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如何设计牢不可破的机场安检

How to Design Impenetrable Airport Security

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2015年 一则令人震惊的报导详述了
In 2015, a bombshell report came out detailing how the TSA,
95%毒品 易爆品 武器
the agency responsible for airport security in the US,
及其它违禁物品是如何
missed 95% of drugs, explosives, weapons,
通过美国运输安全管理局(TSA)扫描仪测试的
and other prohibited items sent through their scanners in a test.
2016年 这个测试结果还是一样
In 2016, the test was repeated with the sameresult.
到了2017年
The following year, 2017,
再做一次测试 成功率有所提高
the test was repeated again with an improved success rate,
但仍有70%违禁品通过扫描仪
but still, it let 70% of prohibited items through.
事实上 在美国
In fact, within the US,
没有任何证据能证明
there’s no evidence that
美国运输安全管理局成功阻止过一次恐怖袭击
the TSA has ever prevented a terrorist attack
在美国以外的地方
and outside the US,
机场安检阻止恐怖袭击的例子屈指可数
there are very few examples of physical airport security thwarting an attack.
机场安检放慢乘客们的脚步
Airport security slows people down,
增加了开销
increases cost,
但在提高安全性方面却收效甚微
and yet does little to actually improve safety
所以可以保险地讲机场安保是无用的
so it’s safe to say that airport security is broken,
但为什么呢?
but why?
飞行就是从一个地方到另一个地方
Since the purpose of aviation is to get from one place to another,
因此单纯由一个国家调控这一行业是很难的
it’s tough for a single country to regulate the industry.
相反 国际民航组织
Instead, the International Civil AviationOrganization,
就做得很好
a United Nations agency, does.
除两个联合国成员国
All but two UN member countries,
列支敦士登和多米尼加
Liechtenstein and Dominica,
其它都加入了国际民航组织
are part of the ICAO
因此该组织的条例多少具有普遍性
so its regulations are more or less universal.
他们负责确保世界各地的
They’re the ones responsible for making sure
航空运输以相同的方式运行
that air transport works the same way all around the world,
但是他们对机场安全的要求相当模糊
but what they require for airport security is rather inconcrete.
只是简单规定
They simply say,
“需要采取一些防护措施防止武器
“ measures need to be established to prevent weapons, explosives
易爆品或其它危险设备 物品或物质进入
and any other dangerous devices, articles or substances,
它们可能被用于非法干涉行为
which may be used to commit an act of unlawful interference,
无论怎样 无论用什么方式
the carriage and bearing of which is not authorized,
民用航空飞机都
from being introduced,
不允许运输和携带
by any means whatsoever,
这些被引进的东西
on board an aircraft engaged in civil aviation.
本来 他们只要求
Essentially, all they require is that
乘客登机之前
before a passenger gets onboard a plane,
机场安保要确保他们没携带武器
the airport assures they don’t have weapons.
虽然是国际民航组织决定机场安检满不满足要求
While the ICAO does determine whether this requirement has been fulfilled,
但这取决于每个国家怎样实现这一目标
it’s up to each country to decide how they achieve that.
在美国 机场安保是这样运行的
In the US, airport security works like this.
办好登机手续后 要检查乘客的证件
After check-in, a passenger goes to have their documents checked,
然后把他们的包送往X光扫描仪
puts their bags through an x-ray scanner,
接着乘客通过金属探测器或毫米波扫描仪
and walks through either a metal detector or millimeter wave scanner.
可能还有其它步骤
There are potentially additional steps
例如搜身检查或炸药残留物测试
such as a pat-down or explosives residue test for some,
但大多数安检工作都是按这三个步骤来的
but these three steps are how the process works for most.
值得注意的是
It is though, important to note that,
如果你愿意 可以跳过金属探测仪
if you so choose, you can skip the metal detector
或毫米波扫描仪这一步
or millimeter wave scanner step of the process
选择搜身检查
and receive a pat-down instead.
这完全符合国际民航组织的规定
This is fully compliant with ICAO regulations
因为这能有效地检测出是否有人携带武器
since it does effectively screen an individual for weapons.
事实上 一个机场理论上仅通过人工背包检查
In fact, an airport could hypothetically be compliant with ICAO regulations
和搜身检查就能符合国际民航组织的规定
only by conducting physical bag-searches
因为这确实能搜到武器
and pat-downs since this does screen for weapons
即使这很慢 具有侵略性以及不是很受欢迎
even if this would be slow, invasive, and unpopular.
实际上一些小型机场
Some small airports actually do this for bags,
是人工搜查行李而不是X射线扫射
they physically search them instead of passing them through an x-ray.
“安保剧场”这个词广泛应用于
The words “security theater” are thrown around a lot
形容美国机场安全
in regards to US airport security.
这个词是贬义词
This term is used pejoratively
意思是TSA只起到了让机场看起来很安全的作用
it means that the TSA’s function is to make airports look secure,
但从书面来看
but here’s the thing—on paper,
美国运输安全局已经尽职了
the TSA has done its job.
自“911事件”以来 美国机场航班中
There has not been a single death
没有一个人是死于
on a flight leaving from a US airport
恐怖袭击的
since 911 as a result of terrorism.
事实上 在同时期
In fact, in the same time period,
甚至没有一起恐怖袭击事件
there has not even been a single attempted terrorist
是针对从美国机场起飞的航班
attack on a flight leaving from a US airport
被袭击的都是从国外起飞的航班
all have been on flights originating from abroad.
所以美国运输安全管理局可能发挥了它的作用
So maybe the TSA is doing its function.
也许还没出手就先被抓住 这足以挫败恐怖分子
Maybe the mere threat of being caught has been enough to thwart terrorists
也许恐怖分子的攻击目标已经不是飞机了
or maybe terrorists have moved on from attacking airplanes.
恐怖组织发动袭击的主要目标肯定是美国
The US is certainly a prime target for terrorism,
但是同样也有很多备受争议的国家
but there are more controversial nations.
以色列的机场安保被公认为是世界最好的
Israeli airport security is considered to be the best in the world.
尽管是
Despite being situated in
世界上最具政治争议的国家之一
one of the most politically contentious countries in the world,
从特拉维夫本古里机场起飞的飞机
no airplane leaving from Tel Aviv’s Ben Gurion airport
从没有被劫持或是被轰炸过
has ever been hijacked or bombed.
有人试过这么做
It’s been attempted,
但这里的机场安保几乎牢不可破
but this airport’s security is simply nearly impenetrable.
最惊人的是
What’s most fascinating is that
这个机场几乎没有用任何超先进科技
this airport is hardly using any super-advanced technology—
他们用的金属探测器
they use the exact same metal detectors
和美国 欧洲的无异
as the US and Europe,
但他们关注人为因素
but they’ve focused on the human factor.
以色列开始意识到
Israel has come to realize that
武器很容易通过机场安检
its unfortunately easy to get weapons through airport security.
塑料易爆物 非金属刀具
Plastic explosives, non-metallic knives,
以及钝武器很难被检测出来
and blunt weapons are just tough to detect
所以与其把注意力
so rather than focusing on the weapons
放在攻击武器上
that could be used for an attack,
不如放在那些用武器的恐怖分子上
they focus on the people who could use them.
在本古里机场
At Ben Gurion airport,
旅客从一进机场就开始接受安检了
security starts before passengers even get to the airport.
车辆在距离机场入口
Cars pass through a security checkpoint
一英里的检查站
a mile away from the airport entrance
警卫们就开始检查车辆
where guards inspect cars
并盘查可疑的人了
and look for any suspicious looking individuals.
乘客一踏进机场
The minute passengers arrive at the airport,
就已经被监视了
they’re being watched already.
训练有素的便衣警察们在安检处
Highly trained plainclothes officers roam around
来回走动巡逻
in the check-in area again
搜索那些表现异常或很慌张的人
searching for individuals acting abnormally or nervous.
在他们进安检前
Then before passengers are even allowed to check-in,
会盘问他们
there’s the interview.
任何通过本古里机场的人
Anyone who’s passed through Ben Gurion airport
都知道这种盘问有多让人神经紧绷
knows how intense this interview is
很可能这就是以色列机场
but its likely the single greatest factor
安全的主导因素
leading to the safety of Israeli airports.
他们首先会问一下基本问题
Passengers are first asked standard questions
比如他们的工作是什么
like what their jobs are,
为何来以色列
why they came to Israel,
将在这待多久
how long they stayed for,
如果他们一直在打包行李的话
if they packed their own bags and all the while,
警卫们还会观察乘他们的面部反应
the security agent watches the passengers facefor reactions.
他们也会问一些更深的问题
They’ll also probe deeper—
乘客护照上有很多国家的章
asking why the passenger has been to various countries
为什么去那么多国家
stamped in their passport.
然后他们会问一些奇怪的问题
They’ll then ask oddly specific questions—
比如他们上的哪所学校
which school they went to,
他们最近一次搬家是什么时候
when they last moved,
他们开哪种车
what kind of car they have.
这些是为了看乘客是否能如实交代自身情况
These are all to see if the passenger is being honest about who they are.
如果安保警察感觉他们犹豫不决
If the security officer senses hesitation
或回答中有漏洞
or finds a hole in their story,
他们就会怀疑该乘客有高风险
they could deem the passenger a higher risk.
一旦他们回答了所有问题
Once passengers have completed their interview,
安保人员就会在他们护照背面贴一个条形码
a barcode is placed on the back of their passport
条形码是以数字1到6开头的
that starts with a number from one to six.
如果是以1开头
If it starts with a one,
则该名乘客被认为无任何危害性
the passenger is deemed a very low risk—
几乎只有以色列公民才有此待遇
this is almost only given to Israeli citizens,
而如果是以6开头
while if it starts with six,
该名旅客被认为有很高的危害性
the passenger is deemed a very high risk
并将接受彻底的检查
and will be subjected to extremely thorough screening.
虽然大多数风险高低的判断与这番问答有关
While a lot of the risk determination has to do with the interview,
剖析也起到了作用
profiling also plays into it.
根据以色列的安全系统
According to the Israeli security system,
男性 独自旅行 年轻人
passengers are deemed higher risk
更重要的是
if they are male, if they are traveling alone, if they are young,
如果他们是阿拉伯人
and most of all,
将会被高度怀疑
if they are Arab.
以色列在其风险评估中毫无歉意地
Israel unapologetically uses racial profiling in their risk assessment
用种族定性 这已引起了国际社会的谴责
which has led to international condemnation.
同时 以色列证明了这种技术是有效的
Israel, meanwhile, argues that this technique is effective.
毕竟 这个国家最近一直
After all, the country has recently been at war
与许多阿拉伯邻国交战
with many of its Arabian neighbors.
但与此同时
At the same time, though,
阿拉伯旅行者在通过本古里安机场时
it’s almost impossible for an Arab traveller
不被认定为是六级安全风险
to pass through Ben Gurion airport
这几乎是不可能的
without getting deemed a numbersix security risk.
西方的非以色列人也通常
Western non-Israeli individuals are also generally
被认为有较高的安全风险
considered to be a higher security risk
一般是四级或五级
typically receiving a four or a five.
问答结束后 乘客们终于可以检票登机了
After the interview, passengers are finallyallowed to check-in.
他们的托运行李通过一台标准的x射线仪器
Their checked bags are put through a standard x-ray
然后放在一个压力舱里
and then are placed in a pressure chamber.
压力舱里的压力比一架密封的飞机内压力低
The chamber’s pressure is lowered to the level of a pressurized aircraft,
相当于六到八千英尺
about the equivalent of six to eight thousand feet of altitude
用来引爆 当降到巡航高度
to set off any explosives designed to trigger
机舱压力较低时才能引爆的任何炸药
when a plane’s cabin pressure is lower at cruising altitude.
同时 乘客通过一个标准x光或全身扫描仪
Meanwhile, the passenger passes through a standard x-ray or body scanner.
对于大多数乘客来说
This physical screening process is exactly
这种身体扫描程序和北美 欧洲或亚洲的一样
the same as it would be in North America, Europe, or Asia—
乘客们经过扫描仪 再拿走他们的包
they just walk through the scanners and grab their bags.
那些被认为有较高安全风险
Those deemed a higher security risk—
——高于3或4的人
above three or four—
他们的背包将被人工搜查
likely would have their bags manually searched
最高风险的人
and then the highest risk individuals—
——5或6级
five or sixes—
通常到一边接受另一轮盘问和搜身检查
are often taken aside for another round of questioning and a pat-down.
在旅客登机之前
The security doesn’t even stop
是不会停止对他们安检的
when passengers board the plane.
和美国一样
Like the US,
以色列也有空中乘警系统
Israel has a system of air marshals—
他们是飞机上的武装保安
armed security guards on planes—
但不同于美国 至少在以色列的
but unlike the US, at least in the case of El Al,
国家航空公司El Al里
Israel’s national airline,
他们的每一架飞机上都有空中乘警
there are air marshals on every single flight.
他们混入乘客之中
They sit among the passengers,
通常是坐在有高安全风险的乘客旁边
often near any that were identified at the airport as high risk,
他们可通过报警按钮与飞行员沟通
and they have alert buttons that communicate with the pilots
以防有人意图劫机
in case of an attempted hijacking.
如果空警按下此按钮
If the marshals press this button,
驾驶舱会响起警报
an alarm will go off in the cockpit
飞行员通常会让飞机俯冲下去
and the pilots will often send the plane into a dive
令劫机犯惊慌失措
to knock the hijacker off their feet.
过去 这项技术成功阻止过恐怖袭击
This technique has successfully preventedterror attacks in the past.
这些空中乘警保障了飞机内部的安全
These air marshals secure the plane from the inside,
但飞机外部却用另一套保护系统
but another system protects the outside.
El Al的所有飞机都装有热弹
El Al’s planes are installed with thermal flares
雷达可探测到袭来的导弹
that deploy when a radar detects an incoming missile.
热导弹将会瞄准闪光处而不是飞机
Thermal guided missiles will then target the flares instead of the plane.
EI AI和其它以色列的飞机公司同样
El Al and the other Israeli airlines also stay secure
在目的机场配备安保人员来保证安全
by having security officers at their destination airports.
对于以色列的离境乘客来说
For departing passengers to Israel,
他们重复与在本古里安机场同样的安检步骤
they repeat much of same security process as at Ben Gurion Airport—
包括面谈 扼要描述 评估每一乘客的危险等级
conducting interviews, profiling,and assessing the risk of each passenger.
在许多外国机场
At many foreign airports,
在把行李交给机场安检人员之前
these agents also physically screen luggage
他们还会对行李进行物理扫描
before handing it off to the regular airport security.
EI AI 尽管是世界上最具争议的
El Al, despite being the flag carrier of
国家之一 以色列的旗舰航空公司
one of the most controversial nations in the world,
1968年经历了最后也是唯一
had its last and only hijacking in 1968
一次劫机 但本次事故无人死亡
and even this incident resulted in zero deaths.
它和本古里安机场验证了
It and the Ben Gurion airport are testaments to the fact
真正安全的安保系统理论上是可行的
that truly secure security is theoretically possible,
但可能推广到全世界吗?
but is it possible worldwide?
现在我们来说下特拉维夫机场
Here’s the thing about Tel Aviv’s airport—
规模不算太大
its not that big.
每年有2千万客流量
20 million passengers pass through it each year
与圣地亚哥机场或柏林机场一样繁忙
making it only as busy as San Diego or Berlin airport.
这些不算是小型机场
These are not small airports,
但和国际大型机场不在同一规模
but they’re not on the same scale as the world’s largest
如纽约肯尼迪国际机场 伦敦希思罗机场或迪拜机场
like JFK, Heathrow, or Dubai.
很难确定
It’s tough to determine
以色列机场应用的安保系统
if a system like what Israel has implemented
是否能够推广到全球范围内应用
could scale up to be used universally.
可以确定的是 以色列安保系统中的有些部分是无法应用的
What’s sure is that certain elements of the Israeli system would not work—
大多数国家不认可
most countries could not justify a system
如此依赖于种族定性的系统
that relies so heavily on racial profiling.
在许多国家以及美国
In many countries and US states,
这种做法是违法的
practices such as this are simply illegal,
但是
but still,
世界各地的机场和国家
airports and countries around the world
都密切关注着以色列的安保系统
are watching Israeli security methods closely.
美国已经开启了
The US has already implemented a system of security interviews
对乘搭美国际航班的乘客进行面谈的系统
for many international flights to the US
然而 这一般是由缺少专业培训的合同工来做
however these are generally conducted by less trained contract workers.
比利时布鲁塞尔机场 在2016年恐怖分子爆炸案之后
Brussels airport, after its terrorist bombing in 2016,
现在入口处有经过行为检测训练的人员
now positions officers trained in behavioral detection at its entrances.
许多机场也派代表到本古里安机场
Plenty of other airports have sent delegates to Ben Gurion airport
去评估他们的安检技术
to evaluate their security techniques as well
并已默默改进 以更接近以色列安检
and have quietly made changes to closer emulate Israel.
但很少有人会停下来怀疑
But few ever stop to question
我们是否要加强机场安保
if we even want an increase in airport security.
如果这要花很多时间 也许我们不会这样做
If it comes at the expense of time, maybewe don’t.
如上所述
As mentioned,
911后 美国还没有发生过一起恐怖袭击案件
the US has not had a successful terror attack on an airplane since 911.
世界范围内 劫机已经几乎不存在了
Worldwide, airplane hijackings are now almost nonexistent,
但安检依然重要
but security has a consequence.
非常直观的是
In the most direct way,
每次从美国起飞的航班机票
tickets for every single flight leaving from a US airport
包括用于安检的费用5.6美元
include a $5.60 fee that goes towards paying for security.
对于一张前往欧洲或亚洲的几百美元机票里 这可能不算什么
This may not be much in the scope of a multi-hundred dollar flight to Europe or Asia,
但如果美国人想用
but if the US ever wants to get to the point where Europe is
10或20美元买国内航班机票
of having $ 10 or $ 20 budget airline tickets
前往欧洲 就必须花这笔钱
between domestic destinations, this fee has to go.
研究表明美国运输安全管理局平均花
A study found that the TSA’s average cost per life saved—
6亿6千7百万美元
how much money it spends to stop one human death—
来救一条人命
is $667 million.
当然你可以说 不能用金钱衡量人的生命
You can certainly say that you can’t put a price on a human life,
但拯救生命的同时也要付出生命
but the security that saves these lives costs lives.
按照经验 飞机是最安全的出行方式—
The plane is empirically the safest way to travel—
它比开车安全百倍千倍—
its hundreds or thousands of times safer than driving—
所以阻止人们乘飞机本身就不正常
so stopping people from flying is in and of itself deadly.
经济学家们发现在911后
Economists found that the increase in airport security
美国机场增加的安检力度导致
in the US post 911 can account for
乘飞机出行的人数下降6%
6% of the decline in air travel.
因此 在2002年
Given that, in 2002,
超过500人由于长时间的安检
more than 500 people died because,
和更详尽的检查
as a result of longer security times and more extensive searches,
选择驾车而造成重大车祸事件而丧生
they chose to drive over fly and were involved in a fatal accident.
更便捷的飞行帮助了每一个人
Flying being easy helps everyone—
人们更快捷地旅行
it lets people travel faster
并帮航空公司发展业务
and it helps airlines as businesses,
只要不造成安全系数的下降
just as long as it doesn’t result in a decrease in safety.
在以色列 乘客们提前三小时到机场
In Israel, passengers arrive three hours before their flights
只是为了安检
just to clear security
这意味着飞行效率很低
which means plane travel is inefficient
然而在欧洲一些地方
while in some places in Europe,
机场鼓励出行者提前一小时到达
airports encourage travelers to arrive a mere hour before their flight.
目标是确保安保快速高效安全地进行
The goal is to keep security fast, efficient,but also secure.
没有国家或机场拥有完美的系统
No country or airport has the perfect system
但为了达到这个目标
but to achieve this,
他们可能需要将最严格的
one likely needs to combine elements of the strictest security systems
与最快的安保系统结合起来
with those of the fastest.
以色列可采用带有攻击性 不道德
Israel can get away with invasive, unethical,
但有效的安保手段
yet effective security measures
因为他们需要这样做
because they need to.
它们似乎是一个经常打仗的国家
They are a country seemingly constantly at war.
世界上许多其它地区不是恐怖分子的大目标
Many other areas of the world just aren’ t big targets for terrorists.
想知道安保措施是否有效并不容易
It’s hard to know whether or not security measuresare effective.
发达国家中不存在
There’s no control group of developed countries
有可比性的机场安保变量
that don’t have airport security to compare to.
最有效的安保系统通过
The most effective security systems stop attacks
仅仅的后果威胁而不是物理扫描来
by the mere threat of consequences
防止攻击
rather than through physical screening
那么可能机场安保才能起作用
so maybe airport security works.
在美国 欧洲 亚洲和其它发达
In the US and Europe and Asia and all the other developed,
安全的地区
safe areas of the world,
一国必须考虑机场安保到底是在救人
one must therefore ask whether airport security is actually saving lives
还是在害人
or ending them.
如果你有看过这个频道
If you’ve been watching this channel for a while
那么你一定知道蓝围裙
you know about Blue Apron.
我讨厌浪费时间
I’m someone who hates to waste time
而这也是我喜欢蓝围裙的原因之一
which is part of the reason I love Blue Apron.
有了蓝围裙
With Blue Apron,
你会收到满满的一箱配好的材料和食谱
you receive a box full of pre-apportioned ingredients and recipes
你能在40分钟内做出新鲜美味的佳肴
which you use to make fresh, delicious meals in 40 minutes or less.
你跳过了
You skip all the boring parts
购买食材 估量用量等无聊步骤
like grocery shopping and measuring
直接到烹饪中最棒的部分
and get right to the great parts of cooking—
那就是炒菜和品尝
actually cooking and eating.
在我吃过的所有蓝围裙餐中 我发现
I’ve found with all the Blue Apron meals I’ve had
它们全是独一无二的
that they’re all unique recipes
尽管我从未想过自己也能烹饪
that I would never have thought of making myself although,
蓝围裙的每一餐 我都很喜欢
I’ve also never had a Blue Apron meal I didn’t like
你在网上挑选要吃的菜之后
since before you receive your meal each week
就会每周送货上门
you can select which ones you want online.
我相信有人会喜欢蓝围裙
I’m confident really anyone will like Blue Apron
蓝围裙也喜爱他们
and they are too
所以前一百位在下方链接注册的用户
so they’re offering the first 100 people who sign up at the link in the description
前两周购买蓝围裙的产品可享50美元优惠
$ 50 off their first two weeks.
他们赞助了这个视频 产品也很好
They make this show possible and also a genuinely good product
至少点进下方的链接看看
so once again, make sure to at least check them out at the link in the description.
谢谢观看 我将在三周后
Thanks for watching and I’ll see you again in three weeks
在另一个视频与大家见面
for another Wendover Productions video.

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译制信息
视频概述

视频介绍了世界上最牢不可破的机场——以色列机场

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

李门牙😄

审核员

审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Y1kJpHBn50

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