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怎样画好臀部 – 译学馆
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怎样画好臀部

How to Draw BUTTS!!!

[用屁声演奏的主题曲]
*Theme played with farts*
大家好 我是斯坦·普罗科
Hey I’m Stan Prokopenko
是时候学画臀部了
and It’s time to draw butts.
很抱歉开了很多关于屁的玩笑
I’m sorry for all the fart jokes.
我实在忍不住
I can’t help myself.
这节课我将会讲解三块主要的臀肌
This lesson will explain the three major butt muscles,
以及这些肌肉被脂肪和皮肤覆盖的方式
and how they’re covered in fat and skin.
画好臀肌的第一步 是了解它们各自附着在哪里
The first step in drawing magnificent butt muscles is to understand where they attach.
我们来看一下
Let’s take a look.
臀肌起于骨盆 如果你还有印象
Butt muscles originate on the pelvis, which if you remember
我们曾用向前倾斜的桶来表示骨盆
we constructed using a bucket tipped forward.
如果需要复习 你可以再回头查看骨盆相关课程
Check out the pelvis lesson if you need a refresher.
髂嵴从骨盆前角陡然向下走行至背面的三角区
The iliac crest of the pelvis swoops from the front corner, to the back triangle.
这个倾斜的侧平面就是臀肌所在的位置
This sloping side plane, is where the gluteal muscles anchor
刚好在顶嵴下方
right under the top ridge.
这些肌肉嵌入股骨
They insert into the femur
包绕在一个大的骨性标志周围
mainly around the great bony landmark:
这个骨性标志就是“大转子”
the greater trochanter
所以 它们看起来是这样的
so, here’s what they look like
起于骨盆 终点嵌插于股骨
going from the origin at the pelvis to the insertion at the femur.
嵌插点不仅限于此
But there’s more to it than that.
它们也嵌入一条长而伸展的卷尺一样的韧带
They also insert into a long stretch of tape-like tendon
这条韧带从大腿外侧向下走行
that runs down the outside of the leg
被称作“髂胫束”
called the iliotibial band.
髂胫束中间部分紧紧附在肱四头肌侧边
The middle portion sits tightly along the side of the quads.
有时它收得太紧 你能清楚地看到肌肉被收聚凹陷
Sometimes its so tight that you’ll clearly see it pinching the muscles.
关于这个我们会在肱四头肌的课程里详谈
But we’ll cover that in the quads lesson.
这节课我们将要学习的三个臀肌是
The 3 butt muscles we’ll study in this episode are
臀中肌
the gluteus medius
臀大肌
gluteus maximus
和阔筋膜张肌
and the tensor fascia latae.
当然臀部也有臀小肌和其他肌肉
There’s also the gluteus minimus and a few others,
但因为它们藏得很深
but they’re hidden deep inside
所以绘画时会略过
so we’ll ignore them.
这三块主要的臀肌可以简化成一个轮胎
These 3 butt muscles can be simplified toa tire.
或者 羊角包
Or a croissant!
哪个都好
Whichever you prefer.
臀肌和羊角包拥有惊人的相似度
It’s amazing how much butts and croissants have in common.
形状相似 都填满脂肪 都很美味
Similar shape, filled with fat, they’re delicious
以及 其他相似点
and some other similarities…
我可能扯得太远了
Ew, I might have gone too far.
我们还是言归正传
Let’s stick to fart jokes
基本上
Basically
臀肌包裹着大转子
the butt muscles wrap around the greater trochanter,
大转子刚好在臀部中心
which is right in the center of the hips.
从后面看
From the back
臀部的形状由两对斜对角的椭圆构成
the forms can be constructed with two sets of diagonal ellipses.
看起来像蝴蝶一样
They kinda look like a butterfly.
一层脂肪附在臀肌上方
A broad layer of fat sits on top
并向下直至折入臀褶
and droops down until it tucks into the gluteal fold.
后面还会讲到这点
More about that later…
女性臀部脂肪层会更厚
On a female butt, there’s a thicker layer of fat
但是蝴蝶形状仍然保留
but that butterfly doesn’t fly away.
其实 如果上部斜角相接 蝴蝶会变得更大
In fact, it gets bigger if the top part merges with the obliques.
腰部赘肉将弧面按原趋势延长
The love handles keep this rhythm going
直至通过腰部最细的部分
all the way through the narrow part of the waist
便能将左右两侧连接起来
and connect the two sides.
当你练习姿态速写的时候可以用到这些
use this rhythm when you’re practicing your gesture quicksketch.
会非常有用
It’s very helpful.
就像一颗稍微具体细致版本的豆子
It’s a slightly more detailed version of thebean.
当然 这并不适用于所有情况
Of course that’s not always the case,
因为不同动作下臀部可以有不同的形状和大小
since butts come in all shapes and sizes.
要画一个轮廓不太分明的臀部只用
A slightly less defined design would be
在周围加一些脂肪就可以了
to add a little more fat around the sides
这就成了一个圆鼓鼓的屁股蛋儿
for a rounder bubble butt.
臀部形状其实只取决于脂肪分布情况
It really just depends on the fat distribution.
你可以有一个更柔软的更圆润的臀部
You could have the softer, rounder cheek,
但会在髂嵴出现明显的分隔
but a defined separation at the iliac crest
恰好在臀肌和斜角处
between the glutes and obliques.
只要你画得屁股够多 就能发现规律
If you draw enough butts, you’ll start learning the patterns.
这就是为什么在接下来的一节里
That’s why in an upcoming episode,
我们要学习如何画好不同角度下的臀部
we’ll learn how to draw butts from every angle.
不要错过哦
Don’t miss that one.
臀中肌
Gluteus Medius
臀中肌和另一个大家熟知的肌肉很像
The gluteus medius is a lot like a muscle you already know
那就是“三角肌”
the deltoid.
两者功能都是将肢体拉离躯干
Both pull the limb away from the body.
两者都有多方向纤维拉动肢体向前或向后
Both have multi-directional fibers to pullthe limb forward and backward.
甚至在形状上两者都很相似
They’re even similar in shape!
臀中肌有点像骨盆侧面的扁平梯形
The gluteus medius is a simple, sort of flat trapezoid on the side of the pelvis
位于大转子上方
above the great trochanter.
我之所以说“有几分像”
I say sort of flat
是因为它实际上是一块鼓胀厚实的肌肉
because it is actually a bloated thick muscle,
只是它的厚度绝大部分藏在骨盆里了
but most of its thickness is buried in the pelvis.
髂骨是个深凹面
The ilium is a deep concavity.
凹面的大部分常被臀中肌填充
The gluteus medius fills a lot of it
有时甚至填满至凹面外
and then sometimes, overfills it
所以显得略微凸出来
so it’s slightly convex.
尽管臀中肌外表看着个头不大
While it doesn’t look like a huge bulging muscle,
但对于其负责的功能来说已经足够巨大而强壮了
the gluteus medius is large and powerfulenough to do its job.
如果它增大 甚至可以向外凸出一条弧线来
And if it’s really developed, it does curve out a bit.
当然 一般人的这个位置常有一些脂肪
And of course on an average person there will be some fat there
这些脂肪同样也能营造出相同的曲线效果
which might also curve that form.
或者完全软塌在大腿上
Or completely soften it into the leg.
你已经知道了脂肪的分布因人而异
You already know that fat varies a lot on people.
臀中肌起于髂嵴的前3/4嵴下
It originates from the front 3/4 under the lip of the iliac crest
尽管其中一部分起点被臀大肌覆盖住了
though a part of its origin is covered up by the gluteus maximus.
臀中肌纤维像扇子一样汇聚于一块扁平的薄肌腱
Its fibers converge like a fan into a thin flat tendon
这条肌腱嵌插入大转子的外表面
which inserts on the outside surface of the greater trochanter.
要分辨三块臀肌可能很困难
It can be tricky to figure out which bump belongs to which of the 3 muscles.
尤其是臀中肌的前部分
Especially since the anterior portion of the gluteus medius
会从它的后部中间单独鼓出来
can bulge out and separate from the posterior portion.
做这个动作时
In this pose
腿斜向前外展
the leg is being abducted diagonally toward the front,
触发臀中肌前部
activating the anterior portion.
臀部后缘常和臀大肌融为一体
The posterior edge often blends together with the gluteus maximus.
臀大肌
The Gluteus Maximus
臀大肌是人全身上下最大的一块肌肉
The gluteus maximus is the biggest muscle in the entire human body.
这下大家满足了吧?!
Are you not entertained!?!
背阔肌很宽 但也很薄
The latissimus is wide, but it’s thin.
臀大肌不同 除了大之外还很厚实
The gluteus maximus is thick!
[诱惑音]
Ay Papi!
众所周知它就是帮助我们站稳的臀肌
It’s the famous butt-muscle that allows usto stand strong.
在臀部课程结束之后我们将学习脂肪
We’ll study the fat after we learn the glute.
所以呢 如果你是无油饮食或无麸质饮食者
So If you’re on a fat-free and gluten-free diet,
那么你需要在咨询营养师之后再来看这部分视频
you should consult your dietitian before watching the rest of this video.
大部分臀大肌纤维像这样穿插入髂胫束中
Most of the gluteus maximus fibers insert to the iliotibial band like this.
并且延伸到股骨
It extends the femur.
也围绕在股骨周围
It also laterally rotates the femur.
也能使股骨外展
It also abducts the femur.
靠下一些的肌纤维能使股骨内收
And its lower fibers adduct the femur.
我们可以尝试把臀大肌想成
But we may be tempted to think of the gluteus maximus as
固定在骨盆上的结构
anchoring at the pelvis
在腿运动时能产生对抗力将其紧紧拉住并协助其运动
to grip and move the leg when it often does the opposite.
一旦我们的膝盖被锁死
Once our knees are locked,
我们会把整条腿固定
we use the pillar of the leg as the anchor
臀大肌拉住骨盆
and the gluteus maximus pulls on the pelvis
并保持身体剩余部分挺直向上
and holds the rest of the body up
这就是人类如此特别的原因
That’s why we’re so special.
臀大肌能让我们做一些神奇的事
It lets us do some amazing things.
它可以让我们站立 也可以让我们坐在它上面
It keeps us standing and lets us sit on it.
这是人类独有的对抗重力的肌肉
It’s our uniquely human, antigravity muscle.
现在来看最后一层
Now for the final layer.
你知道
Did you know
我们人类是唯一有幸拥有臀部脂肪的动物吗?
that we humans are the only animals uniquely and abundantly blessed with butt fat?
那这个又是什么呢……
But what about… ,
对 很难相信 但那只是肿胀而非脂肪
Yeah, hard to believe, but that’s all swelling.
大部分人都觉得这有点恶心
Most humans find it to be kinda gross
但相信我 公猴们对此爱得发狂
but trust me, the male monkeys go bananas over it.,
不管怎么说 肛门的宽度有近一半是由脂肪构成的
Anyway, fat makes up about half the width of our hineys
且分布不等
and it’s not all equal.
全部向心聚集
It gathers toward the center
所以两腿之间脂肪较多
so it’s heavier medially between our legs.
同时 重力也是一个影响因素
Also, gravity’s a thing
所以臀部底部脂肪更多
so it’s heavier at the bottom.
在坐着的模特身上有时你甚至能看到
Sometimes you might even see a transition between
肌肉和压扁的脂肪之间的过渡
the muscular form and the squished fat when the model is sitting.
我们将就它如何影响臀部表面形状进行更深的探讨
We’ll talk more about how it affects the surface in Premium.
这个水平的皱褶被称为
This horizontal crease is called
臀褶
the Gluteal Fold.
当重心落在一条腿上时臀褶会很明显
It’s obvious when the weight is on one leg,
而腿向前弯曲时它就会消失不见
but it disappears when the leg flexes forward.
臀褶的位置要低于深层臀肌纤维的实际位置
The gluteal fold is lower than the actual gluteal muscle fibers on the inside.
臀褶水平向外扩展
It extends outwards horizontally
从肌肉纤维中拦腰切出
cutting across the muscle fiber
所以在臀部表面
So on the surface
我是指一般人
on an average person
你不会真切看到这条臀大肌斜向下的边缘
you won’t actually see this diagonal swooping border of the gluteus maximus.
在典型的运动员体型上
On a typical athletic type,
你能看到臀褶
you’ll see the gluteal fold
和斜行肌肉纤维向大腿一侧延伸的痕迹
and a subtle hint of the diagonal muscle fibers continuing to the side of the leg.
在拥有极低体脂率的健美者身上
On a body builder with impossibly low body fat,
你只能看到肌肉的形状
you’ll just see the shape of the muscle.
这就是为什么会看起来很奇怪
That’s why this looks so strange.
他们没有臀褶
There’s no gluteal fold…
艺术家都热爱臀褶
Artists love the gluteal fold
因为臀褶是臀部沿着大腿周围的自然交叉轮廓线
because it’s a natural cross-contour line around the form of the leg.
绘画时我们可以通过它的形态判断腿的方向是朝向
We can use it to show whether the leg is coming toward us
还是背离我们
or going away from us.
臀褶是画姿势的一条节奏线
It’s a rhythm line for gesture drawing.
当腿向前或后时
As the leg goes forward or back,
臀大肌和脂肪垫会对所做动作做出反应
the gluteus maximus and fat pad will react to that movement.
臀部各有不同
Every butt is different
因为肌肉和脂肪含量不一
with varying amounts of muscle and fat
付费课程中会介绍不同肌肉脂肪分布下的不同体型
The Premium version of this lesson has an extra section on physique variations for this reason.
但如果你想要一些可靠的标志 那就找一下骨头
But if you want the reliable landmarks, seek the bones.
这也是我们在学习臀部肌肉和脂肪前先学习骨盆的原因
That’s why we studied pelvises before putting on muscles and fat.
还有一块肌肉需要学习
And there’s one more muscle to study
那就是阔筋膜张肌
The Tensor Fasciae Latae,
不 这并不是一种咖啡饮料
No, it’s not a coffee drink
阔筋膜张肌是位于你的裤兜位置周围的肌肉
The tensor fasciae latae is a muscle located around your pockets.
差不多跟裤兜形状一样
Almost the shape of your pockets.
阔筋膜张肌固定于髂前上棘
The tensor fasciae latae anchors at the ASIS,
向着大转子一侧走行
aims to the side of the greater trochanter,
但中途戛然而止
then just stops.
所以并没有附着在任何骨性结构上
It doesn’t attach to any bone here.
事实上 它刚好附在髂胫束
In fact, it attaches to the iliotibial band,
髂胫束在这个区域很难被看到
which is hard to see in this area
因为它只是是个很薄的筋膜
because it’s very thin fascia
时刻记住筋膜就像纱布一样
Remember fascia is like seran wrap.
当阔筋膜张肌屈曲时
When the tensor fasciae latae flexes
它会拉动并绷紧旁边的筋膜
it pulls or tenses the lateral fascia.
这便是它名字的由来
That’s how it got its name.
即阔筋膜的张肌
Tensor of the fasciae latae.
而不是拿铁
Not because it’s a latte
顺便提一句 我不太想一直说这么长的名词
By the way, I don’t want to keep saying this long ass name.
后面就用TFL代替
So let’s use TFL.
TFL的意思是 它实在太长了
Which stands for Too F*cking Long.
开个玩笑 这个是阔筋膜张肌啦 我们继续
Just kidding it’s tensor fasciae latae let’smove on…
阔筋膜张肌TFL和臀大肌是对抗肌
The TFL and gluteus maximus are antagonists.
两者都嵌插入髂胫束
They both insert on the iliotibial band
并从不同方向着力
and pull it from opposite directions.
就像臀大肌有很多功能
The gluteus maximus did a number of tasks.
阔筋膜张肌也是
So does the TFL.
它能使腿向前屈曲
It flexes the leg forward.
可以使腿外展
It abducts it out to the side.
也可以使腿内旋
And it medially rotates the leg.
当腿运动时阔筋膜张肌的形状很多变
The shape of the TFL is a bit tricky when the leg moves.
在腿伸直时 阔筋膜张肌变长变扁平
In a straight leg, it’s longer and flatter.
有点像长泪滴形
Kind of a long teardrop shape
因为上端要更细些
since it’s much thinner at the top.
当腿屈曲时
When the leg flexes
阔筋膜张肌变短变膨大
the TFL really shortens and bulges out.
你可能会在它前方看到从中间向内夹分成两截
You might see it bent in half with a pinch in the front.
甚至会到这个程度
Maybe even something crazy like this,
一些皮肤褶皱可能还会折入阔筋膜张肌中
with a bunch of skin folds down its length.
或者有时只像个短三角形
Or just shaped like a short triangle.
你甚至可能看见肌肉纤维
And you might even see muscle fibers,
就像是一些小手指抓住了髂胫束
like little fingers grabbing on to the iliotibial band.
情况的多样性造成了阔筋膜张肌的多变
This variety makes the TFL tricky.
女性拥有更厚脂肪 臀部因此柔软
On females there’s a thicker layer of fatsoftening the hips.
这是育儿的基础
It’s reserve to feed the baby.
甚至在像Christy一样的皮包骨身材
Even on someone very skinny like Christy,
仍然会有一层脂肪遮盖肌肉轮廓
there’s a layer of fat hiding the muscle definition.
不同性别 年龄 和体型的人的臀形也有所不同
The hips vary a lot based on the gender, age, and most of all, physique.
体型的多样性
Physique Variations
付费课程中会专门提到
Available in the premium section
包括但不限于体型多样性
and not just physique variation.
会员可获得作品讲解展示
Premium Proko people get assignment demonstrations
获得一本可下载的电子书
a downloadable ebook
和其他一些关于屁的笑话
and premium fart jokes.
即使你不是会员
Even if you don’t get premium
我依然爱你
I still care about you!
我希望你能参加 把完成的作业发到小组里
I hope you participate by doing the assignment and posting in the groups.
你需要做的就是 给Skelly画个美臀
And the assignment, your assignment is to give Skelly a butt!
我已经在后面的描述中放了Skelly不同姿势的三张图片
I’ve included 3 photos of Skelly posed in the description below
你也可以用Skelly软件摆出你喜欢的任何姿势
or you can use the Skelly app to make any pose you’d like!
仔细想想每一块肌肉的起止点在哪里
Think about where each muscle originates and inserts.
你可以把下方的腿化成简单的圆柱形
You can keep the lower leg as a simple cylinder.
或者一个膨大的圆筒
Or a bloated cylinder.
想想不同姿势下肌肉被扭曲成什么形状
Think about how the forms of the butt muscles are distorted by the pose.
所以来吧 动动你的屁股
So get off your ass
再坐下来开始做你的作业
and then sit back down and do the assignment

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视频概述

臀部肌肉解剖及绘画技巧介绍

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiTUSDCbGPw

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