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如何绘制斜肌 - 解剖学和运动

How to Draw Obliques - Anatomy and Motion

欢迎来到Proko幸运大转盘
"Welcome back to Wheel of Proko.
骷髅君轮到你了
Skelly it’s your turn.
只剩下一个字母了哦
There’s only one letter left.”
来一个K!
"Give me a K!"
欢迎收看Proko
Welcome to Proko,
我是Stan Prokopenko 上次我们介绍了腹肌的4层结构
I’m Stan Prokopenko. Last time we introduced the 4 muscle layers of
我们已经学习了垂直腹直肌以及腹横肌
the abdominal wall. We already learned about the vertical rectus abdominis and learned about the horizontal transversus abdominis.
嗯 这是付费区的学生学习的内容
Well, the premium students learned about it.
现在我们该学习腹外斜肌了
Now, let’s learn about the diagonal External Oblique.
初学者一般会被锯肌和斜肌的交错部分压垮
Beginners often get overwhelmed by the interlocking digits of the serratus and oblique. They draw
他们在人体侧面画了许多失控的线条
a bunch of out of control stripes across the side of the figure.
这将止于今天!
That ends today!
通过了解基本身体结构 来开始我们的学习
Let’s be disciplined boys and girls and start by learning the anatomical basics. Then we
我们可以边玩边学习如何绘画这些形状
can have fun and learn how to draw the forms.
基本结构
Anatomical Basics
外斜指的的外部的肌肉组织
The name “External Oblique” refers to the muscle’s position, being on the outside.
和内部的“内斜”相对
Contrary to the Internal Oblique which is on the inside.
它指的是肌肉纤维的对角线
And it refers to the diagonal angle of the muscle fibers.
“外”表示“外部的”
External means Outside.
“斜”表示“对角线”
Oblique means Diagonal.
外斜肌是表层肌 意味着它大且薄
The external oblique is a sheet muscle, which means it’s large and thin,
且他的肌肉纤维平行排列
and its muscle fibers are parallel.
它位于我们躯干的两侧同时连接着胸廓和骨盆
It sits on the sides of our torso and connects the ribcage to the pelvis.
伸展时 斜肌的指状突起会出现
When flexed, the digitation of the oblique is revealed and you see tube-
且处于45度角时 你能看到上半部分的管状条纹
like striations at 45 degree angles on the upper half.
这上半部分被称为“胸部”
This upper half is called the Thoracic
下半部分叫“侧部”
portion and the lower half is called the Flank Portion.
它从8根肋骨的底部开始
It originates off the bottom 8 ribs,
插入前2/3部分的髂嵴
and inserts onto the anterior ⅔ of the iliac crest,
剑突、腹白线和耻骨
xiphoid, linea alba, and pubis.
肌肉纤维并没有长达腹白线
The muscle fibers don’t reach all the way to the linear alba.
它们附着在肌腱上 称为腹腱膜 位于半月线边缘
They attach to their tendon, called abdominal aponeurosis, at the edge of the linea semilunaris.
这巨大的腱膜覆盖了整个腹直肌
This large aponeurosis covers the entire rectus abdominis muscle.
运动
Motion
斜肌的作用是横向弯曲 以及扭曲脊柱
The function of the oblique is to bend the spine laterally and to twist it.
当两边一块作用 它们将躯干向前弯曲
When both sides work together they flex the torso forward. Which is,
这不可避免地就是一组
incidentally, the exact sequence
你会在热身 企图跳舞
you use when you warm up, attempt
以及之后从地面重拾自尊时 会用到的动作
to dance, and then pick your pride up off the floor.
有时候我们会成为自己最大的敌人
Sometimes we’re our own worst enemies…
就像外斜肌是他自己的对手一样
Much like how the external oblique is its own antagonist.
当一侧弯曲时 另一侧就会拉伸 反过来也同样
When one side flexes, the other side stretches, and vice-versa.
当斜肌弯曲时 你会看到胸部的指状突起
When the oblique is flexed you’ll see digitation on the thoracic portion. The flank portion
侧部会保持平坦 除了少许指状突起可能出现在中部边缘
stays smooth, except maybe a hint of the digitation along the medial edge. The motion that will
最能弯曲斜肌的动作是转动加弯曲
flex the obliques most is a twisting and bending combo.
基本上就是肌肉纤维的角度
Basically, the angle of the muscle fibers.
不包含任何弯曲的转动
Twisting without any kind of bending,
实际上对斜肌没有任何作用
there is actually little affect on the oblique.
腰椎十分限制运动的转动范围
The lumbar vertebrae are very limited in their twisting range of motion. You’ll just see
你只会看见肌肉很细微的转动
a subtle twisting of the muscle.
往前弯曲时 腹肌在压缩 就像我们上次学习的那样 往后弯曲时
When bending forward, the compression is in the Abs, as we learned last time. When bending
即使这是十分受限的动作 皮肤会很快折叠起来
backward, even though it’s a very limited motion, the skin quickly folds.
当你往侧面弯曲时 明显的褶皱会在你的腰部出现
When you bend to the side, a prominent fold is created at your waist. If the bend is really
如果弯曲得十分厉害
extreme, it might be a double-fold. Use
可能还会有两层折叠 使用压缩与伸展的概念-当你
the concept of squash and stretch – when you’re
绘画被压缩的那侧时 放大肉是如何聚拢成褶的
drawing one compressed side, exaggerate how the flesh is bunched up, and really stretch
并好好描绘另一侧!你甚至可以展示拉伸那侧骨状的髂嵴和骨盆
the other side! You might even show the bony iliac crest and rib cage on the stretched
以此展示皮肤和肌肉被扯紧
side to show how tight the skin and muscle are being pulled.
机械豆与解剖豆
Robo Bean and Anato Bean
还记得形象绘画里的那颗豆和机械豆吗?许多我们画的动作
Remember the bean and robo bean from the figure drawing course? Well, a lot of the motion
像夹紧、拉伸和转动
we drew for the pinching, stretching,
是一种斜肌作用的标志
and twisting, was an indication of what’s happening
豆由两个椭圆形组成 靠皮肤连接 就像袜子里的
to the obliques. The bean was basically 2 ovals, connected with skin, like 2 balls in
两颗球 但是不过 我更倾向于回顾机械豆 因为他棱角分明
a sock. But, I’m more interested in reviewing the Robo Bean because it has hard corners
标示两个重要的骨骼结构
that indicate 2 important skeletal
胸廓的第十根肋骨和骨盆顶点
landmarks. The 10th rib of the rib cage and the ASIS
他们对于描绘运动中的斜肌作用巨大
of the pelvis. These are so useful for drawing the obliques in motion.
现在 让我们看看之前学习的桶状和几何胸廓
Now, what about the bucket and geometric rib cage that we learned about earlier in this
让我们称之为解剖豆
course? Let’s call these the Anato Bean.
他的概念和用途和机械豆差不多
The concept and purpose are similar to the robo
只是机械豆更简单一点
bean, but the robo bean is simpler.
我们可以说机械豆是入门
We can say that the Robo Bean is Beginner and these
而这些是高级
are Advanced.
机械豆底处盒子的边缘沿着斜肌进行
This edge of the bottom box on the robo bean follows the angle of the oblique. It’s the
你可以看见表面上的角
angle you’ll see on the surface.
这个桶状有点难且可与直觉相驳
The bucket is a little tougher and can be counter intuitive.
他沿着髂嵴的前半部分继续进行
It follows the angle of the front half of the iliac crest and then keeps going. The
如果透视上桶状物有个柄
bucket is more anatomically accurate
在解剖学方面会更准确
if you have a handle on perspective.
如果你纠结于桶状物的结构
with the construction of the bucket,
机械豆对你而言会是个好的选择 如果透视法你不太了解
the robo bean can be a good option for you. If perspective
试试机械豆 如果你想挑战自己 试试看桶状
is new, try the Robo Bean. If you’re up for the challenge, try the Bucket.
作业
Assignment
那么去试试看吧 使用proko.com/pose里的模特照片 画一下骨盆和胸廓
So, go ahead and try it. Use the model photos from proko.com/poses and draw the pelvis and
你可以使用初学者版本或者高级版本
ribcage. You can use the beginner or advanced version. Then add the oblique with the correct
画出斜肌在拉伸、夹紧或转动时的正确样子 思考运动以及运动
stretching, pinching, or twisting. Think about the motion and how the motion deforms the
会如何改变肌肉形状
shape of the muscle.
我们的付费区主要是针对想进一步学习的同学们
So we have a premium section for students that want to learn more.
付费区有许多这个专题的相关延伸信息
The premium section has extended lessons, more information about the topic.
拓展课程还有更多的绘画示例
It also has additional drawing demonstrations.
如果每节课布置的任务你都画了
If you do the assignments for each lesson, these demonstrations serve as the answers for the assignment.
那么你可以检查你的成果
So you can check your work.
每一节课都有你可以下载的PDF电子版文件
There’s an eBook version of each lesson that you can download as a pdf.
打印出来或者也可以就放在设备上 总之便于你及时复习课程就行
Print them out or keep them on your device so you can quickly review the lessons.
另外付费区里有可以随意旋转观察的三维模型
And finally the premium section has 3D models that you can spin around,
任何角度你都能去素写
study, and draw from any angle.
你一定不想自己的画是这幅德行吧 那就快登录网站Proko.com/anatomy
If you don’t want your drawings to look like this, go to proko.com/anatomy
如果你喜欢这个视频 可别吝啬快把它分享到朋友圈吧
If you like this video, don’t be all selfish. Share it with your friends
如果想要观看最新的视频就点击这个按钮
And if you want to be updated on new videos click on this button
或者登录网站Proko.com/subscribe
or go to Proko.com/subscribe
好了!感谢您的观看
That’s it! Thank you for watching.
如果你打算在网上发布你的画作
If you’re posting your drawings on social networks
别忘了标上#proko的主题标签哦
use the hashtag #proko
当然也可以直接发到proko的脸谱群里
Or consider posting them in one of the proko facebook groups
就在proko. com/groups的网站上
You can find them on proko. com/groups

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视频概述

通过解剖学的方法讲解腹斜肌是如何生长及运动,以此教导大家如何绘画这些复杂的肌肉组织。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ljimnn

审核员

L

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUHjijIsvgg

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