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如何拆毁摩天大楼 – 译学馆
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如何拆毁摩天大楼

How To Dispose of a Skyscraper | The B1M

THE B1M
《B1M建筑》
The scale and ambition of skyscrapers lead many of us to view them
雄伟壮丽的摩天大楼总能吸引我们的目光
as permanent fixtures on our city skylines.
他们好像被永远的固定在了城市的地平线上
But for all their size and presence
但是 尽管它们体型庞大 存在感强烈
these huge structures are in fact just as replaceable
这些巨大的建筑事实上也是会被取代的
as anything else we built.
就像其他的建筑一样
So what do you do with buildings this big
所以当规模如此宏大的建筑寿终正寝时
when they reach the end of their lives?
该拿它们怎么办呢?
How do you demolish them in the middle of
在高度发展和人口密集的中心区域
such heavily developed and densely populated areas?
该怎样拆除他们呢?
To date,
迄今为止
only a handful of towers taller than 150 metres
在超过150米的高楼中
have ever been intentionally destroyed.
只有少数几座被有意拆除
The process is highly complex, specialist
这个过程高度复杂 专业
and fraught with challenges.
并且充满挑战
In a world that is constructing more tall buildings than ever before
如今世界各地正在构建比以往所有的都要高得多的建筑
and with several structures now slated for demolition
而且为了给更高的大楼开路
to make way for even larger towers.
有几栋摩天大楼已经准备要拆除了
This is how to dispose of a skyscraper.
接下来是摩天大楼的拆毁方法
Skyscrapers are a highly effective way of
在人口密集的城市中心
creating space in dense city centres
摩天大楼大大拓展了城市的空间
but with life-spans ranging from 50-100 years,
但是它们只有50年到100年的使用寿命
many no longer provide the right type of space needed in a modern metropolis.
而且许多高楼已经无法满足现代都市所需的空间类型
Now, an increasing number of tall buildings around the world
如今 世界各地摩天大楼
are being earmarked for demolition,
被要求拆除的越来越多
clearing the way for even larger developments.
就是为了给更高的大楼的建造腾出空间
In New York City, the 216-metre 270 Park Avenue recently
派克大街270号大楼 高达270米
became the tallest skyscraper ever to be intentionally demolished,
曾经纽约最高的摩天大楼也被有意拆除
making way for JPMorgan Chase’s new 70 storey structure.
为摩根大通新建的70层的巨楼让出了空间
When we think about the demolition of a building
当我们谈到巨型建筑的拆除时
many of us imagine wrecking balls and dramatic implosions.
许多人想到的是拆楼机的大锤和剧烈的爆炸
But while these methods may be the quickest way to destroy large structures
虽然这些方法可能是摧毁体育馆或赌场
– like stadiums or casinos
这类大型建筑的最快方法
their use within built-up, heavily populated areas is challenging
但对于高楼林立 人口密集居住的区域这显然不合适
and the effects of noise, dust, citizen safety
因为会对居民的安全有影响 还会产生噪音和灰尘
and proximity to other built assets prohibits their use.
而且邻近的建筑拥有者也不会同意这样做
Rather than coming down in a matter of seconds,
相比于让高楼在顷刻间轰然倒塌
the removal of a skyscraper is in fact a carefully planned process
摩天大楼的拆除其实是一个精心策划的过程
that is carried out piece-by-piece,
需要一层一层的拆除
much like the construction of the building, but in reverse.
就像盖一座楼 只是过程相反
It’s perhaps easier to think of the process as “deconstruction”
比起用“拆毁”来形容这个过程
rather than “demolition”.
或许用“分解”更贴切些
While skyscraper disposal can take a few different forms,
虽然拆除摩天大楼的方式各有不同
the primary method sees contractors and engineers
但首要的方法是让承包商和工程师
start from the top of a structure and work their way down.
从建筑物的顶部开始 按照自己的想法慢慢向下拆除
Once the relevant demolition plans and permits are approved,
一旦有关的拆卸计划及许可证获得批准
contractors must first contain and remove any harmful materials or substances
承包商必须首先管理和清除所有有害材料或物质
such as asbestos
如石棉等
to avoid contaminating the surrounding area.
以避免对附近区域造成污染
With internal strip-out works underway,
随着内部工程的进行
the building becomes enclosed in scaffolding and netting
建筑物开始用手架和网布围起来
to minimise the impact of noise, dust and debris
这是为了最大程度的减小噪音 灰尘以及碎骸
on the public and neighbouring properties.
对公共场合及邻近财物造成的影响
While this can take the form of a complete enclosure
而这可以采取完全包围的办法
like that which went up around Sydney’s 188-metre AMP Tower
就像2019年在悉尼市悉尼塔188米处高度的那个工程
during its partial demolition in 2019.
施工期间的局部拆除用的就是这个方法
The sheer scale of 270 Park Avenue
规模宏大的公园大道270号大楼
sees the disposal process broken-up into four phases.
将拆除过程分成了四个阶段
Levels 16, 29 and 41 of the structure have been stripped-out
它的第16层 第29和第41层都已经被拆除完成
and modified into bracing floors,
并修改成为支撑层
supporting the scaffolding for each section of the tower above.
搭建脚手架来支撑拆除层上面的每一部分
As each section is fully enclosed, internal fixtures, services,
当每个部分都被围住以后 从内部固有设备和服务性设施开始动工
and eventually the building’s windows are removed
到最后面才拆外部的窗户
leaving only the concrete and steel superstructure remaining.
仅保留了钢筋混凝土骨架
This process is repeated for each section of the tower.
大楼的每一层都避免不了这个过程
The method of moving waste material
再就是废弃物的搬运
from the top of the building down to street level
大楼顶部的废弃物必须要搬到平地上来
varies between disposal projects,
这一点上不同的工程有不同的办法
but contractors tend to use chutes and hoists for non-structural wastes,
但承包商们大多倾向于用溜槽和升降机搬运那些废弃物
minimizing the time that cranes are needed on site.
而极少时间用到地面的桥式起重机
With windows and cladding removed and
随着窗户和覆盖层的移除
the tower stripped to its core superstructure,
大楼只剩下核心混凝土层
small excavators and handheld tools are used to
核心混凝土层的拆除
break-up the concrete floor slabs and steel framing.
需要用到的是打洞机和小型手提式的工具
This process is steadily repeated level-by-level
一层一层地连续重复这个过程
until the skyscraper is no more.
直到摩天大楼不复存在
Though there are alternatives to this method
但是有其他替代选择
such as this “creative demolition” in Japan,
比如日本的“创意拆迁”法
where all work is contained within a hydraulic framework
就是在一个液压框架中进行所有操作
the principles remain much the same.
所有方法原则上基本相同
While tearing down an entire skyscraper could be seen as wasteful
拆除整整一座摩天大楼可以说是暴殄天物
it’s important to note that landfill costs account for
务必要注意的是 在一份建筑拆除合同里
a large proportion of a demolition contract.
垃圾填埋费用占很大比例
As such, every effort is made to reduce the amount of waste material
因此 人们努力通过回收和重复利用废料
that is sent to landfill by reusing and recycling waste as far as possible.
尽可能减少垃圾填埋
To date, 270 Park Avenue has reportedly
据报道 迄今公园大道270号大楼
diverted over 90% of its waste away from landfill,
避免了超过90%的废物材料被填埋处理
putting it well ahead of LEED’s highest standards set for demolition projects.
远超《绿色建筑评估体系》中拆除工程的最高标准
The cost and effort required to fully dispose of skyscraper
完全拆除摩天大楼花费的代价和精力
makes it a significant undertaking
让它成为了一个意义重大的任务
and the process is seen as a last resort amongst developers.
这种处理方式也被开发商视为最后的手段
Though more skyscrapers are set to be demolished as urban populations expand,
尽管随着人口增长 越来越多的大厦亟待拆除
building adaptation is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to demolition.
但改建正逐渐代替拆毁成为更好的选择
This process sees skyscrapers significantly altered for new uses
此过程中 摩天大楼会被有效改造以满足新的需求
while retaining the bulk of their superstructures.
但依然保留大部分结构
New York City’s Woolworth Building had its upper floors converted to luxury residential apartments
纽约伍尔沃斯大楼 将其高层改建成豪华公寓
when the tower’s structure prevented it from offering the open-plan offices
因为这栋楼的构造不能满足大公司
that large companies required.
开放式办公的需求
While in Sydney, the redundant AMP Tower will retain over 60% of its original structure
在悉尼 停用的悉尼塔将保留原来60%的构造
as it is transformed into Quay Quarter Tower,
被改造成216米高的码头区塔
a 216-metre sustainable skyscraper.
一座可持续摩天大楼
If you enjoyed this video, and would like to get more
如果你喜欢这个视频 并且想从
from the definitive video channel for construction.
这个专注建筑的频道里看到更多视频
Subscribe to The B1M.
就订阅《B1M建筑》吧

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视频概述

随着时代发展 以前的摩天大厦不能满足新时代的需求 因而需要被拆毁 本视频具体介绍了拆毁的流程和方法以及用改建来代替拆毁的更明智选择

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b-H7E-KQgHQ

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