meanings.
对于我们的图画工具包来说这是个好事情
And incidentally that’s a fantastic thing about our drawing tool kit,
因为当我们画出例如树这样的东西时
because once we can draw something like that tree
我们可以将它同各种概念和想法连接起来
we can link it to many, many different concepts and ideas.
用这种方式使用我们的工具包是非常有效的
So it’s useful to be able to use our visual tool kit in this way.
但是当我们试着记忆信息的时候
But of course, when we’re trying to remember information,
我们首先想起的不是图画
we don’t get the picture first.
而是信息或概念
We’ve got the information first or the concept
然后我们需要想出一幅图画
and then we have to think of a picture.
所以我们需要习惯于以图画的方式来思考
So we have to start getting used to thinking in pictures.
例如 如果我和你提出“创新”这个概念
So, for example, if I said to you a concept such as ‘innovation’,
你可能会想 它应该是什么图画呢
you might think, “What picture comes to mind?”
我会想到火花或者灯泡
When I’m thinking of a spark, or I’m thinking of a light bulb,
我们可以想出很多形象
we could think of many more.
所以要以图画的方式来思考
So it’s about thinking in pictures.
我们来做一些练习
So let’s get a bit of practice
以图画的方式来思考
at thinking in pictures.
现在我将选出一些话题 一个与生物学相关的话题
Now, I could take any topic and I’m gonna pick a topic from biology.
事实上我并不是生物学家
And incidentally I am not a biologist,
但我所知道的事情之一是
but one of the things that I’m lead to believe is
白细胞
that white blood cells
它们擅长于防御机体免受病菌的袭击
one of the things they are very good for is defending us against germs.
它们吞噬细菌使其成为无害物质
In fact, apparently they engulf bacteria and they render them totally harmless.
所以拥有白细胞是好事情
So really good to have white blood cells.
我们来想像一下其对应的图画
Let’s think of what picture comes to mind.
当然你可能想到许多模型
You could think of lot’s of things and, of course,
重要的是这个图画对于你而言有多大意义
what’s important is that the picture that you think of makes sense to you.
我们各想各的
We’re all individual.
但我所想到的是利用我的视觉工具包创造一个小人物
But I was thinking of using my visual tool kit to create a little character.
一个白细胞 就是这个
That’s a white blood cell. There it is.
为什么他看起来很开心呢
And why is he looking so happy?
嗯 他看起来很开心是因为
Well, he’s looking particularly happy because
他有一个和之前的鱼形状一样的盾
he’s got a shield same shape as the fish
上面写着“停止”
and it’s got ‘STOP’ written on it.
我们继续
And, there we are,
他举着这只盾
he’s holding it up.
举着它的原因是他正在保护人体
And the reason he’s holding it up is because he’s defending us.
保护我们免于——
And he’s defending us against…
看见这个形状了么 有点像那棵树
See this shape? A little bit like the tree.
然而这次我要将它画成一个病菌
But this time I’m gonna make it into a germ.
这就是他
There he is.
画上几条腿
Give him some legs.
他看起来非常不开心
And he’s looking particularly unhappy
事实上 他已经受够了
in fact, he’s completely fed up because
因为他举起了胳膊
he’s got his arms in the air,
因为他在投降
because he’s surrendering.
他被白细胞完全打败了
He’s been completely defeated by the white blood cell.
当我们画出这样的图画
So once we’ve got a picture like that
我们会记住它
we’ll remember it.
还可以给画面加上颜色
And we could do things like add colour to pictures
也很有用 因为我们的大脑喜欢色彩
which is great because the brain does love colour.
我们再练习一个关于抽象概念的例子
So let’s take an example of an abstract concept.
这个
Here’s one.
信任
‘TRUST’.
我们可能会想 要如何记住它或者用图画表述它呢
We might think: “How could we possibly remember that or illustrate that?”
人们经常说 你得画出握手的姿势
And people often say, “You need to draw a handshake.”
有的人可能认为 画出这个太复杂了
Some of you might be thinking, “That’s tricky to draw.”
我有一个小建议 总会有一个更容易的图画
A little tip from me: there’s always an easier picture.
我将这幅图画展示给你们
And I’m gonna show you a picture that somebody came up with
这是我在开研讨会的时候有人想出来的
on a workshop that I was running.
它是这样的
And it went like this.
你是否有过这种经历 当别人想出一个主意的时候
Have you ever had the experience of someone else coming up with an idea
你会希望那是自己想出来的
that you’d wished you’d thought up yourself?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
因为当他开始画的时候 我心想 这多简单啊
Because as he started drawing this, I thought, “This is so simple!”
看出我要画什么了是不是
You can see where I’m going with it, can’t you?
顶部是一个小人 就是这样
A little figure on the top, there we are.
帮助我们记住“信任”这个词
Helping us to remember ‘TRUST’.
好的 我们继续吧
Ok. And here we go.
我想知道你还记得我们之前画的七幅画么
I wonder how well you can remember those seven pictures that we had earlier on.
请准备一张空白纸
I’d like you to take a blank piece of paper
确保你藏起了原来的画面
and make sure you hide the original.
我们来做个小实验
We’ll do a little experiment here.
请在纸上画出一个圆圈和七条线
And I want you to just to draw the circle and the seven lines on that paper
用一分钟在纸上画出那些图画中
and have about a minute to just start drawing in all the pictures
你能想起来的东西
you can remember.
从现在开始我会给你们一些时间
So I’ll give you some time just starting from now.
现在 你们可能记得或者记不住全部 没关系
Now, you may or may not get all of them, that’s fine.
如果你想不起来某一个 就看看展示板
If you get stuck on one, just look at the flip chart
假装它们都在那上面
and pretend they’re all there.
就像你能够
Just see if you can see them
从脑海里看见它们一样
in your mind.
把数字写上去可能会有帮助
You may want to put the numbers on.
需要极度集中注意力
There’s a lot of concentrating going on.
可以互相帮助
Can help each other act a little bit there.
只要快点打个草稿就好了
Just quick sketches are fine.
我看见下面很多人开始活动了
I can see a lot of activity down there.
好啦 一分钟时间到
Ok, so you’ve had about a minute,
不管你画出了什么都没关系
just wherever you got to, that’s fine.
你可能画出了一些或者画出了所有
You may have got some or you may have got all.
有时候人们画得很细致 相应的用时也会增加
Sometimes people draw in a bit more detail, it takes a bit longer.
都没关系
That’s absolutely fine.
好的我们继续
So here we go.
现在我希望大家能把手中的纸面对我举起来
What I’d like you to do now is altogether just hold your pictures up facing me.
把它们举起来
Hold them up!
全部
All up!
棒极了
Fantastic!
我看到下面了 哇哦
And I’m looking down here and wow!
我看见了 下面的人我几乎都能看到
I can see… We’ve got all on most I can see down the front here.
你可以将它们和展示板做个对比
You can compare them with the flip chart here.
好的 我们做到了
So… Ok. So there we are!
(笑声)
(Laughter)
好啦 我们的确可以兴奋一点 不是吗
Alright. So, we can actually… A bit of excitement about, isn’t there?
(笑声)我们实际上已经习惯了作画
(Laughter) We can actually all get used to drawing
以及利用图画记忆信息的方式
and making information memorable with pictures.
我想请大家做的事情就是开始使用这些技巧
And the great thing is what I’d invite you to do is to start using these skills
自己用 也推荐他人用
for yourself and for others.
你也许有孩子 朋友 或者同事
You might have children, friends or colleagues.
你可以帮助他们使用图画来学习记忆
And you could help them to use drawings to make learning memorable
因为归根结底 活到老学到老
because after all, we’re all life-long learners
这种作画的能力的确可以拓展我们的学习潜力
and the ability to draw can really expand our learning potential.
所以我希望你们能够习得这种技能并将这句话传播出去
So I invite you to get your drawings out there and spread the word
当我们画的时候 我们会记住更多
that when we draw, we remember more!
谢谢大家
Thank you!
(掌声响起)
(Applause)

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

抛开从前的线型笔记,试着开始用画画的方式记忆吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

漂流儿

审核员

审核员I

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gj3ZnKlHqxI

相关推荐