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如何变年轻 – 译学馆
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如何变年轻

How to Cure Aging – During Your Lifetime?

健康是我们生命中最重要的事 但我们似乎在失去它的时候才醒悟
Health is the most valuable thing we have in life, but we tend to forget that until we lose it.
值得庆幸的是 我们比原来活得更久了
We’re living longer than ever before, which is great,
但是这也导致了一个意料之外的后果 我们越来越多的时间都在生病
but an unforeseen consequence of this is that we also spend a larger and larger portion of our lives being sick.
如今 变老意味着花更多时间受罪
Getting old currently means spending more time in pain.
所以科学家正在尝试把医学界的关注点从延长寿命转变为延长健康时间
So scientists are trying to shift the attention of the medical community from optimizing lifespans to optimizing healthspans,
也就是我们不生病的时间
the part of our lives during which we’re disease free.
为了做到这点 我们要找到几乎所有病的根源 即衰老本身
To do this, we need to attack the root cause of almost all bodily defects: aging itself.
大多数人都不知道 关于衰老的研究在近几年有了很大的进展
Unbeknown to most people, the science of aging has made enormous progress In the last few years,
在不久的将来会进行人体实验
with human trials about to begin in the near future.
让我们来看看也许对现在还活着的人有用的三个发现
Let’s look at three examples of discoveries that might benefit people who are alive right now
介绍
INTRO
1 衰老细胞
1: senescent cells.
你的每个细胞活的时间都有限
Your cells have an expiration date.
每一次细胞的分裂 都伴随着染色体的复制
Each time one of your cells divides, it copies its chromosomes.
这种方式最终会导致很小的一段DNA丢失
Because of the way this works, they lose a tiny bit of DNA at the ends.
这种丢失会是灾难性的 所以为了保护它们 人体染色体上有一段很长的染色体终端
This could be catastrophic, so to protect themselves we have long segments of DNA called telomeres
这有点像鞋带末端的硬段 但它会在每一次分裂后变短
that sort of act like the stiff bits at the end of shoelaces, but they shrink with every cell division.
有些细胞多次分裂以后 染色体终端就没了 细胞就成了一个僵尸 一个衰老的细胞
In some cells, after a number of divisions the telomeres are gone, and the cell becomes a zombie, a senescent cell.
衰老细胞会积聚在体内而不死 你越老 体内的衰老细胞就越多
Senescent cells stay around and don’t die. The older you get the more of them are inside you.
并损害着它们周边的组织 也导致许多老年人常见的疾病 如糖尿病 肾功能衰竭
They harmed tissue around them and are linked to many diseases that accompany old age like diabetes and kidney failure.
但如果你能杀掉他们呢
But what if you could kill them off?
科学家对老鼠细胞进行基因改造 来破坏他们不想要的衰老细胞
Scientists genetically engineered mice so that they could destroy their senescent cells as they pleased.
没有衰老细胞的老老鼠会更有活力 它们的心和肾运作得更好 也更不容易患癌症
Older mice without senescent cells were more active. Their hearts and kidneys worked better, and they were less prone to cancer.
总体来看 它们的寿命比平均老鼠长了30%并活得更健康
Overall, they lived up to 30 percent longer and in better health than average mice.
因为我们无法对人体内所有的细胞进行基因改造 所以我们必须想别的方法来清除衰老细胞
Since we can’t genetically engineer all the cells in the human body, we need to find another way to get rid of our senescent cells.
但如何在不伤害健康细胞时消灭它们呢?
But how do we kill them without harming healthy cells?
体内的绝大多数细胞会在受破坏后进行程序性的凋亡 但衰老细胞不会
Most cells in the body commit a programmed cell suicide when they’re damaged, but senescent cells don’t.
事实证明 他们减产了一种引导他们程序性死亡的蛋白质
It turns out that they underproduce a protein that tells them when it’s time to die.
所以在2016年年底的一项研究中 老鼠被注射了这种蛋白质
So in a late 2016 study, mice were given an injection of this protein.
这杀死了80%的衰老细胞 而且几乎对健康细胞没有危害
It killed 80 % of all their senescent cells, while causing almost no harm to healthy cells.
被治疗的老鼠变得更健康 甚至长出了脱去的毛
The treated mice became generally healthier and even regrew lost hair.
结果 出现了很多关注关于衰老细胞的治疗方法的公司 第一个人体实验也即将开始
As a result, there are a number of new companies looking at treatments involving senescent cells and the first human trials will start soon.
2 NAD+
2: NAD+
细胞是以数以亿计的零件构成的
Cells are made of hundreds of millions of parts.
这些零件是细胞结构 细胞器 细胞信使 以及促进细胞反应的发生的催化剂
They’re the structures, machines, messages, and the catalysts that make reactions happen.
所有的零件都需要不断的被破坏 清除 和重建
All these parts constantly need to be destroyed, cleaned up, and rebuilt.
随着我们的衰老 这个过程变得更低效 零件也由此变老 积聚在一起
As we age, this process becomes less effective and so parts become crumpled, bunched up,
它们要么被清除得更慢 要么无法产生人体所需的足够数量
or are removed slower, or they are no longer produced in the quantities we need.
零件之一就是NAD+ 一种需要我们照顾的辅酶
One of these parts is NAD+, a coenzyme that tells ourselves to look after themselves.
在50岁的时候 体内辅酶的数量只有20岁时的一半
At age 50, we only have about half as much in our bodies as we do at age 20.
人体的很多衰老疾病都和他们数量的减少有关 从皮肤癌到老年痴呆症 心血管疾病 以及多发性硬化症
Low amounts of it are linked to a whole bunch of diseases from skin cancer to Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease, and multiple sclerosis.
但NAD+不能进入细胞 所以我们不能像吃药一样来得到它
But NAD+ can’t enter cells so we can’t get it as a pill.
但科学家注意到一些其他的灵活的物质能进入细胞 并在体内转化为NAD+
But scientists notice that other more flexible substances could enter cells and would then turn into an NAD+ inside.
在2016年 对老鼠的多重实验表明 这些替代物质能促进皮肤 大脑和肌肉干细胞的复制
In 2016, multiple trials on mice showed that they boosted the multiplication of skin, brain, and muscle stem cells.
这些细胞恢复了活力 修复DNA的能力得到了增强 寿命也得到了短暂的延长
They were rejuvenated, had a higher ability to repair their DNA, and had a slightly increased lifespan,
这甚至得到了NASA的关注
This even got NASA interested,
他们希望能由此寻找一种方式 来减少在火星执行任务的宇航员由于暴露在宇宙辐射中造成的DNA损伤
which is looking for a way to minimize the DNA damage astronauts would be exposed to from cosmic radiation on Mars missions.
如今也计划实施人体实验了
There are human trials being planned right now,
但说它能延长健康时间甚至寿命可能有些为时过早
but it’s too soon to say if this will boost our healthspan or even lifespan.
但NAD+仍是一个有力人选 它或许会成为人类第一颗抗老药
But NAD+ is a serious candidate and could become the first human anti-aging pill.
3 干细胞
3: stem cells
干细胞就像蓝图一样 遍布于身体各个部位 通过自我分裂来产生源源不断的新细胞
Stem cells are like cell blueprints that sit at various places in the body and copy themselves to produce a steady flow of fresh young cells,
但随着年龄的衰老 它们的数量也会减少
but they decline as we age and so we decline too.
没有了新的零件 人就会难以支撑
Without new parts, human bodies break.
科学家发现随着老鼠脑中干细胞的消失 疾病就开始滋生
In mice, scientists observed that as the stem cells in their brains disappeared, they started to develop diseases
所以他们从幼鼠脑中提取出干细胞 直接注入中年老鼠的脑中
So they took stem cells from baby mice brains and injected them directly into the brains of middle-aged mice,
准确的说 是下丘脑 一个调节机体多种功能的器官
more specifically the hypothalamus, a polyp that’s involved in regulating a lot of bodily functions.
新的干细胞通过分泌微RNA来调节代谢 让老的脑细胞恢复活力
The fresh stem cells reinvigorated older brain cells by secreting micro RNAs that regulated their metabolism.
四个月后 它们的大脑和肌肉比未治疗的小鼠更有活力
After 4 months, brain and muscles worked better than those of untreated mice
它们的平均寿命也延长了10%
and on average, they lived ten percent longer.
另一研究从老鼠胚胎中提取干细胞
Another study took stem cells from mice embryos
并将之直接注入老老鼠的心脏中
and injected them directly into the hearts of older mice.
结果 它们的心功能得到提升了 运动时间也长了20%
As a consequence, they had improved heart function, could exercise 20% longer,
更奇怪的是 它们的毛发再生得更快了
and weirdly enough their hair regrew faster.
结论
Conclusion
所有的这些告诉我们 没有单一的一种治疗衰老的特效药
What all of this tells us is that there is not a single magic bullet with which to cure aging.
这需要一系列的治疗
It requires a complex array of different therapies.
我们能通过杀死衰老细胞来清除垃圾
We can kill off senescent cells to clear away the junk,
并注入新的干细胞来填补空缺 与此同时通过药物调节其他细胞的代谢
give ourselves fresh new stem cells to fill the gap, all while regulating the metabolism of the other cells using medication.
这视频有很大的局限 毕竟 这些研究只是在老鼠身上进行
This video comes with a big caveat. After all, these studies have been carried out on mice.
并不能保证同样的疗法会对人类有一样的效果 但它们是抗衰老治疗的理论基础
There’s no guarantee the same therapies would work in us to the same extent, but they are proof of concepts.
想要了解更多的延长健康时间的方法 我们需要进行人体实验
To learn more about how we can modify our own healthspan, we need human trials.
我们只是介绍了已经做了的研究的一小部分 也只是取了这些观念的皮毛
We’ve only covered a tiny part of the research that’s being done right now, and only scratched the surface of these ideas.
关于健康寿命的领域需要更多的关注和资金支持
The field of healthspan extension needs more attention and funding.
如果真的研究成功 我们也许可以享受没有病痛的老年
If it gets it, all of us might enjoy growing old without pain
如果你想直接支持关于变老的研究 欢迎访问lifesapan.io
If you now want to support the research on aging directly, you can do so at lifespan.io,
这个团体致力于支持研究抗衰老的科学家们
a community of people actively supporting the scientists working to cure aging.
在这儿了解他们的最新进展 关注他们的博客或facebook小组
Check them out to learn about the latest advances and visit their blog or group on Facebook.
他们也为本视频的录制提供了资金和专业支持
The lifespan team also kindly supported the creation of this video with a donation and their expertise.
如果你希望帮我们做出更多的视频 欢迎访问partreon.com
If you want to help us make more of our videos, you can do so on patreon.com.

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视频概述

你听过健康寿命这个概念吗?延长健康寿命就是延长年轻的时间 快来看看吧

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MjdpR-TY6QU

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