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如何画腿——艺术家的腿部解剖学(下) – 译学馆
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如何画腿——艺术家的腿部解剖学(下)

How to Draw Hamstrings - Leg Anatomy for Artists

嗨 我是斯坦·普罗科 欢迎来到菠萝绘画!
Hey I’m Stan Prokopenko, welcome to Proko!
在上一节课中
In the last lesson,
我们画了腿前部的肌肉
we drew the muscles on the front of the leg
它控制膝关节的直立和髋关节的弯曲
which straighten the knee and flex the hip.
这节课 我们将学习如何画
In this lesson we’ll learn how to draw the muscles
腿后侧的肌肉
on the back of the leg,
它控制膝关节的弯曲和髋关节的直立
which bend the knee and straighten the hip.
引入:腘绳肌
Introducing: the hamstrings!
腘绳肌交结在一起 藏在腿后侧
The hamstrings mush together and sit quietly on the back of the leg.
要发现它们很难 除非你是这个家伙
They’re hard to see, unless you’re this guy.
见鬼吧!
Then what the hell!
所以 这节课你将学习基本解剖
So, in this lesson you’ll learn the basic anatomy
和如何画腘绳肌
and how to draw the forms of the hamstrings
和它们的伸展性肌腱
and their far-reaching tendons.
在精品内容的第二部分中
In the premium Part 2,
我们将更仔细地学习解剖的细节
we’ll take a closer look at the anatomical details
并探究不同体型对应的腿
and explore body type variations of the leg.
详情见proko.com/anatomy
That’s over at proko.com/anatomy.
外观上看 腘绳肌像配角一样
Visually, the hamstrings are like supportingactors.
作为画家 我们在确定姿势时忽视它们
As artists, we ignore them when establishing the gesture
因为它们违背腿部线条流动
because they go against the main flow of the leg.
但毫无疑问腘绳肌发挥了很大作用
But of course the hamstrings play an important role.
没有它们 我们不能
Without them we wouldn’t even be able to
抬腿上一个台阶
lift our foot to take a step.
二头肌在手臂上的作用和腘绳肌一样
The hamstrings’ equivalent in the arm is thebiceps.
当你看这个视频的时候
As you watch this video,
注意腘绳肌和二头肌
pay attention to the similarities
的相同之处
between the hamstrings and biceps.
肌腹
Muacle Bellies
好吧,该看看被覆物下有什么了
Alright, time to go under the hood.
看看这些腘绳肌多么整齐且平行
Look at how straight and parallel the hamstringsare.
他们看起来很像活塞和电缆
They look like pistons and cables.
当我们隐去臀大肌
When we hide the glutes,
我们看到它们的起端在骨盆的坐骨结节上
we can see their origin on the ischial tuberosity of the pelvis.
这有四块肌腹
There are four muscle bellies.
外侧这两块分别是股二头肌的
The two on the outside are the short head
短头和长头
and long head of the biceps femoris.
位于内侧的两块叫半膜肌和半腱肌
The two on the inside are named semimembranosus and semitendinosus
这有点荒谬
which is semi-ridiculous.
我会在精品课程的第二部分中解释它们
I’ll explain in the premium episode, part2.
每一侧有一块肌腹高高地鼓起
On each side there’s a belly up high
另一块低悬的肌腹挨着它
that sits on a belly that hangs low.
不过它们的大小是不等的
The sizes are not equal though.
它们不对称
They’re not symmetrical.
为了更简明 让我们将它们分成椭圆形
Let’s break them down into ovals for simplicity.
在内侧 有一个较宽的椭圆在底端
The inside has a really wide oval underneath
和一个较窄的椭圆在顶端
and a really thin oval on top.
外侧有两个中等宽的椭圆 一个在另一个上
The outside has two medium ovals, one on top of the other.
内侧这组比外侧宽
The group on the inside is wider than the group on the outside.
但我们考虑腘绳肌时 通常不看四个肌腹
But we don’t usually see four muscle bellies when we look at the hamstrings.
在一条直立的腿中
In a standing leg,
一层脂肪将肌腹和内收肌
a layer of fat smooths the bellies and the adductors
融合成一个流畅的圆形
into a single round form.
所以我将它画成一个扁平圆筒或蛋型物
So I draw this as a flattened cylinder, oregg-like form.
这种形状有一些倾斜度 像这样
This form is angled slightly like this,
和股骨呈相反的角度
in the opposite angle of the femur.
从水平面看 腿后侧是一个梯形
In terms of planes, the back of the leg is a trapezoid.
这有一个狭窄的底和成角的两边
There’s a narrow backplane, and sides thatangle away.
腿在臀部比较宽 然后向下逐渐变窄至足部
The leg is widest at the hip and tapers down toward the foot.
这种上层臃肿的设计部分因为
This top-heavy design is partially because of
臀部和内收肌顶部的脂肪
the fat at the hip and on top of the adductors
部分因为顶部骨头更宽
and partially because the bones are widerat the top.
骨盆比膝盖宽
The pelvis is wider than the knee
膝盖比踝关节宽
and the knee is wider than the ankle.
当我们看向大腿后侧
When we look at the back of the thigh,
腘绳肌并不跨越它的整个宽度
the hamstrings don’t span its whole width.
我们需要内收肌和股外肌来填满两侧
We need the adductors and vastus lateralis to fill out the sides.
甚至用股内肌和缝匠肌从较远的下方填充
Even the vastus medialis and sartorius comeout farther below.
肌腱
Tendons
股四头肌汇聚成一根中心肌腱
The quads came together into a single tendon
中心肌腱包裹住膝盖骨
down the middle that wrapped over the patella…
腘绳肌费尽心思以避免汇集
The hamstrings go out of their way to avoidcoming together.
肌腱分离并在彼此之间留下一个空腔
The tendons split away and leave a cave betweenthem.
或是一个供腓肠通过的隧道
Or a tunnel that the calves travel into.
这些肌腱最后都附着在小腿骨的周边
These tendons ultimately attach to the sides of the lower leg bones.
它们有些抢腘绳肌的风头
They kinda steal the show from the hamstrings.
擅长画腘绳肌的画家都擅长画这些肌腱
Artists who master the hamstrings, masterthese tendons.
它们为腿部膝盖区域的绘制提供了
They provide the much needed structural straights
很多需要的结果切线
in the knee area of the leg.
与上下所有的圆度对比
Adding contrast to all the roundness aboveand below.
即使是没有很多肌肉的人
Even on people who don’t have a lot of muscle mass,
这些肌腱也创造出一种节律
these tendons create a rhythm.
一个非常弯曲的屁股 到长曲线的腘绳肌
A very curved butt, to the longer curved hamstrings,
接着笔直画向膝盖后侧
to a straight into the back of the knee,
然后是小腿上的另一曲线
to another curve in the calves
最后直下跟腱直至脚后跟
and a straight down the achilles tendon to the heel.
在外侧
On the outside,
股二头肌向腿下延伸并落在腓骨头上
biceps femoris shoots down the leg and lands at the head of the fibula,
这是很恰当的
which is really convenient
因为我们有个直箭头指向骨瘦如柴的标志
because we have a straight arrow pointing to a bony landmark.
小腿肌肉从肌腱后面显露出来
The calf muscle emerges from behind the tendon.
这是一个可以为膝盖后侧创建速写
This is an important overlap that creates a shorthand
的重要重叠
for the back of the knee.
小心别把腘绳肌和髂胫束的底部
Just be careful that you don’t mix up the hamstring tendon
弄混了
with the bottom of the iliotibial band,
这是另一个从膝盖侧面延伸的强有力肌腱
which is another powerful tendon running down the side of the knee.
在内侧 中间的肌腱与缝匠肌和股薄肌
On the inside, the medial tendons come together
结合在一起并嵌入在此
with the sartorius and gracilis and insert here,
位于胫骨前部 靠近胫骨结节
on the front of the tibia, next to the tibial tuberosity.
同样要注意 从后视图中
Also note that from back view,
膝盖内侧低于外侧
the inside of the knee appears lower than the outside of the knee.
记得在设计腿时用之字形来增加不对称性
Remember the zig zag to add asymmetry whendesigning the leg.
在站着的腿上
In a standing leg,
腘绳肌看起来像筷子夹着个煮熟的鸡蛋
the hamstring tendons look like chopsticks holding a hard boiled egg.
好吧 我改变我的主意
Okay, I changed my mind.
我们用冰钳去
We’re going with ice tongs.
不……
No…
我们用尖牙!
We’re going with fangs!
尖牙固定在膝盖两侧
The fangs clamp onto the sides of the knee,
并把这个蛋状物和膝盖骨
and hold this egg-like form just about level
保持在同一平面上
with the kneecap.
这个蛋形物位于膝盖后部
This egg form that’s nestled in the back of the knee
是腓肠肌的顶部
is the top of the gastrocnemius
(即小腿) 也是一些
(which is the calves ), and also a few
珍贵的动脉 神经
precious arteries, nerves,
以及一层谨慎的脂肪保护膜
and a cautious, protective coating of fat.
为了方便查阅这个组织 让我们给它个名字
To easily refer to this form, let’s give ita name.
叫它“蛋”……怎么样
How about…… Egg.
我知道这没什么创意 但现在它是“蛋”了
I know, not very creative but, it is now Egg.
当膝盖弯曲时
When the knee bends,
它将肌腱从股骨上拉开
it pulls the hamstring tendons away from the femur,
并且显得更为突出
and they stick out even more.
鸡蛋被吞下去了
Egg gets swallowed up.
当膝盖完全弯曲时
When the knee completely bends in on itself,
我们当然再也看不到太多腘绳肌
we of course can’t see much of the hamstrings
或它的肌腱……
or its tendons anymore…
但是我们可以看到这个软组织如何溢出
but we can see how this soft tissue overflows
并在膝盖周围形成一个甜甜圈
and creates a doughnut around the knee.
从视觉上讲 这个粘糊糊的甜甜圈
Visually speaking, this squishy donut is
和前面坚硬而锋利的膝盖形成鲜明对比
a nice contrast to the hard and sharp knee in the front.
这就像壁球和伸展运动的一个极端例子
This is like a really extreme example of squash and stretch.
从解剖学上讲 这可以防止
Anatomically speaking, this protects Egg
每次你蹲下时鸡蛋被痛苦地压碎
from being painfully crushed every time you squatty, which,
从历史上讲 你每次上厕所都得这样
historically speaking, you had to everytime you potty.
我很抱歉
I’m sorry.
好吧伙计们
Alright guys,
如果你想深入研究解剖学
if you think you want to dive deeper into studying anatomy,
那就去proko.com/anatomy吧
head over to proko.com/anatomy.
在精品课程中 我们将仔细检查每块肌肉
In Premium, we’ll examine each muscle in depth,
比较上半身的体型变化
and compare body type variations of the upper leg.
你还将得到任务演示
You’ll also get assignment demonstrations,
电子书
ebooks
3D模型 所有爵士乐
3D models, all that jazz.
作业
Assignment
这次作业 我们把它改一下
For this assignment, let’s change it up.
我们不做速写练习
Instead of doing quicksketch studies,
而是做一些好的OLE解剖描摹
let’s do good ole’ anatomical tracings.
下载下面的模型照片并做一个描摹
Download the model photos below and do a tracing,
仔细查看腿上背部的解剖结构
dissecting the anatomy of the upper back leg.
你可以在上面放一张描图纸
You can put a piece of tracing paper on top,
或更好是用数字化的方式
or preferably, do it digitally.
如果你要复习 就看看我的解剖学描摹课
Check out my Anatomy Tracing lesson if youneed a refresher.
好了伙计们 我们一直在努力
Alright guys, so we’ve been working our way
从头到脚 不 不是真的……
from head to toe- no, not really…
我们从内到外
We went from inwards to outwards,
接着我们由里及表
and then we went proximal distal,
然后是自上而下……
and then superior to inferior…
现在我们终于到达了小腿
and now, finally, we’ve reached the lower leg.
下一次 我们将探究所有的小腿
Next time, we’re gonna go into the calves,
腓骨 所有的部分
the peroneals, all of it.
我们将要学的很深!
We’re gonna go really deep!
像膝盖深……
Like knee-deep…
继续发表评论 任何问题 关注点 恭维……
Go ahead and leave a comment, any questions,concerns, compliments…
如果你喜欢这个视频 告诉你的艺术伙伴!
And if you liked this video, tell yourart buddies!
下次见
See you next time.

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视频概述

本视频通过对两部分主要肌肉的讲解,来阐明腿部绘画的方法技巧。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DBi7Trrni8o

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