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如何消灭疟疾

How to defeat malaria | The Economist

《经济学人》
Malaria has called more people that wars through out human history combined
怎样战胜疟疾
疟疾致死的人数比人类历史上战争造成的死亡人数总和还要多
Malaria has called more people that all wars through out human history combined.
在防治工作的努力下
Thanks to eradication efforts.
疟疾的发病率大大减少
It is fall less common that it once was.
但是每年仍有二十五万的儿童因疟疾而死亡
But every year, malaria still kills a quarter of million children.
单对非洲来说
The most vulnerable group.
他们是最脆弱的群体
In Africa alone.
但在药物的反复作用下
But again and again,
病毒产生了抗药性 导致了治疗失败
the diseases become the resistant the treatment use to defeated.
疟疾开始在人类中传播
Malaria cases starting humans
是源自于一种冈比亚按蚊的叮咬
with a bite from certain kinds of an awful ease Gambian mosquito.
在叮咬的过程中
During the bite,
疟原虫被注射进血液并进入肝脏
malaria parasites injectd into bloodstream and travel to the liver.
在下一阶段 它们繁殖并使肝细胞破裂
In this next stage,they muitiply and rapture liver cells,
然后它们会感染并摧毁红细胞
then they infect red blood cells destroyed them.
抗疟疾药物通过攻击血细胞中的疟原虫起作用
Anti-malaria drugs work by attacking the malaria parasite in the blood cells.
但是疟原虫会适应药性并再次产生抗药性
But the malaria parasite has adapted time and again.
并且已经对一些最强大的抗疟疾药物有了抗药性
lt has form to resistance to some of most powerful anti-malaria drugs
无论是氯喹还是甲氟喹都无法彻底杀灭它
from chloroquine to mefloquine.
疟疾具有抗药的能力
Malaria has ability to resist drugs.
这也是根除疟疾的研究进展缓慢的原因之一
lt’s one of the reasons success in eradicating it has levaled off.
目前完全治愈疟疾的治疗方法还在研发中
New ways to tackle malaria are being developed.
期冀消灭携带这种疾病的蚊子来实现
seeking to wipe out the mosquitoes the carry the disease.
一种叫做CRISPR的基因编辑技术开始被用于设计一种基因驱动
A gene editing technology called CRISPR is being use to engineer a gene drive.
以产生能稳定遗传给后代的自私基因
This create selfish genes that always passed on to offspring.
通过在整个种群中驱动不育基因
The aim is to interfere the fertility
来达成扰乱繁衍生育的目的
by driving a gene for sterility through entire population.
随着这一不良基因被代代遗传
As it is pass from generation to generation,
昆虫种群将会逐渐变得
the population would be swamped with insects
无法繁衍后代
that are unable to reproduce.
理论上 它们可能会灭绝
In theroy, they could be driven to extinction.
去年 伦敦帝国理工学院的一个团队
Last year, a team at Imperial College London
成功创建了基因驱动
successfully created the gene drive
消灭了一种携带疟疾的蚊子种群
that wiped out enclose cohorts of one species of malaria carrying mosquito.
但这并不能保证
but there is no garenteen
基因驱动可以在世界上的各种
that gene drives could work many of environments
疟疾肆虐的环境下起作用
where malarias found in the world.
尤其是在非洲
Specially in Africa,
人类已经证明它可以控制疟疾
humanity had shown that it can control malaria.
大约有三十五个国家已经根除了疟疾病毒
It has been eradicated in around 35 countries
而所谓能进一步根除疟疾的希望则寄托于Macips了
calling the best hope lies the combination of macips.
但是在未来
But in the future,
基因驱动可能才是最有效的解决方案
A gene drive maybe the most effective solution.
下一期 我们应该筛查肺癌吗
Coming up next , should we screen for lung cancer.

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视频概述

人类对抗疟疾的进程

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

L£o

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bm9P5eXtmqw

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