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How to Design Muscles and Tendons - Drawing Anatomy for Artists

[Theme music]
大家好 我是Stan Prokopenko 欢迎收看Proko 今天我们将要讲授
Hello, my name is Stan Prokopenko.Welcome to Proko! This is the second part of the Intro
to Muscles Lesson.
让我们回顾一下 看看肌肉的实际构成部分 有两部分
Let’s take a step back and look at what a muscle actually is. There’re two parts,
肌腹 以及肌腱 让我们从肌腹来讲起
the belly of the muscle, and the tendons. We’ll start with the belly.
肌腹是由肌纤维组成 肌纤维通常分布在肌肉轴心周围 虽然
The belly is comprised of muscle fibers. They usually follow the axis of the muscle, though
当然也有一些例外 这点我过一会儿讲到 通常在肌肉活跃的情况下 肌纤维会聚集形成在表层可见的肌纤维束
there are exceptions. More on that in a minute. Muscle fibers group into bundles, which can
通常在肌肉活跃的情况下 肌纤维会聚集形成在表层可见的肌纤维束
be seen on the surface form, usually when the muscle is active.
而奇异的是 肌肉褶皱与皮肤皱襞通常会沿着在肌纤维的垂直方向
Here’s something cool. Wrinkles and skin folds always happen in the perpendicular direction
而奇异的是 肌肉褶皱与皮肤皱襞通常会沿着在肌纤维的垂直方向
to the muscle fibers.
Pop quiz! The muscle of your forehead lifts your eyebrows and causes horizontal creases
across your forehead. What direction is the muscle fiber?
[Skelly Calculator Scene]
It’s vertical… The muscle fibers are vertical.
当你的肌肉收缩时 是肌腹在缩短 而非肌腱
When you flex a muscle, it’s the belly of the muscle that shortens, not the tendons.
当你的肌肉伸展时 也是肌腹在延伸 而并不是肌腱
And when you stretch, it’s the belly of the muscle that you’re stretching, not the
tendons. Tendons have their own thing going on.
它们像绷带一样 连结肌肉与骨骼
Tendons are like the tape that attach the muscles to the bones
又各有特点 不同肌腱有着不同外形 长度以及厚度
they do have personality. The shape, length, and thickness varies from tendon to tendon.
肌腱很强韧 足以在肌肉表层聚集成束 它们于是就
Tendons are thick enough that they’ll add mass to the surface form. They can appear
as these long tubes that we typically think of as tendons. When nearby muscles are bulging
out, tendons appear as slightly recessed planks.
These forms can help you identify where a
muscle is.
另外 组成肌腱的纤维组织与组成韧带和筋膜的是相同的
By the way, “tendons” are made of the same fibrous tissue as ligaments and fasciae,
只不过韧带是骨与骨之间的连接 而筋膜是肌肉与肌肉之间的连接
but “ligaments” attach a bone to a bone and “fasciae” attach a muscle to a muscle.
腱膜则是一种特殊的肌腱 覆盖较广阔且较薄 对于艺术家来说
An aponeurosis is a special type of tendon that’s large and thin. For artists, that
means that it won’t obscure the form of the muscles beneath it. For example, your
你的后背下部事实上是由背阔筋膜包裹的 但你从来没有察觉 因为
lower back is actually covered by your lat’s aponeurosis, but you’d never know, because
背阔筋膜极其纤薄 以至于其深面肌肉结构可以展现得清清楚楚
aponeurosis…es…are so thin, and the forms of the deeper muscles show through.
有些肌腱还会嵌入在肌腹中 这样的肌腱称为肌鞘
Sometimes tendons are embedded inside the belly of the muscle, which is called a tendinous
intersection. All of the divisions on the rectus abdominis that cut out the 6-pack are
a result of these tendinous intersections.
有趣的是 肌腹与肌腱的长度比例
What’s interesting is… the length of a muscle belly versus the length of the tendon
是因人而异的 而肌纤维适度偏长的形体往往会
varies from person to person. Bodies with proportionately longer muscle fibers tend
更悦目一些 即使看起来肌肉极发达的人 他们肌肉的塑型
to look more graceful. Even if the individual is very muscular, the muscles appear to curve
通常也是勾勒得十分雅致修长 较长的肌腱意味着肌腹不得不
in and out in elegant, slender slopes. Longer tendons means that the muscle mass has to
变短 所以肌肉就不得不那样紧张兀然地臌胀起来 而造成一种
be shorter, so muscles appear as abrupt protrusions and depressions. The overall look is bulky
with contours that look like a mountain range.
这里是一位有着长肌肉的超级英雄形象 和同样是这位
Here’s an example of a superhero with longer muscles. And here’s an example of the same
superhero with shorter muscles.
Muscle Groups
到这里就快要讲完啦!为了给这堂课画一个完美的句号 来给大家一个小小的建议
We’re almost done! To wrap up this intro to muscles, I’m going to give you a tip
来简化你图画中的肌肉 相邻肌肉中有着一致
for simplifying muscles in your drawings. Muscles nearby each other that have the same
功能的可以归为一群 如我们大腿上有一个肌群叫股四头肌 虽然
function can be grouped together, like how we group the “quads” in the leg. Although
准确的说呢 它是四块独立的肌肉 但它们有相似的功能 所以它们会
technically four individual muscles, they all have a similar function, so they’re
同时舒张 当它们舒张时 它们变得十分协调 处于同一种状态
all at rest at the same time. And when they rest, they blend together and appear as one
form. Muscle groups are separated from each other by a soft surface furrow.
肌肉的各种类型 ……可以在付费课程中找到 如果你想要学习
Types of muscle… available in the premium section. If you’d like to learn about the
组成人类身体的八种肌肉类型 登录proko.com/anatomy 就能够获得资源
8 types of muscles found throughout the body, head on over to proko.com/anatomy. Get the
更多优质解剖课程视频 三维模型 以及绘画展示
premium anatomy course for access to the extended videos, 3d models, and more drawing demonstrations.
来吧!我知道你喜欢 如果是这样 不要吝啬哦~
C’mon you know you want it. If you like this video, don’t be selfish. Share
分享给你的朋友 如果你也想上传视频 就请点击订阅。
it with your friends, and if you want to be updated about new videos click this button or go to proko.com slash subscribe.
嗨 看到我新的App了没?
Hey, have you see my new App?
Skelly the Pausible Anatomy Modle for Artists.
登录我们的官网Proto.com/SKelly 应用软件 或者点击此处按钮下载iOS或安卓版
Go to the or Proto.com/SKelly APP. or get it on iOS or Android