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如何开展研究工作 – 译学馆
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如何开展研究工作

How to Do Research

Hey, everybody. So,
嗨 大家好 是这样的
in the months since I’ve put up the Dionysus video,
从我播出酒神录像后的几个月里
I’ve gotten a few emails from people asking
我收到了一些邮件
about my sources and my process and all that jazz,
有人咨询关于资源库和检索途径之类的东西
and around the third time I had to answer one
事不过三 我必须要回复其中一封邮件咯
of those emails, I had a sudden epiphany:
灵光一现
“Maybe this process isn’t as intuitive as I thought…”
也许这个流程不像我想象的那么简单直观
So today I’m gon na share some sweet wisdom
所以今天我要分享给你们一些
with all of you who’ve ever wondered
你们一直想知道的小技巧
“HOW THE HECK TO DO I DO RESEARCH?”
我该如何开展研究工作
Now, I’m gonna start at the very beginning of the process
现在 我要从头开始讲解
and it’s probably not what you’re expecting to hear
它或许并不是你想的那样
This may be a bit shocking,
这可能有点令人震惊
and I’d advise elderly members of the audience
我建议年长一些的听众
to take a seat first,
先找个位子坐下来
maybe check the pressure before I begin to it
或许在我开始之前可以检测下血压
We good? Everyone’s sitting comfortably? Okay.
大家好了吗?都坐好了吗?好了的话 那就开始
The absolute first step to any research project is…
任何研究项目的第一步绝对是
WIKIPEDIA,
维基百科
No. Really.
不 实际上
I learned this in university, from a real professor and everything
这是我在大学里从一个真正的教授那里学来的
We all learned years ago that you’re never supposed to cite Wikipedia,
多年前我们都学过永远都不应该引用维基百科
and this is completely true.
这完全正确
*Nobody* trusts it as a source. It would be like citing something you read off the side of a subway car
没有人相信它是原始资料 这像是引用你在地铁车厢边上获取的信息
But what Wikipedia *is* good at is directing you to ACTUAL sources.
但是维基百科擅长的是引导你获取真正的资源
Right at the bottom, in that sweet little references section,
就在底部 那个小巧的参考文献区
is a goldmine of all kinds of sources
它是涵盖各种资源的宝库
And even better, the content of the article tells you what kind of information
更好的是 文章的内容会告诉你
you can expect to find in those sources,
你可以从这些资源里找到哪些资源
and sometimes even what pages they’re on.
甚至有时会告诉你在哪一页
It’s fantastic
这不可思议
you can get books, websites, translated primary sources,
你能获取书籍 网址 译本
anything and everything from the reference section
以及参考文献区的所有资料
So as you go through the relevant Wikipedia pages,
所以 当你浏览维基百科相关页面时
any information that catches your eye will have a nice little citation on it.
你看到的任何信息 上面都会有一个很小的引证
So grab that sucker and add it to the list!
收集并添加到列表
And when I say pages plural I mean it!
当涉及到多个页面时 这样做就对了
Pretty much everything has its own dedicated Wikipedia page,
几乎所有东西都有其专属维基百科页面
(except for us)
(除了我们)
but that single page isn’t gon na be enough to get the full picture.
但是 仅此一页不足以让我们了解全局
You want to find every page that relates to the subject matter
你想找到每个主题相关页所涉及的
important places, related people or groups, relevant time periods,
重要地点 相关人员或组织 相关时间段
stuff like that.
诸如此类
Broadly you want to get as much related stuff
总体来说 你要尽量获取更多的相关信息
as you can since that’ll let you contextualise the subject;
因为这样你的主题上下会更连贯
learning about it in isolation only gives you a fragment of the whole picture.
固步自封只能看到冰山一角
Get greedy with it!
要精益求精
you want to know everything about this subject,
你想知道关于这个主题的一切
and that means you don’t need to skimp on the sources you pull together.
这意味着你不必吝啬所收集到的资源
So once you’ve combed through every tangential related Wikipedia page
因此一旦你浏览完所有
on your chosen subject,
与你所选主题有点相关的维基百科页面
noted down a list
列出资源清单
of promising sources and what you expect to find in them,
以及你希望从中获取什么信息
that’s when you enter stage two: HUNTING DOWN SOME SWEET SOURCES!
这时你就要进入第二步:检索优质资源
So now you’ve got a list
现在你已经有了一份资源清单
of sources you think will lead to more information,
你认为这份清单会给你带来更多的信息
and the odds are good,
而且很有可能
most of them are gon na be books.
其中的大部分是书籍
So you can either check your local library catalog and see
所以你要么检索当地的图书馆馆藏目录
if they have the sources you need,
查看是否有你所需要的资源
or you can give the titles a google and see
要么你输入标题用谷歌搜索一下
if you can find them online. Legally,
看是否能在网上找到
of course. Sometimes Google Books has a preview available;
当然 有时谷歌图书可供预览
and sometimes, it even contains the pages you need.
有时甚至包含了你需要的页面
But mostly you’re gonna be looking for e-books or library copies.
但大多数情况下你找到的是电子书籍或者图书副本
Now this advice all applies pretty much universally:
现在这条建议几乎普遍适用
No matter what you’re trying to research,
不管你想研究什么
the process of finding sources is usually going to boil down to:
查找资源的过程通常可以归结为:
find a library or google it and get really lucky.
用图书馆检索或谷歌搜索
But let’s say, for the sake of specificity,
具体来说 假如
you’re researching something… historical.
你正在研究历史
Like a.. mythological figure, for example.
比如 像神话人物
In cases like this, you’re gonna need to start dealing with
这种情况下 你需要着手处理
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES
一次文献和二次文献
Now broadly, if you’re studying a historical thing,
广泛来讲 假如你在研究历史的某个东西
the primary sources are gon na be stuff that was written directly about that thing,
一次文献就是对此次事件进行的直接描述性材料
from people who are point blank on the thing,
来源于该事件的当事人
or otherwise had first-hand experience with its thing-ness.
或者亲身体验过它的其他人
The secondary sources are the stuff written about the primary sources,
二次文献是一次文献的描述性材料
and thus they’re at least one degree of separation away from the original thing.
所以它们与原始事件至少有一定程度的出入
And the number one rule
第一条规则
in any kind of research is you always want to find the primary sources first.
无论做何种研究 你总要先找到一次文献
If they still exist, they don’t always.
如果还有的话 有时没有
If you’re trying to learn about something,
如果你试图了解点什么东西
and you have the option
那你就可以选择
of reading a bunch of first-person accounts of that thing
阅读许多第一人称的叙述性材料
or a book somebody wrote about those first-person accounts of that thing.
或者某人写的有关第一人称的叙述性材料
Choose the first-person accounts,
选择第一人称
It’ll take longer to get through but you’ll get a much more accurate perspective.
将会花费更长的时间但会有个更准确的认知
No text is free from bias,
偏见不可免除
but the farther away the writer was from the subject they’re writing about,
作者越偏离他们所写的主题
the more bias will be present in their interpretation.
他们阐释的内容就存在着越多的偏见
It’s like in the giant n-dimensional game of telephone that is history:
这就像是历史的大型多维传话游戏:
The actual thing you’re trying to research is the starting person.
你真正要研究的是最开始的那些人
And the primary sources are all the people right next to the starting thing
一次文献主要是最开始的那些人
who *probably* heard it pretty clearly.
他们可能听得很清楚
But all the secondary sources are from farther down the line,
但是所有的二次文献就来自下游的人
where you’re starting to get garbled interpretations of interpretations,
你听到的是经过复述的复述 开始出现混乱
and maybe somebody along the way started actively messing with the other players
传话者也可能开始故意扰乱他人
by not actually repeating what they heard in the first place.
篡改他们一开始听到的内容
And…it’s a mess.
结果 简直就是一团糟
Basically, if you want the clearest image possible of the thing,
基本上 如果你想要对事件的可能性有着最明确的认知
you find the primary sources.
你要找一次文献
Now again, purely hypothetically let’s say you’re researching a…
现在再单纯地假设下 比如说你想研究……
Greek god or something,
希腊神之类的
and you want to know what they were like back in the day.
你想知道他们黄金时代是什么样子
your primary sources are going to be the myths about that God
你的一次文献应该是希腊神话
or the hymns recorded in their worship.
或者他们敬拜时记载的赞美诗
And even then, it’s important to note that
而且 值得注意的是
these sources were most likely translated from the original Ancient Greek to English,
这些文献很可能是由原始古希腊文翻译成英语的
and that translation adds a layer of bias as well.
这种译本也增加了一层偏见
Really, for the sake of your own sanity
事实上 理智一点
you’ve got to accept that
你必须接受
you’ll never be able to find the clear unvarnished truth of the thing,
你将永远找不出事情的真相
but the closer you get, the clearer the image will be.
但你离得越近 真相就越清晰
But while primary sources will give you a good look at the thing in question.
尽管一次文献有助于你认真研究争议事件
You actually *do* need secondary sources.
二次文献也同样不可或缺
Specifically, you need secondary sources that help you contextualize the primary sources.
特别是 你需要二次文献帮助你把一次文献语境化
To understand the possible biases and factors present in the primary sources,
为了了解一次文献中可能存在的偏见和因素
you want to know who wrote them and when and what exactly was happening at the time.
你需要明白是谁写的 什么时候写的以及当初到底发生了什么
Primary sources let you examine the thing,
一次文献帮助你研究事情本身
secondary sources let you examine the primary sources.
二次文献帮助你研究一次文献
And it’s very important to do both when you’re doing research.
当你开展研究工作时 两者兼顾很重要
You can’t just take these sources at face value,
你不能只停留于这些文献的表面价值
(TRUST NO ONE)
(别相信任何人)
and you got ta be aware that
你应该明白
the writers all had their personal take on the subject.
作者们对这个问题都有着自己的见解
And the more you know about that take,
你对他们的见解了解得越多
the more you’ll be able to extrapolate
你就能更多地推断出
what parts of the original thing they might have been minimizing or putting the spotlight on.
原作的哪部分被忽略了 哪部分被关注了
It’ll help you get a clearer picture of the original.
这会帮助你更清晰地了解原作
It’s also important not to shy away from
同样重要的是 不要回避
credible sources of information that don’t seem to fit with what you already know about the subject
那些看起来与你所知主题不符的可靠文献资源
If you’re only looking for stuff that agrees with you,
如果你只是查找相符的文献资源
you’re not actually doing research;
你不是在真正地做研究
you’re just looking to confirm what you already think.
你只是在试图确认你的想法
But this is another reason
但这是另外一个
why it’s very important to look at the context for your sources,
你要查看文献资源上下文的原因
to judge whether or not they’re actually credible.
也就是为了评判它们是否真正可信
if your conflicting information is coming from…
如果你的不符信息资源是来自
I don’t know, someone’s unsourced Tumblr post,
我不知道 有人在微博客发布了没有来源的帖子
you might not want to assign it as much literary weight
你也许并不想赋予它
as the complete works of Homer.
和《荷马全集》同等的文学价值
Context for your sources is seriously everything, I can’t stress that enough.
你文献资源的来龙去脉就是一切 我不想再过多强调
So you find the myths and the hymns,
所以你会找到神话和赞美诗
and then you find other versions of the same myths and hymns,
你也会找到其他版本的神话和赞美诗
and then you find some secondary sources
然后你会找到一些
talking about the authors of those myths and hymns,
讨论这些神话集和赞美诗作者的二次文献
and you’ve got so much information about this mythical figure
你收集了这么多的信息资源 包括有关神话人物
and the people who wrote about them, and when all this happened
谁写的它们以及这些都是什么时候发生的
and you don’t know what to do with it.
你不知道怎么处理这些信息资源
This brings me to the next step:
那就让我来到下一步:
BURY YOURSELF IN NOTES
深耕笔记
Take notes on everything.
把一切都记下来
No, Really, this isn’t like class notes,
不 实际上 这可不像课堂笔记
where you write stuff down so you can pass the test on the later
课堂笔记是方便你以后能通过测试
This is a whole different ballgame.
这完全是两码事
If you’re researching a historical or mythical figure, write down EVERYTHING they did.
如果你正在研究一个历史人物或神话人物 把他们做的一切都写下来
If you’ve got accounts from different time periods,
如果你有不同时期的条目信息
write down when they’re from and who put them down.
记下它们是源自何时 谁记载的
Anything interesting about the writers lives? Write that down too.
作家生活中有有趣的事情嘛?也写下来
If your general approach to note-taking is the same as mine,
如果你平常做笔记的方式和我一样
“Eh I’ll remember this I don’t need to write it down”
“嗯 我会记住这些的 没有必要写下来”
that doesn’t apply here.
在这里并不适用
It doesn’t matter if you think you’ll remember it,
你觉得记不住也没关系
you want to write it down anyway,
无论如何你要写下来
because this isn’t about memorizing,
因为这不是记忆的问题
it’s about putting all your information in one place
而是把你所有的信息资源归置一处
so you can deal with it all at once later.
以便以后随时处理
In your notes,
在你的笔记里
you want to distill down everything you could possibly use from the original sources.
你要把可能用到的原始信息资源全部提炼出来
You want to make it so you never have to return to the original text,
做到了这点 你就永远不必再查阅最初的文本
because everything you could possibly be looking for is right there.
因为你可能要找的一切刚好都在这里
If you’re writing a paper or something else that needs direct attribution,
如果你在写论文或者其他需要直接归因的东西
maybe note down some useful quotes with page numbers too,
也许还可以用页码标记一下有用的引言
just to make your life easier down the line.
这只为了让你的生活完全轻松些
This will leave you with a giant pile
这将使你处于一个巨大的信息堆中
of information loosely connected the actual subject at hand.
可以轻松链接手头上现有的主题
And if you’re wondering what you’re supposed to do with this pile…
如果你在思考应该怎么处理这个信息堆
BREAK OUT THE THUMBTACKS AND STRINGS
打开缩略图和字符串
Who’s ready to connect some dots?
准备好连接这些信息点了嘛?
Now that you have a huge heap of everything you know about this person, place or thing,
由于你已经收集了一大堆信息 并了解有关人物 地点和事件的所有一切
you get to start on the fun part: filling in the gaps.
那么你可以从有趣的部分开始:填补空白
You have to take the mess of information you’ve acquired,
你必须整理所获得的混乱信息
organize them in categories
分门别类
lay it all out and start bringing the big picture together.
编排出来 把整体纲要放在一起
This is where you get to be creative.
这就是你的创新之处
You have all these static points of data,
你拥有所有的静态数据点
you just need to find a…
你只需要找到一条
best-fitting curve that connects all the dots into one coherent narrative.
最佳拟合曲线 它能将所有节点衔接为条理分明的叙事
Basically, a thesis that all the evidence you’ve collected supports.
基本上 你搜集的所有论据都支持论点
It’s pure creative puzzle solving and it’s gonna be great.
这绝对是创造性的解谜游戏 超棒的
By the way, if there was any justice in the world
顺便说一下 倘若世间有正义的话
this is what high school English teachers would tell you when they assign essays.
那就是高校英语教师在布置作文时告诉你的
But since they almost always make you figure out the thesis statement first,
但因为他们总是想方设法地让你弄清楚主题陈述
they basically flip the whole process upside down
他们基本上会把整个过程颠倒过来
by making you figure out the big picture rundown before you get any actual evidence.
在你得到确切论据之前先让你明白全局纲要
It’s dumb. Don’t do that.
这是愚蠢的 不要那样做
So once you’ve constructed your thesis out of thumbtacks and yarn
所以一旦你用静态点和拟合线构建好了论文
you just gotta polish it up to be presentable.
你把它润色好就可以了
That’s a whole other video Blue already did.
那就完全是Blue做好的另外一个视频了
So if you’re curious, go ahead and check that out.
如果你好奇的话 就去查看一下吧
Now if you’ll excuse me, I have some conspiracies to unearth.
现在如果你不介意的话 我得先排下嗳气
*Belch*

Oh God
噢 我的天

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开展研究工作的几个实用小技巧

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sigJwoeU6OI

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