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如何画解剖图

How to Do an Anatomy Tracing

如何画解剖图?
How to do an anatomy tracing?
嘿各位 那么我想给你们介绍
Hey guys, so I want to introduce you to
一个我真的很喜欢做的练习
an exercise that I really like doing.
这件事很重要
And it’s something that’s very important
而且这节课将会有 额
and it’s gonna be, uhm,
很多作业
a lot of the assignments throughout this course.
就是摹图
And that’s tracings.
我们要在照片上进行描摹
We’re gonna be doing tracings over photographs.
这很重要因为
And the reason this is important is because
它可以测试你肌肉方面的知识
it tests your knowledge of the muscles.
如果你不知道
If you don’t know
你看到的所有那些凸块和条纹
what the form are that you looking at:
的排列
all those bumps and striations,
你就不了解那块区域的解剖学
then you don’t know the anatomy and of that area.
那么你需要回来重新学习
So you need to go back and study it.
所以摹图有利于暴露缺点
So doing these tracings is really good to expose our weaknesses,
而且这也是识别肌肉
and it’s also just a good practice of identifying
骨骼标志和
the muscles and the bony landmarks and
皮肤表面上你所见的所有结构的最佳实践
all the forms that you’re seeing on surface.
那么这是一个我要展示给你
So this is the example I’m gonna show you
的练习样例 然后
of the exercise and then
在这个视频简介里会有一个链接
in the description of this video I’m gonna have a link
你可以用来下载更多的照片
where you can download a few more photographs.
你们这周的任务就是把我在这里做过的练习
And your assignment for this week is to do the same thing
再做一遍
that I’m gonna show you here.
就是摹一个图 你可以像我一样
Just do a tracing, and you can do it in Photoshop
在Photoshop里做 或者其实你可以
like I’m doing in this video or you could actually
把照片打印出来 在上面放一张描摹的纸
print out the photo, put a piece of tracing paper over,
然后就在上面开始画
and just draw right on top of it.
那也可以 如果你想要
That’s fine too. And if you want to
发布到网上并且获得点评
post it online and get a critique of it.
扫描一下 但很明显最简便的方法
Just scan it, but obviously the cleanest way
就是在Photoshop里做
is to just do it in photoshop,
在照片上加一个图层
add a layer on top of the photograph,
然后直接在上面画
and just draw right on top of it.
那么我们继续前进 开始吧
So let’s go ahead and get started.
我知道之前没有教过你们解剖学
I know I haven’t taught you any Anatomy yet.
所以现在你们只得依靠我的样例了
So for now you’ll have to rely on my examples,
或者依靠书本或网上的图表
or diagrams from books or online.
通过这门课 你们将进行一个快速的解剖学学习
Throughout this course, you’ll be doing this quick anatomies studies.
随着课程的进行
And as the course progresses,
你们将会对所有部位越来越了解
you’ll be getting more and more familiar with all the parts.
现在 我要介绍给你
Right now, I just want to introduce you
这个练习并且让你试一下
to this exercise and have you try it.
你可以在开始的地方做一下记录
So you can document where you’re starting from.
你可以看到我是从
So you can see that I’m starting this one at
顶部的斜方肌开始的
the top with the trapezius muscle.
这对于背部学习来说是一个良好的开端
It’s a good one to start with in a back study.
因为它很大而且通常
Because it’s so large and usually
很容易看到肌肉边缘
easier to see the borders of the muscle.
你可以在这个人身上相当清楚地看到
You can see pretty clearly on this guy
斜方肌的轮廓
at the outline of the trapezius.
就在这里
Right in here, though.
就在连接肩胛骨的地方
Right by where it connects to the scapula.
奇怪的是 某种程度上
It gets a little confusing. The bumps kind of all just
肌肉块边缘都在这个大体区域中
end in this general area. So,
就在那儿 看我指的 那条线的开端
right there where I was indicating the the beginning of that line.
这是肩胛骨的拐角
That’s the corner of the scapula,
这就是事情开始转变的地方
and that’s kind of where things start to turn.
那么我刚刚画的 右边那个
So to the right of that, that I just drew
是第一头斜方肌的附着处
is the attachment of the first head of the trapezius,
然后我要在另一边画了
and then I’m doing it on the other side,
所有的斜方肌都附着在
and all of that just attaches
肩胛冈上
along the spine of the scapula.
你知道吗 一旦它正好到达这里
You know, as soon as it gets to about right here,
到达肩胛冈和
to the corner where the spine of the scapula meets
突然转向的内部边界相会的拐角处
that the inside border that takes a sudden turn,
这就是肌肉的分界处
and that’s where the muscles divide. So,
就在那儿 看那一块
right there, see that part.
那是底部肌肉的边界
That’s the border of the bottom head,
一旦到达肩胛骨
and as soon as it reaches the scapula,
那儿有一块肌腱
you’re gonna have a tendon right there.
那条短线就是肌腱
That little line right there. That’s a tendon.
那部分是平的
So that part is gonna be flat.
你看不到肌肉块
You’re not gonna see a bump of the muscle.
肌肉边缘就在那儿
So the muscle ends right there,
就在那里 然后继续前进
right there and then it continues
它通过肌腱和肩胛冈底部相连
and connects to the spine of the scapula on the bottom
这就是为什么你能
with a tendon, so that’s why you’re
在那儿看见拐角了
seeing a corner there is, because,
因为 那部分肌肉是不结实的
there’s no, there’s no meaty part of the muscle.
它只是肌腱 额 好吧
It’s just tendon. Uhm…okay,
那么继续前进来到三角肌
so moving on to the deltoid.
三角肌也和肩胛冈相连
The deltoid also attaches to that spine of the scapula.
你可以看到底部三角肌正指向
You can see the the bottom portion points right
斜方肌的肌腱
at the the tendon of the trapezius,
它转过来 一路绕到
and it swings around and goes all the way
肱骨的侧边
to the lateral side of the humerus,
然后又转回来到前面
and then swings back around to the front,
和锁骨相连
and attaches to the clavicle.
所以其实三角肌有三束
So the deltoid actually has three heads to it as well.
包括前束测束和后束
It’s got the front the lateral and the back.
那么当我在画轮廓的时候
So I like to identify the three heads
我要来识别一下这三束
when I’m outlining the borders.
那个测束 你可以看到它连向
So that lateral head you can see it attaches to the,
肩胛冈的终端
to the end of the spine of the scapula,
然后前束和后束
and then the front and back heads they,
它们稍微向远处延伸
they extend a little bit further
连向肩胛骨上的锁骨
to attach to clavicle on the scapula.
同样 看一下在肌肉块背后
And same thing in here, see how
三角肌的多肉部分是如何收尾的
after the bump, the meaty part of the deltoid ends.
那儿仍有一个肌腱延伸向
There’s still a tendon that extends to
一个地方
roughly about the same spot as where,
斜方肌的肌腱也连向这个地方
where the tendon of the trapezius attach to.
好吧 另一侧再来一遍
Okay, same thing on the other side.
就在那里 有一个肌腱区域
Right there, there’s a tendon area,
它转到前面
and it swings around to the front.
前束和测束间有一个分水岭
There’s a separation of the front and lateral head.
三角肌结实部分在
And there’s the ending of the meaty part
肌腱开头处收尾
in the beginning of the tendon.
在那儿我只是指出了 额
And there I’m just indicating emm……
肩胛冈的边缘
an edge for that spine of the scapula,
有点像是创造了一个万物汇聚的山脉
just kind of creating a ridge where everything connects.
现在我要介绍大圆肌和背阔肌了
Now I’m moving on to the teres major
肌肉在这个姿势下伸展开了
and latissimus, which is really stretched out in this pose.
他正举着手臂 额
He’s lifting his arms, and, uhm,
大圆肌一路伸展到那里
it’s stretching out the teres major all the way up there.
它很细小 同时肩胛骨旋转前进
So it’s very thin and also the scapula is rotated forward.
所以你看不到它的全部
So you’re not seeing all of it.
它很微小
So it’s very subtle, but it’s enough to
但是仍可以越过它去创造这块背阔肌了
still create this bump of the lat that goes over it.
你可以看看底部是怎样的
So you could see how on the bottom
那儿重叠了
then there’s an overlap.
背阔肌从底下穿过斜方肌去往脊柱
The lats wings in and under the trapezius to the spine.
然后我正在指出肩胛骨的边界
Then I’m indicating the border of the scapula,
因为那是大圆肌在
because that’s where the teres major will connect
底部拐角连接的地方
right on that bottom corner.
给冈下肌画一些方向线
Some directional lines for the infraspinatus.
好吧 移动到这里 来到了第七块颈椎骨
Okay, moving up here. You got the seventh cervical vertebra,
其实我正在看一些凸块
and I’m seeing a few bumps there’s actually.
我看到了第七块颈椎
So I’m actually seeing the seventh cervical
也看到了隐现的第一块胸椎
and a very subtle indication of the first thoracic as well.
这很常见 有时候你会看到这两块肌肉
And that’s pretty common. Sometimes you’ll see the two kind of
合并在一起形成一大块
merged together in one large bump.
肿块很大以至于很明显
And the bump is so large that it’s obviously
这不只是一块脊椎 这是一组脊椎
not just one vertebrae.It’s a grouping of them,
但是它们都被
but they’re all softened out by
覆盖在上面的东西柔化了
all the stuff on top of it.
好吧 看手臂上的脊肌
Okay, you got the ridge muscles of the arm,
和二头肌前面的肱肌
and brachialis right in front of that bicep.
来到另一侧
Something on the other side.
三头肌 其实我看到了
Tricep, and I’m actually seeing the
三头肌的测束和长束
lateral head and the long head of the tricep there
它们通过肌腱连向中间的肘部
with a tendon, and connects to the elbow in between the two.
好吧 那儿有点空隙
Okay, a little gap in there.
这就是脊柱所在之地
That’s where you got the spine,
在底部你通常可以看见竖脊肌
and then at the bottom you could usually see
它们像两根管子
the erector group.They’re like two pipes,
从后腰往下到尾骨处
and lower back coming down to the tailbone.
我发现这个小管子像背部中间的肌肉
this little pipe like muscles in the middle of the back
因为你可以看到
and I found that because you could see where the
边上的斜肌
oblique muscle on the side
来到底部的拐角
kind of comes to a corner at the bottom
然后它变成了臀肌
And then it becomes the gluteus.
那个小点是髂骨
So I knew that little point was the iliac crest,
然后我就靠中间
and then I just extended the lats
向下延伸背阔肌到髂骨
down to the crest more towards the middle.
你可以看到背阔肌很大
You could see the lat muscles pretty large.
它覆盖了近一半
It covers probably about half,
可能比背部的一半稍小
maybe a little less than half of the back.
但是你可以看它底下的东西
But you could see things underneath,
它像是我之前讨论过的竖脊肌
it like the erector group that I was talking about,
这个小管子像背部中间的肌肉
this little pipe like muscles in the middle of the back.
它们在这片背阔肌底下
Those are underneath the sheet of the lat,
但是你可以看到大量小管子穿过
but you can see the volume poked through,
因为其实小部分肌肉
because the mini part of the muscle actually ends
在我画的这个地方结束
right where I’m drawing right now,
之后是一块细薄的肌腱板
and then after that, it’s just a thin tendinous sheet
形状有点难画
having a little trouble with that shape,
可能应该先画手势线
probably should have just started with the gesture line,
然后插入更小的部分
and then added the smaller segments,
从细节开始
and that happens when you start with details.
好吧 然后其实竖脊肌有
Okay, and then the erector group actually has
从四面八方而来的大量小管子
this volume that comes out from the sides as well.
这里并没有看到很多
Not seeing too much of that there,
但是我觉得我看到了显现出来的一点点
but I think I see a little indication
刚加进去的
of this one just adding it in.
好吧 现在我要进里面
Okay, now I’m just kind of going in,
我想加一些线
and I like to add some lines
用来描绘肌肉纤维的方向
to describe the direction of the muscle fibers.
额 这看起来很酷 就试着画的好看一点
Uhm,it looks cool, just makes the trying look
其实这已经说明你知道
a little bit better and actually just shows
肌肉在哪里连接和插入
that you know where the muscles attach
因为如果你只知道形状
and insert, because if you just know the shape,
好吧 说句不好听的话
well, it’s gonna hurt you
当你开始打阴影
when you start to shade and
打一些半色调或者斑点
some of the half-tones or just become spots instead of
但它不是真正显现出纤维
actual indication of fibers or,
只知道纤维的方向
and also just knowing the direction of the fibers
就会帮助你理解肌肉功能
helps you to understand the muscle function.
所以我喜欢加方向线 你也可以
So I like to add that. You can also
不画纤维
instead of doing the fibers.
你可以直接画截面
You can try doing just cross sections,
我意思是 画纤维的截面就好了
across contours, I mean, of the volume.
那么很高兴你真正
So that’s good to show that you’re understanding
理解了体积 你懂的
the actual volume.You know,
就是一个圆形或者是
it’s just a round shape or is this more
更平 更方的
flat, or more squarish. But,
但是对于这个 我正在画肌肉纤维方向
for this one, I’m doing the musclefiber direction.
这也有助于显示体积
It also helps to show the volume too.
你懂的 横截面很明显会很有帮助
You know, that the cross contour will definitely helped it
但是肌肉纤维有点儿
with that. But the muscle fibers
像横截面
in a way are kind of a cross contour.You’re
你正在在画线条包围体积
wrapping those lines around the volume.
那么你应该根据肌肉覆盖的方式
So, you should show some curvature
体现出一些弧度
depending on which way that muscle wraps.
如果你只是到处画直线
If you’re just doing straight lines everywhere,
那会让它扁平化
that’s gonna flatten it.
好吧 那么现在我正在给一些区域涂白色
Okay, so now I’m going to be adding some white areas.
我喜欢看起来清晰一点
I like to make it clear, what’s muscle
让它们有肌肉 肌腱或某种薄片的样子
and what’s tendon or some kind of sheet.
那么我在照片层上再加一个图层
So I added another layer, underneath the lines,
图层放在刚才画的肌肉线条层底下
the muscle lines that I drew, and above the photograph.
就是说 图层在肌肉线条层和照片层中间
So, it’s in between the two.
我刚挑了一个白色
And I just got a white color,
我要在那些区域打阴影
and I’m just shading in those areas,
肩胛骨的地方
this bone of the scapula.
你可以看到这真的有助于肌肉立体化
You can see it really helps them to pop the muscles too.
那是脊柱 就在那里
That’s the spine right there.
这就是从斜方肌出发的所有肌腱部分
It’s all the tendinous area from the trapezius.
我打算给里面的部位打上阴影
and inside that, I was about to shade it,
但是然后我想起来其实那是
but then I remembered that’s actually,
那底下的肌肉是菱形肌
that’s muscle underneath there, the rhomboids
给这块平面肌腱画一个方向
and then give this one a direction,the tendon from the flat.
然后就画一条细线来显示脊线 显示肩胛骨的边缘
And then just a little line show theridge, the border of the scapula.
一个小小的脊线 那么就是骨盆的髂骨
A little ridge therefore the iliac crest of the pelvis.
我正在做一点清理工作
And I’m just doing a little bit cleanup work
让它好看一点
make it look nicer,
然后是那里 整理一下三角肌
and right there is attending from thedeltoid,
这就是如何画解剖图啦
and that’s how you do an anatomical tracing
继续前进 根据说明下载图片
go ahead and download the images from the description.
那么你可以完成这礼拜的作业了
So you can do the assignment for this week,
把它上传到Facebook Twitter或Instagram上
post it on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram
当然你要把它放到
and definitely post it in the Facebook group
我专门为这门课创建的Facebook群里
I created specifically for this course.
你可以在facebook.com/groups/anatomy4artists上
You can find the group ‘Anatomy for Artists’
找到‘Anatomy for Artists’这个群
at facebook.com/groups/anatomy4artists
网址里说的‘for’是数字‘4’
And the ‘for’ is the number ‘4’,
这是一个社区 学生们可以用来
it’s a community where students of the course
上传练习 点评其他人的作业 问问题
can post exercises, critique each other’s work, ask questions,
上传有用的解剖学内容并且主要去帮助其他人学习解剖学
post useful anatomy contentand basically help one another learn anatomy.
试着互帮互助
Try to help each other.
我也许并不能够
I probably won’t be able to
对每一个观看视频的学员都亲自点评
give a personal critique to every person watching this.
但是你们仍可以通过
but you guys can still help each other
加入Facebook群进行互帮互助
by participating in the Facebook group.
这礼拜 有另外4个解剖描摹样例
This week, the premium section has
作为额外练习
four more examples of anatomy tracings
照片和我布置的这个作业是一样的
It’s the same photos that I’m assigning for this exercise.
如果你想见见我的话
So if you want to see me,
试着完成作业
do it after you try it.
这很适合作为额外练习
It’s available in the premium section.
好吧 感谢收看
Okay, thank you for watching.
感谢你和小伙伴一起分享这个视频 再见!
And thank you for sharing this with your friends. BYE BYE!

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译制信息
视频概述

适合没有解剖学基础的小白学习

听录译者

苏打百合

翻译译者

Ayan

审核员

审核员 NA

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qP--30V8ZA4

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