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环保的绿色葬礼

How to Die in an Eco-Friendly Way | Green Death 101

Death might be life’s natural and unavoidable conclusion,
死亡或许是人生不可避免的归宿
but humans have ensured that what happens to our bodies afterward is anything but.
但我们都确信 死后尸体的处理绝非如此单一
For more than a century,
一个多世纪以来
Americans’ burial practices have prevented the Earth from reusing
美国人的葬礼习俗 都导致地球无法重新吸收利用
our precious raw materials after we kick the bucket.
我们死后尸体中蕴含的资源
Embalming may be our worst offender.
其中最坏的办法大概就是防腐处理
The practice of filling bodies with chemicals
这指的是将福尔马林一类的防腐剂
like formaldehyde to preserve them
注入尸体 来保存它
dates back to ancient Egypt.
这种习俗可以追溯到古埃及
But it caught on stateside in the mid-1800s
但直到19世纪中叶 这个技术才在美国流行
as a way to transport fallen Civil War soldiers.
当时是用于运输南北战争阵亡将士遗体
Today, U.S. morticians embalm roughly one million people every year.
现在 美国每年约有一百万具尸体被防腐处理
It takes between 3 and 4 gallons
3到4加仑的防腐剂
of chemicals to preserve the average body,
才能保存一具尸体
and the ripple effects are numerous and nasty.
而且还会引起许多连锁反应 非常恼人
Conserved corpses can go on display in caskets that,
防腐处理过的尸体会被放入棺材
collectively, use tons of wood and steel,
打造这些棺材要成吨的木材和钢材
which we then bury in concrete containers.
然后棺材又被放入混凝土墓穴
Instead of returning bodily nutrients,
这不仅导致尸体中的一些营养成分
like potassium and calcium, to the ground,
如钾与钙 无法被土壤吸收
we slowly molder while shielded from the dirt.
还导致尸体反而和土壤隔开 缓慢地腐烂
Lack of oxygen causes wasting flesh to release methane,
而缺氧的环境会导致肌体腐烂时 产生甲烷
a greenhouse gas more potent than
这是一种温室气体
the carbon dioxide we’d produce in open air.
比我们呼出的二氧化碳更具破坏性
Meanwhile, embalming fluid can leak into soil and groundwater,
同时 防腐剂会泄露到土壤与地下水里
potentially at hazardous concentrations
甚至浓度可能很高 富有毒性
—making our final contribution to humankind toxic ooze.
那么我们给人类最后的“贡献” 就会是留下有毒废物
An option that’s becoming more popular in the U.S. is cremation.
现在越来越多的美国人选择火葬
We now cremate around half of our bodies,
目前 约半数尸体被火化处理
and if the trend continues,
如果增长的趋势保持下去
that number will reach nearly 75 percent by the year 2035.
在2035年前 火化率会达到近75%
But despite its apparent minimalism, cremation is resource-intensive too.
然而 火化虽然看似简约 却也同样浪费资源
It takes around 28 gallons of fuel to turn one person into ash.
约28加仑的燃料 才能火化一具尸体
That’s about how much gas it would take to fill up a Hummer H1.
这大概可以加满一辆悍马H1
Still, cremation’s carbon footprint is
不过 火化产生的碳排放
10 percent lower than embalming and burying,
还是要比土葬防腐过的尸体低10%的
since urns don’t have lawns to mow and water.
因为火化没有墓地 不用护理 浇灌草坪
These days, Americans are starting to seek options that
近来 美国人开始寻找其他的选择
minimize the environmental impact of their afterlives.
希望葬礼对环境的影响降到最低
More than 70 percent of U.S. cemeteries say
美国有超过70%的公墓表示
they’ve seen increased demand for so-called “green funerals.”
越来越多的人想要“绿色葬礼”服务
Such services might use nontoxic embalming fluid,
这类服务可能是使用无毒防腐剂
like essential oils instead of formaldehyde,
例如精油 来代替福尔马林
or just put bodies in the ground as is.
或者不对尸体做任何处理
Some religious groups have always done so:
有些宗教就一直这么做的:
Judaism and Islam, for example, traditionally don’t practice embalming.
例如犹太教和伊斯兰教 就没有尸体防腐的传统
Many state laws currently require burials or cremations of some kind,
美国一些州 有法律规定采用特定形式的土葬或火葬
so organizations like Washington state’s Urban Death Project
因此 有一些组织 例如华盛顿州的“城市死亡项目”
are pushing local legislation
就正在推进当地立法
to add more postmortem options.
想要给人们提供多样的葬礼选择
One alternative is laying bodies in sawdust-filled vessels
其中一种选择 是将尸体放进填满木屑的容器里
to reduce them into compost.
制成肥料
Washington became the first state to legalize the process on May 21, 2019.
2019年5月21日 华盛顿州成为第一个将此合法化的州
Each person turned into plant food
该组织评估 将一具尸体制成肥料
in lieu of the usual treatment saves about
和传统葬礼相比
one metric ton of carbon dioxide, according to the group’s own assessment.
可以减少一吨的二氧化碳排放
This might be more palatable to Americans
这比其他一些习俗更令美国人接受
than rituals like the Tibetan sky burial,
比如西藏的天葬
which deposits bodies to decompose on mountaintops.
因为天葬要将尸体放在山顶 任其腐烂
Leaving our dead for scavengers probably
让腐食动物处理我们的尸体
isn’t the next big trend,
不会很快流行起来
but we’re coming around to the idea that
但我们正在尝试理解
the greenest way to die is to encourage decomposition,
想要最环保的葬礼 必须得让尸体自然分解
not stop it.
而不是阻止分解
And our greener deaths will help to make the planet a greener place.
而更绿色环保的葬礼 也会让地球充满更多绿色

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视频概述

该视频讲解了美国尸体防腐、土葬与火葬对环境的破坏,以及绿色丧葬方式近来在美国的兴起、趋势及其意义。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YvonneYY

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2Mdn_yNxiQ

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