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如何画腿——艺术家的腿部解剖学(上) – 译学馆
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如何画腿——艺术家的腿部解剖学(上)

How to Draw Legs - Bone Anatomy for Artists

下肢骨的画法
Drawing the Leg Bones
嗨 我是Stan Prokopenko 欢迎观看《菠萝绘画》
Hey, I’m Stan Prokopenko, welcome to Proko.
之前 我们学了躯干的解剖
So we’ve studied the anatomy of the torso,
也学了上肢的解剖
we’ve studied the anatomy of arms.
现在 轮到下肢了
Now, it’s time for the legs!
像往常一样 我们从骨骼开始
As usual, we’ll start with the bones,
我们可以由内而外地构建形体
so we can build our figures from the inside-out.
腿承担着一份艰巨的工作
The legs have a tough job.
就是支撑整个身体的重量
They have to support the weight of the body, run,
去跑 跳 踢 保持平衡
jump, kick and balance.
艺术家也有一份艰巨的工作
Artists also have a tough job.
如果你很难画出下肢骨的比例 构成
If you struggle drawing the proportions, forms
和重要特征的话
and important features of the leg bones,
这节课会帮到你
this lesson will help.
我们将温习这四块下肢骨
We’ll go over the four leg bones:
股骨 髌骨 胫骨和腓骨
the femur, the patella, the tibia, and the fibula.
股骨
Femur
股骨是人体中最强壮也是最长的骨头
The femur is the strongest and longest bone in the human body.
股骨形成了
It makes up a quarter
身高的四分之一
of your total height.
以头身衡量 股骨长达三头身
In cranial units, the femur is three cranial units long.
比肱骨
That’s one whole
整整还长一个头身
cranial unit longer than the humerus!
顺便说一下 如果把脚算进去
By the way, the lower leg is also three cranial units long,
小腿也有三头身长
if you include the foot.
为了快速调整比例 把站着的人体分成两半
For a quick proportion cheat, divide the standing figure in half.
股骨上端正好落在中线上
The top part over here falls right on that halfway point.
再把下面部分分成两半
Split the lower measurement in half again,
你就会知道膝盖的下边在哪儿
and you know where the bottom of the knee needs to be.
股骨分为头 颈 体和髁
The femur is divided into the head, neck, body, and condyles.
简化后的版本如下:
The simplified version looks like this:
一个球形的头 斜柱形的颈
a spherical head, a diagonal neck,
长长的体 和带轴的髁
a long body, and a spool for the condyles.
让我们从头开始
Let’s start with the head.
股骨头像不负责任的员工
The head of the femur is like an ice cream scoop
制作的冰激凌球
by an employee who didn’t care:
又瘪又偏离中心
off-center and deflated.
股骨头与骨盆髋臼相连接
It pops into the acetabulum of the pelvis.
因为这是一个球窝关节
Because it’s a ball-in-socket joint, the femur
股骨可以向任何方向旋转
can rotate in any direction.
颈把头以约130度角
The neck connects it back to the body,
连接到身体上
at the angle of 130 degrees.
如果摸摸自己的臀部
If you feel your hip,
你可以感觉到关节周围的一块突起
you can feel a bony part around that joint.
那是啥?
What is that?
我要激动地介绍
Well, I’m very excited to introduce
我们最棒的骨性标志之一
one of our greatest bony landmarks:
大转子
the greater trochanter!!
我认识的每个人
Everyone I know just
都叫它大转子
calls it the great trochanter.
无所谓 这不重要
Whatever, doesn’t matter…
就是这里的这个家伙
It’s this guy here.
大转子
The great trochanter
位于股骨体上 股骨头对面
is on the body of the femur, opposite of the head.
就像一个突出的大杠杆
It’s like a big lever that sticks out
形成股骨的最外侧点
to make the most lateral point of the femur.
你可以轻松地从体表看到它
You can easily see it on the surface,
像这里 和这里
like here and here.
因为是皮下骨骼
Since it’s subcutaneous bone,
它有时会以突出物的形式出现
it will appear sometimes as a protrusion
有时会因周围肌肉膨胀而呈凹陷
and sometimes as a depression when muscle bulge out around it.
大转子位于身体的下半部
The great trochanter is halfway down the body,
耻骨联合的水平线上
at the level of the pubic symphysis.
我之前说的“比例调节”
what I was talking about with the “proportion cheat” earlier.
从侧面看 大转子
In side view, the great trochanter
朝向身体的后面
sits towards the back of the body
但一旦加上臀部
But once you add the butt,
大转子
the great trochanter
又在正中间了
is right in the middle again!
当然 这取决于臀部的大小 无论如何
Of course, it depends on the size of your butt.
这都是一个很好的参考点
Either way, it’s a great reference point.
大多数女性形体的大转子下
It’s even the widest point of the hips on many male figures.
堆积有更多的脂肪
Though, most female figures have more fat sitting
因此大转子会是女性身体最宽的点
below the great trochanter,
大转子甚至也是许多男性臀部的最宽点
and that will be the widest point.
大转子确实很大
The great trochanter is pretty great,
但其名字不是这样来的
but that’s not how it got its name.
大转子有个兄弟
It has a sibling,
小转子 在这里
the lesser trochanter, right there.
两者之间通过转子间嵴相连
The two are connected through a crest.
但小转子会为肌肉所覆盖
But the lesser trochanter is covered up by muscles
所以我们艺术家不太关心它
so we artists don’t really care about him!
继续往下看股骨
Let’s keep going down the body of the femur.
注意股骨的倾斜角度:大约175度
Notice the diagonal angle of the femur: roughly 175 degrees.
当心
Watch out!
垂直画股骨的艺术家扼杀了骨架的活力
Artists who draw the femurs vertically kill the dynamism of the skeleton.
你能想象Skelly这样走来走去吗?
Can you imagine if Skelly walkedaround like this?
这样想
Think about it this way:
股骨在顶端被整个骨盆的宽度隔开
the femurs are separated by the entire width
然后往下向内聚拢
of the pelvis up top, but then they run inwards
所以在膝盖处可以相互触碰
so they almost touch at the knee.
股骨当然是倾斜的
Of course they’re diagonal.
但这个倾斜角
But the angle won’t always
并不总是175度
be exactly 175 degrees.
这只是一个中性的解剖姿势
That’s just in the neutral anatomical pose.
你可以张开双腿
You can spread your legs,
但是小腿的骨头也会跟着移动
but the lower leg bones will follow.
且女性的倾斜角度会更大
Also, it’ll be an even sharper angle on females,
因为女性的骨盆比较宽
because a female pelvis is wider.
从侧面看 股骨的设计又酷又节省空间
When viewed from the side, the femur has a cool space-saving design.
股骨向前弯曲
It curves forward,
这样当腿弯曲时
so that when the leg bends,
上下腿之间仍然有空间容纳
there’s still room for the hamstring and calf muscles
腿筋和腓肠肌群
between the upper and lower leg.
最后 我们来到末端
Finally, we get to the distal end.
这是股骨最膨大的部分
This is the largest part of the femur.
这个形状有点像
It’s kinda similar to the design
胳膊肱骨的上端
of the humeres form the arms.
还记得肱骨上髁的锤形吗?
Remember that hammer shape of the epicondyles?
股骨的两侧也有这样的突起
The Femur has those bumps sticking out to the sides too.
也叫作髁
They’re also called epicondyles.
肱骨有一个小蝴蝶结
The humerus has a little bowtie
和球状关节与前臂相连
and ball to articulate with the forearm.
股骨有两个巨大的轮子
The femur has two giant wheels.
两侧内外髁从后面伸出来
Two big condyles that stick off the back.
这不叫上髁
Not epicondyles.
上髁是这个
That’s these bumps.
这个轮子形的是内外侧髁
The wheels are just “condyles”,
这是因为“epi”的意思是上面
which makes sense because “epi” means above!
我发现大多数艺术家
I’ve found that most artist
只是把整个轮子叫做突起
just call the entire wheel a condyle.
除非你是做膝盖手术的医生
Unless you’re a doctor performing knee surgery,
否则谁在乎呢
who cares!
只要你能画出来就好
As long as you can draw it!
髁的轴端在同一水平线上
The axis of the condyles is horizontal.
所以髁的轴线与体成一个角
So the diagonal body of the femur meets them at an angle.
当膝盖弯曲时 股骨就会转回这些轮子上
When the knee bends, the femur rolls back on these wheels.
注意一下膝盖骨是如何挤进去的
Notice how the kneecap gets pushed in a bit.
让我们再看一遍 哦
Let’s see it again. Oooooo.
中间的凹槽基本上是膝盖骨的轨迹
That middle groove is basically a track for the kneecap.
你看 正常情况下 膝盖骨
You see, normally, the kneecap
靠在前部
rests against this anterior part.
但是当膝盖弯曲时
But when the knee bends,
股骨向后滚动
the femur rolls backwards,
股骨的底部变成了前面
and the bottom of the femur becomes the front.
膝盖骨滑过凹槽
The kneecap slides through the groove.
并一直留在槽内
It always stays in the groove,
就像轨道上的一个球
like a ball on a track.
髌骨
Patella
这是膝盖骨一个复杂的名字
That’s a fancy name for the kneecap.
髌骨是平的 形状像本垒
It’s flat and shaped like home base.
其背部有脊
It has a ridge on its back
将其锁在髁突之间的凹槽里
that locks it into the groove between the condyles,
有助于其留在那些轨道上
helping it stay on those tracks.
我们将会有一个关于膝盖的单独特辑
We’ll have a separate premium episode devoted to the knee,
你会学到所有有关内容
and you’ll learn all about it.
简而言之 髌骨位于股四头肌肌腱内
Briefly, it sits inside the quadriceps tendon
通过髌韧带
and connects it to the front of the tibia.
连接到胫骨前部
by way of the patellar ligament.
膑韧带辅助股四头肌在伸展时前拉胫骨
It help the quads pull the tibia forward during extension.
医生做反射测试时
When your doctor does that reflex test,
会轻敲髌韧带
he taps the patellar ligament, which triggers
刺激了股四头肌 使腿伸直
the quads, which straightens the leg.
正常情况下髌骨是腿骨的最前端
Normally the patella is the most anterior point of the leg bones.
当膝盖弯曲
But when the knee bends,
髌骨会稍稍向后移动
the patella shifts backwards slightly,
然后 胫骨的前缘会伸出来
and then the front edge of the tibia sticks out the most.
胫骨
The Tibia
小腿有没有被踢过?
Ever get kicked in the shin?
这是你的胫骨
That’s your tibia!
胫骨是大而坚硬的骨
The tibia is a big, tough bone
承载着身体的重量
that bears the weight of the body.
使腓骨得以放松
So the fibula can take it easy,
这很好
which is good.
因为腓骨又小又脆弱
Because the fibula is tiny and weak.
只有你的小拇指那么粗
It’s only as thick as your pinky finger!
有句话能帮你记住这一点
If it helps you remember,
“坚硬的胫骨和废物一样的腓骨”
think “tough tibia and fragile fibula.”
还记得股骨的横截面为何是三角形吗
Remember how the cross section of the femur was a triangle pointed backwards?
胫骨前缘
The tibia’s cross section
是截面三角形的一个顶点
is a triangle pointed forwards.
你能在腿的表面看到这条线
It’s that front edge that you see on the surface of the leg.
胫骨呈现出一个漂亮的流动S型曲线
The tibia creates a nice, flowing S-curve on the shin.
在体表
On the surface,
由于胫骨肌肉的存在
the top portion of the S curve stands out more
S曲线的顶端更明显
when the tibialis muscle is included.
但是这里 能找到一个更大的曲线
But there’s another larger rhythm to look for.
小腿内侧有一个大C型
A C curve from the inside
从膝盖一直延续到内踝
of the knee all the way through the inner ankle.
我通常就是从这里开始画小腿的
That’s the one I usually start with when drawing the lower leg.
胫骨上端比下端粗
The tibia is top-heavy with its knee end
显得头重脚轻
much bigger than its ankle end.
最细处不到最粗的三分之二
Its thinnest point is about 2/3 down.
胫骨有五个皮下部分
That front edge is only one of the five
其一是前缘
subcutaneous areas on the tibia.
另一个是踝部
The other areas are the ankle,
踝部是一个在体表突出的骨节
the outside of both condyles,
还有一处是胫骨粗隆 即膝骨韧带的连接处
and the tibial tuberosity where the patellar ligament attaches.
胫骨粗隆是胫骨最靠前的点
The tibial tuberosity is the most anterior point on the tibia.
膝盖骨这里很容易画错
It’s easy to make the mistake for the patella.
除了这些膝盖上的碰撞
Out of all these bumps on the knee,
膝盖骨仅仅是这部分
the patella is only this portion here.
胫骨粗隆是这个隆起
The tibial tuberosity is this bump here.
这是一些脂肪组织和韧带
And this is some fatty tissue and and the ligament.
在下一节优质课里
We’ll go into more detail
我们会进一步了解关于膝盖的细节
about the knee in the next premium episode…
尤其是膝盖弯曲时有趣的比例变化
Something interesting happens with proportions when the knee bends.
其制造了一种错觉
It creates an illusion
使大腿和小腿看起来更长
where the upper leg and the lower leg look longer.
腿伸直的时候 像这样测量一下
When the leg is straight, you measure like this.
没什么了不起的
No big deal.
股骨代表大腿
The femur is the upper leg,
胫骨代表小腿
the tibia is the lower leg.
但是弯腿的时候
But when the leg is bent,
再用相同方法
you’re measuring all the way
测量大腿胫骨粗隆
to the tibial tuberosity for your upper leg measurement.
而当你测小腿长度时
And when you measure the lower leg,
你会把 股骨结节的宽度算进去
you’re including the width of the femoral condyles!
测比例的时候记住这一点
Keep that in mind when you’re measuring proportions. Okay,
回到胫骨节结
back to those tibial condyles.
胫骨顶端有一个形似字母D的宽平面
The tibia has a wide top plane, shaped like the letter D.
挂在身体背侧
It hangs off the back of the body.
可分为内侧平台和外侧平台
It’s separated into medial and lateral platforms,
这是为了迎合股骨的内侧髁和外侧髁
for accepting the femur’s medial and lateral condyles.
它们不像你想的那样是凹面
But they aren’t as concave as you would expect.
实际上是有一点平的
They’re actually kinda flat.
股骨髁就置于这些平台上
The femoral condyles sit on this plateau.
膝关节是不完全铰链关节
So the knee is an imperfect hinge joint
可以弯曲 伸展 旋转
that allows flexion, extension, and some rotation.
如果你觉得这个设计不够稳定 确实有点
If this seems like an unstable design to you, it kind of is!
膝关节周围有强大的
But there’s lots of strong muscles,
肌肉 肌腱和韧带来共同固定关节
tendons, and ligaments that hold the joint together.
再说说腓骨
Now let’s talk about that fibula.
腓骨
Fibula
腓骨完完全全在膝关节的下边
The fibula sits entirely underneath the knee joint.
腓骨在胫骨的下方 后面 侧边
It’s under, behind, and lateral to the tibia.
腓骨的作用是加强踝的稳定支撑
Its job is to add structural support
和一些额外的肌肉附着点
in the ankle and additional attachment space for muscles.
共有两个胫腓关节
There are two tibio-fibular joints
使小腿得以扭动
that allow it to wiggle around
增加了小腿的灵活性
adding some flexibility within the lower leg,
但是从表面是不容易看到这些活动的
but you can’t really see this movement on the surface.
腓骨和胫骨外侧髁连接处有一个平面关节
There’s one plane joint where the fibula connects
另一个关节在踝部
with the tibia’s lateral condyle, and another at the ankle.
这个末端事实上以钩状移行到踝的一侧
This distal end actually hooks around one side of the ankle.
胫骨和腓骨的下端共同组成
Together with the tibia,
一个钳形 以此像扳手一样稳固地持握住足部
they grab onto the foot like a wrench.
或者说像这个独轮车
Or like a unicycle.
比作独轮车是因为
And like a unicycle,
其在关节内部像轮子一样旋转
the wheel on the foot rotates inside this joint
使足部得以完成背曲或跖曲
to dorsiflex and plantarflex the foot.
腓骨下端比胫骨低
The fibula continues down lower than the tibia.
记住了 找到这个角度
Make sure to look for this angle
它使内踝高于外踝
to make the inner ankle higher up
让踝关节更有活力
than the outer ankle for a more dynamic design.
不要把内外踝画在同一水平线上
Don’t draw symmetrical ankles.
这不仅是解剖学错误 而且造成无聊的效果
Not only is it anatomically incorrect, it’s boring!
还有接触点形状也不同
Also, the shapes of the bumps are different.
腓骨下端是突出的钻石形
The fibula has a pointed diamond shape,
而胫骨下端呈块状
while the tibia is blocky.
关于画踝关节 在即将上线的
I’ll give you more tips for how to draw the ankle
关于足骨的课程中
in an upcoming lesson,
我会教给你们更多技巧
on the Bones of the Foot.
不过下节课会是
But the next lesson will be
一集有关膝盖的优质课
a special premium episode on the knee
由超级特邀嘉宾指导员Marshall Vandruff主讲
by super-special guest instructor Marshall Vandruff.
作业
Assignment
你们的作业有两部分
Your assignment is a 2 parter.
在第一部分 你可以用
For the first part you can use the
应用Skelly给腿骨摆姿
skelly app to pose the leg bones,
用我在下方下载处提供的图片也可以
or just use the images I provided in the download below.
然后以简化形式把腿骨画出来
Draw the leg bones as simplified forms.
不要只复制轮廓
Don’t copy the contours,
要研究形态 将其分解成几何形状就能记住
study the form and break it down to geometric forms that you can remember.
我也会提供一些模特的腿部图片
I’ve also provided some leg photos of models.
来进行解剖摹图 找到腿骨
Do anatomy tracings over those to find the leg bones.
找到体表的骨性标志 标出骨的走形
Look for subcutaneous landmarks to figure out where the bones go.
尝试自己做这两个练习
Try to do both of these exercise on your own,
最好在我放出答案视频之前完成
before I post my answer videos.
作业传到proko.com/groups社区
Share you assignments with the community at proko.com/groups
你会喜欢这个优质课的视频
You’re gonna love the videos in the premium section!
你也能得到更多绘画视频 扩展课程 电子书
You’ll get more more drawing demos, exteneded lessons, printable e-books,
还有可以摆弄研究的3D模型
and 3d models that you can spin around, study,
可以从任何角度作画
and draw from any angle
如果不想让画得这么糟糕
If you don’t want your drawings to look
来登录proko.com/anatomy吧
like this, go to proko.com/anatomy

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视频概述

下肢骨的特点和绘画方法

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VFTA4vFQVpM

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