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如何养成习惯 – The Habit Loop – 译学馆
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如何养成习惯 - The Habit Loop

How to Create a Habit that Sticks - The Habit Loop

大家好 本节内容
Hey guys, in this section,
我们来谈谈如何养成一个习惯
we are going to talk about how to create a habit.
我们常常审视自己 并要改掉坏习惯
We’ve went over finding bad habits and getting rid of them.
也会用好习惯取代坏习惯
We’ve also went over replacing bad habits with good habits,
这一课里 我们来了解一下习惯回路机制
and in this section we’re going to learn about the cue habit reward development
以及如何培养好习惯
how you can create your own habit.
习惯回路作用巨大
Now this works awesome,
因为它的运用范围很广
because there’s many aspects you can put this in.
比如身体健康方面
Put this in your health life
跑步
Going for a run
骑车
Going for a bicycle ride
少吃垃圾食品
Eating less terrible food.
因为垃圾食品充斥着我们的生活
I mean there’s a lot of terrible food out there
多吃健康食品
but good tasting food that is good for your body also
还有理财方面
in the wealth aspect you can go for
比如投资
in the investing you can go for.
甚至学习方面 可以学到更多
I would say wealth even an education you can learn more,
因为学习可以增加爱情与幸福
because I would say learning more increases your wealth in love and happiness.
通过学习爱情与幸福的知识
You can also increase habits and love and happiness
可以增加你的幸福感
by increasing your education in those topics.
爱情和另外两者有些不同
Now love is a little different
因为大多数时候
because there are a lot of times
你不见得想拥有它
when you don’t want to have it.
爱一个人你可能会很谨慎
You want to mindfully love someone
但你也会表现很多对方很欣赏的小习惯
but you can also implement a lot of little habits that will make them feel appreciated.
现在我们来了解之前讨论过的
So let’s get on to the cue habit reward.
习惯回路
We’ve talked about this before.
开始之前我希望你拿出一张纸
I want you to write down, I want you to take a piece of paper.
在纸的中心写下
In the center of the paper,
五到十个你想养成的习惯
go down and write 5 to 10 habits that you want to create.
现在 在纸的左侧写下触机
Now on the left side, this is where we’re gonna put the cues.
假设我在纸上写上”阅读”
So let’s say on my piece of paper I’m gonna put reading.
想要每天阅读三十分钟
I want to read 30 minutes every day.
以上就是我的白纸中心的内容
That’s the center of my piece of paper right there.
也就是习惯部分
It’s going to be called the habit section.
在习惯栏的左侧部分叫做触机
The habit column on the left side it’s gonna be called the cue.
对我来说 如果我想要读书
So for me to want to read,
我得安排点什么
I’m gonna have to come up with something,
比如干这件事情时一些特定的环境等
some environment that happens throughout the day.
总之就是让我们很乐意去做这件事的触机
It says hey this cue is fulfilled let’s go on to the habit.
比如我在习惯栏左侧的触机一栏上写”起床”
So my cue my on the left side of reading is going to be wake up.
那么当我起床时 我首要的事就是先去阅读
Whenever I wake up, that’s the first thing I do is I go into reading
这样可以使我们很快养成习惯
Over time that will go into and create a habit.
那么现在 习惯栏的右侧该填什么呢
Now there’s one more thing as you can tell by the right side of your paper needs to be filled.
在右边一栏 你需要填写奖励
So on the right side of that you need to put reward
所以 你的纸上左边一栏为触机 中间一栏为习惯
so if you’ve got cue on the left then have it in the center
右边一栏为奖励
and then reward on the right side.
那么对我来说 起床是触机 习惯是读书
So the cue for me is wake up the habit is reading
奖励是吃一顿早饭
and on the right side it’s going to be breakfast.
当然奖励方法各式各样
And there are all kinds of rewards out there.
这取决于你如何得到满足
It really depends on you and what you find a satisfactory satisfaction.
比如可以是一些让你自豪的事
Something that you take pride in,
也可以是让你感到愉快的事
something that is enjoyable for you.
对我来说 吃早饭就是一件很愉快的事
So breakfast is enjoyable for me,
因为在八小时睡眠后我会感到饥肠辘辘
after you know I’ve been asleep for eight hours.
当我起床后 就开始看书
So I wake up and then I read and then my
然后奖励吃早餐 这样随着时间习惯更易于养成
reward is breakfast and over time this will actually create
因为如果我起床后直接吃早饭 而没有读书
a habit to wear, if I don’t read I almost feel guilty for waking up and eating
我会因没有完成目标而产生负罪感
breakfast. I almost feel guilty for breaking the habit just like many other
沿着这个列表 继续每一个习惯
people feel guilty when they break bad habits, and go down this list and do this
不论你要养成的习惯是读书还是一千米跑
for every habit that you wrote down whether it’s reading or you wanted to go
于我而言 一千米跑不是跑一千米
for a one-mile run, for me I do a one-mile run it’s usually not a one mile
而是围着附近街道多跑几次
usually it’s a little more a couple times around my block, and the cue for
吃完早餐是一千米跑的触机
the one-mile run that’s the habit the queue is breakfast so as soon as I eat
当我吃完早餐 就开始执行习惯目标
breakfast boom I go into the habit stage and I go into run, and then my route
事实上我对于完成目标的奖励就是跑步
actually my reward for the habit which is the one-mile run is actually kind of
很多人对于奖励有误解
interesting because a lot of people I think they misunderstand rewards they
他们认为奖励就是吃一块糖或获得一些钱
think of all you got to eat a piece of candy or you got to earn some money but
其实奖励可以是任何你生活中喜爱的东西
rewards can really be anything that you enjoy in life, and it has to be what you
只要这个奖励会让你的身心都感到愉悦
see as enjoyment and your brain sees as enjoyment and I really love taking
我很喜欢淋浴 我喜欢保持干净 尤其是早上
showers I love feeling clean especially when it’s the beginning of the day and I
一想到可以淋浴我就迫不及待的想去完成任务
just know if I get a nice shower in and I’ve already done my workout in my
跑完步淋浴简直就是最幸福的事
little run boom I take a shower it feels great it’s the best thing ever.
因为跑完步我会出一身汗 我热切希望洗个澡
you know I was all sweaty I got myself pumped up my heart was going boom shower
如果在这时我冲个冷水澡 那感觉真是妙不可言
and if you want to you can make it a cold shower and that’s just an amazing
所以现在两个需要养成的习惯 已经关联起来了
reward, so there are two habits already that are connected boom I wake up I read
起床 阅读 吃早餐 吃早餐不仅是阅读的奖励 还是跑步的触机
breakfast, the breakfast is a reward but it’s also a cue for my one-mile run and
当我完成一千米跑 就有另一个奖励
then I go on my my one-mile run and then BOOM there’s another reward and I can
我也可以把淋浴 变成下一个目标的触机
actually turn that reward the shower into another cue maybe after a shower is
比如刷牙
a cue for the habit of brushing my teeth and the reward is actually this
奖励就是养成好习惯所带来的好处
was in the book the power of habit the reward a lot of advertisers they were
像是我们可以宣传牙膏 但由于没人买
like we can advertise toothpaste all we want but no one’s buying so what they
所以他们添加了柠檬酸 有些人十分喜欢这种口味
did was they add citric acid, and some people really enjoy the feeling of their
他们觉得用这种牙膏刷牙 可以使牙齿更加洁白
teeth being like sparkly clean it’s a psychological thing so they put citric
现在柠檬酸已经广泛的在牙膏中使用了
acid you know like lemon the stuff that’s in lemons in toothpastes now they
许多不同的口味也诞生了 但柠檬味始终有着重要的地位
have all kinds of different flavors but citric acid is like the main ingredient
这种味道让人们爱上刷牙
that makes people want to continue brushing their teeth
你能想象用芥末味或番茄酱味的牙膏刷牙么?
can you imagine brushing your teeth if the flavor was like ketchup or mustard
这很少有人喜欢 他们把刷牙当作奖励
not very many people would want to do it but they turned brushing their teeth and
并且践行纸上所写来保持习惯
they actually made it every word so I could continue this habit
我不知道如何形容
I don’t know what I’m gonna call it
你从睡梦中醒来是一个触机
you go from waking up is a cue
阅读是习惯
then the habit is reading
食物是奖励
and then boom reward I get food
食物真是个好奖励
foods a great reward
这个方法被阿诺德·斯瓦辛格用过
this actually this method was actually installed in Arnold Schwarzenegger
在他小的时候
when he was little
他要做很多组俯卧撑 才能获得食物
before he would get food he would do a whole bunch of push-ups
其实他的父母并未严格要求他
his parents actually made him work out a little bit before he got food and he just started seeing you
但他却养成了习惯
know it became a habit his workouts actually became a habit and then after
在早餐后 跑步一公里
breakfast, boom it’s also another cue for a
然后奖励自己洗个澡
one-mile run boom there’s a reward shower
把洗澡变成又一个触机 然后刷牙
I can turn shower into another cue where I brush my teeth and I just I’m
我又很基础的解释了一遍
basically explaining this thing again but I want you guys to understand how
我希望你们明白习惯回路 也希望你们能记下来
the cue habit reward process and I hope you’re writing this stuff down
只有你们写下才会明白它并且完成它
because if you write it down you will definitely learn it you will inhale it
你们才会知道习惯如何养成
you will learn what a habit is from the ground up you will learn how to develop
任何普通的事都可以用来培养习惯
your own habits create your own habits basically anything you can make a habit
比如每天叫你的祖母起床
calling your grandmother up once a day if you want to and say I’m so thankful
并说真感谢您出现在我的生命中 感谢您为我做的一切
you’re in my life I just wanted to appreciate everything you do for me you
触机不一定要是每天发生的
can turn that into a habit and you can actually these cues don’t have to be
它也可以是每月一次的
daily things you can turn these cues into monthly things you know I get my
比如我使我的电话账单成为一个触机
phone bill boom that’s a cue I call my grandma up and say hey I just paid my
然后打电话给我的祖母说:我刚付完电话账单 真感谢您在我的生命中出现
phone bill I’m so thankful you’re in my life because one day you might not get
要知道有一天你可能再也没有机会这样做
that opportunity anymore, but anyways you can turn anything into a cue almost
不管怎样 任何事你都可以变为触机 假如你要去商店买杂货
anything you can turn you need to go to the store to buy groceries you can turn
这可以是你交税的触机
that into a cue of you paying your taxes you can turn a once-a-year maybe there’s
触机当然也可以是一年一次的
one thing that once a year that you want to turn into a cue
比如到了缴税的时候了 去给我的狗打针
boom it’s time to pay my taxes let’s go get my dogs they’re shots so that
使它们合法化 这也不失为一个培养习惯的好方法
they’re legal in my town that’s that’s like a pretty nice way to create a habit
你也可以设立一个奖励 只是时间间隔更长
and you can also create a reward, now the thing is the longer the timespan is the
养成习惯会更困难 当然做起来也很简单
harder it is to create a habit, and that’s simply because you get less
因为不会那么频繁 假设如果你每天都会说’嗯’这个词
iterations, so if it’s something that you do daily like let’s say every time you
每当你说的时候 你就弹一下橡皮筋来打断
say the word um you snap yourself with a rubber band, now that’s obviously in the
在习惯戒除的起始阶段
beginning of the stages of the habit development or the habit removal I guess
这种负强化明显很奏效
would because that’s negative reinforcement, it’s gonna happen a lot
可能每天会发生很多次
boom boom boom boom six nine times 12 times a day
最后就会奏效了
and eventually it’ll start to go down
习惯养成也适用这个方法
but you can also do the same with habit development
比如你的触机是看见某人走在走廊上 习惯是夸奖他们
maybe your cue is seeing someone walk down an aisle
因为你想要更好的赞赏别人 而那是你一直
and your habit is complimenting them because you want to get better at compliments
不擅长的事 你想要自然的去赞赏他人
that’s just something that you’ve always been bad at you want to get better at complimenting
奖励是吃上一块糖
without being it awkward and then your reward is you just pop a skittle in your
那样会很棒 也可以从税收的角度出发
mouth and that would be really nice and that that can go from like the tax
无论你何时缴税你都要给你的狗打针 可能会持续
whenever you pay your taxes you have to get your dog shots that can go from a
整整一年而且还不能多次叠加 但你赞美
whole year and that’s not very many iterations but when you’re complimenting
他人时 当某人走过你桌旁六到二十次甚至
people you know when someone walks by your desk six to twenty to even if
你在个大办公室的话 一天50次 那就是50次赞赏 就是
you’re in a big office fifty times a day that’s fifty compliments that’s fifty
50次奖励 你知道还会怎么样吗?就是重复这个习惯50次
rewards you know what else that is that’s fifty iterations of that habit I
几乎可以保证 一旦你一个星期都如此那它基本上
can almost guarantee you once you’ve done that habit for a week it’ll almost
就会成为一个你不用再吃糖奖励自己的习惯了
become a habit you won’t even have to give yourself a skittle any more when
当某个人走过你身边时 你能自然的说出 嘿吉姆 鞋不错 我喜欢 嘿琳达
someone walks by you’ll be like hey Jim nice shoes love those things hey Linda
衬衫挺整洁的 嘿约翰 我发现你剪头发了 这一切都开始变得
that’s a neat shirt hey John I noticed you got your hair cut it’ll just start
如此自然流畅因为 噢 对了 我想做个纠正 之前我说过
to come naturally because oh yes I also wanted to correct myself earlier I said
习惯的开始形成于杏仁核 我的意思不是杏仁核
habits start to be formed in the amygdala and I did not mean amygdala
我的意思是说基底核 它是你大脑中的一部分
what I meant was basal ganglia and that’s the part of your brain that is is
是大脑中老的结构之一 靠近头盖骨中心
one of the oldest structures in the brain and it’s near the center of the
如果你知道你头盖骨的底部在哪 就在你脑袋的后面
skull if you know where the base of your skull is on the back of your head there
你可以顺着你的脊柱 如果你顺着脊柱的顶端开始
you can follow your spinal cord down and if you follow it back up right where
进到你的大脑 那附近就是基底核的
your spinal cord starts to go into your brain that’s around where the basal
位置 那就是你大脑中最老的部位 这也是为什么当
ganglia is and that is like a really old part of your brain and that’s why when
一个人得了脑损伤 那东西还在那儿 因为它是完整的
that one guy had brain damage that thing stayed there because it was intact you
你知道很多人在得了脑损伤之后他们会失忆
know a lot of people when they get brain damage they start they lose their memory
因为另一边正是前额皮质的位置 但是大脑的那个部位
because that’s where the prefrontal cortex is on other side’s but that part
是在大脑深处 很难收到损伤 如果你
of the brain is deep in the brain it’s very hard to damage and if you damage
伤到那里 之所以没有多少人能伴着那种
that part of the brain the reason there aren’t very many people living with that
那种脑损伤生活 是因为它对你身体里许多重要器官的机能很重要
part of the brain damaged is because it’s very necessary for a lot of the
你的呼吸 你的呼吸系统
vital organs to function for your breathing your respiratory system
不管怎么样吧 我要很说具体事情了 回到习惯的话题上来
anyways I’m getting to very specific stuff I want to get back into the habit
但是我想纠正它不是杏仁核 杏仁核是
section but I did want to correct it wasn’t the amygdala the amygdala is
负责你情绪的 我觉得我曾经对
responsible for your emotions and I think I was on a little rant about
创业和恐惧会感到暴躁 我觉得就是杏仁核的原因
entrepreneurship and fear and I think that’s where that came from
不管怎样都挺酷的 那也是由两个字组成的另一种心理效应
anyway that’s really cool that’s also another psychological effective makes
总之 回到习惯的部分上来 你应该还是要有你的
two words up but anyways back to the habit part you should still have your
一张纸 左边写上触机 中间写习惯 右边
piece of paper with cues on the left side habits in the middle and rewards on
写奖励 然后从现在开始 无论什么时候想养成一个习惯
the right and from now on anytime you want to create a habit
不管是为了感谢某人做了某事还是想要做
whether it’s thanking someone for something they did whether it’s creating
一个油管视频 我都会建立一个小的奖励机制
a YouTube video literally I have kind of created a little reward system for me
点下那个发布键感觉就像 我的天 如果能想奖励那样
that puck clicking that publish button is like oh my goodness if you could get
给我大脑做一个扫描 我敢说
a brain scan on my brain like the reward system I bet that
我是说 你会是[bu biu biu biu]它会充斥所有地方 因为我喜欢
I mean will you be going[bu…biu biu biu] it’d be going all over the place because I love
点那个发布键 现在 做视频的触机就是 啊
clicking that publish button now making the video the cue is like oh it’s a
新的一天该做一个新的视频了 这个触机于我而言就像是
new day it’s time to make a new video the cue actually for me is almost like
天啊 我今天不会有很多观看量
oh man I’m not getting very many views today
是有一个习惯的 现在我要养成这个习惯 真正做视频的
there’s a habit now I got to make a habit the the actual habit part of
这个习惯 并不是很乐在其中 很开心去做 但是我
making a video and that’s not so enjoyable it’s enjoyable to do but I
喜欢结果 我喜欢点那个按钮 然后嘣一下有600个人
like the results – I like clicking that button and going boom there’s 600 people
在我发布视频的第一时间看我的视频 多棒 这就是一种奖励
that saw my video in the first second I uploaded that is so cool it’s a reward
你可以做同样的事 从做个油管视频到
you can do the same thing everything from creating a YouTube video to paying
缴税到给你的狗打针到你想养成的
your taxes to getting your dogs shots to what other habits do you want to
其它什么习惯 后续几个视频会讲到百万富翁们的习惯
create the next couple of videos are going to be habits of millionaires
成功的恋爱关系的习惯 你可以把这些习惯写下来
habits of successful relationships and you can write these habits down and you
你也可以想一个你自己的触机 习惯和奖励 如果你想
can come up with a cue the habit and the reward yourself if you’d like to
重复它们的话 还有两件能帮你养成习惯
replicate them so two more things that will help you with habit development so
我们都明白习惯是怎么工作的 我们知道我们可以不用其中的一个
we understand how habits work we understand that we can get rid of one of
最佳方式也能创建一个习惯 就像一个最佳方式可以
the best ways to also create a habit just like one of the best ways to get
换个习惯一样 因为这个习惯已经
rid of a habit is simply by swapping them out because the habit is already
形成了 你已经有了触机 有了奖励 你只
there you’ve already got the cue and you’ve already got the reward you just
需要换一下中间的事件 我还想说就是
got to switch out the thing in the middle I also want to say it’s more
改掉一个坏毛病很困难 养成一个新的也困难
difficult to get rid of a bad habit and it’s more difficult to create a new
它是完完全全替换掉中间部分 把抽烟
habit and it is to altogether just swap out the middle part change it from
换成阅读 把喝酒换成嚼口香糖 我提到的
smoking to reading change it from drinking the chewing gum so on to the
两点 第一点是肯定 我之前已经在我
two tips I mentioned number one is an affirmation now I’ve talked about this
一个吸引力法则的视频中说过 但是基本上就是一个肯定
before in kind of my law of attraction video but basically an affirmation is
就是你要告诉你自己的事 你终会开始相信
something that you tell yourself that eventually you will start to believe
你的大脑会开始相信并做出处理 它实际上就是个
your brain will start to believe it and process it like it’s almost like it’s a
心里肯定的一种生理反应 你会像是
fact a physiological response of a psychological affirmation you’ll be like
嘿 我准备今天去跑个步 那是一种认证 嘿 我今天要成功的
hey I’m going to go for a run today that’s an affirmation hey I’m going to
和女人说话 如果那是你想要
be super successful today in my journey of talking to women if that’s something
养成并且做好的习惯 现在 说说’肯定’
that’s a habit that you want to form and get better at now something about
如果这个肯定是积极的 会更好 所以对我而言
affirmations is it’s better if the affirmation is positive so it would be
说我会吃健康食品会更好 而不是说我不会
better for me to say I will eat healthy food then it would for me to say I will
吃垃圾食品 因为一看到第二句话里有个不字
not eat junk food because see the the second one includes the word not which
就意味着它基本上就不是一个肯定了 倒像是
means it’s basically not an affirmation anymore it’s it’s like the opposite of
否定 ‘肯定’需要的是保持积极向上 他们需要说你
an affirmation affirmations need to stay positive they need to say on things you
会去做的而不是不会去做的 另一件事情
will do instead of you won’t do and the other thing I
我想说的就是 ‘如果-那么’表达式 无论你啥时候想起来一个
wanted to talk about was if then statements so whenever you think about a
习惯 你必须为之付出一点训练并且建立一个
habit you will have to almost have a little bit of discipline and creating a
习惯 因为你明白 你知道不能一夜之间
habit because you’ll have to understand you know habits not going to be created
就建立一个好习惯 除非你逼着你自己一直在那想这就是为何
overnight unless you force yourself to think instant and forever and that’s why
我想要讨论那个话题 但是如果你有困难的话
I wanted to talk about that subject but if you have trouble with that you
你可以想想这个 ‘如果-那么’表达式 如果我建立了这个习惯 如果我
can come up with this if-then statement if I create this habit if I go on a run
每天都去跑步 如果我开始每天计划我的餐食 那么 我就会有一个
every day if I start planning my meals every day then then I will have a
健康的身体 那么 我就会有六块腹肌 那么 我能更好的
healthier body then I will have a six-pack then I will get better at
与女人交流 那么 我的经济会上涨 仅是这些’如果-那么’表达式
talking to women then my finances will increase just these if-then statements
都会有小小的奖励 还有那些’肯定’都
there’ll be little motivators those and the affirmations are super powerful in
对建立一个好习惯有强大的力量 所以 从现在起 你应该有个基本的认识就是
creating habits so by now you should have a basic understanding at how to
怎么样摆脱掉一个习惯 什么是习惯 如何替换一个习惯 如何建立一个习惯
get rid of a habit what habits are how to replace a habit how to create a habit
还有如何从今天起养成一个持久的习惯 我希望你们
and how to start a habit today that will last forever I hope you guys really
真的享受了这一节 现在 我们要说说能把事情做完的
enjoy this little section now we’re gonna start moving on to actual habits
真正的习惯了 因为你可以拥有所有的
that you can implement to get things done because you can have all this
信息 但是如果你想变得富有 你就要知道你需要有什么开始
information but if you want to get rich you need to know what habits you need to
开始养成什么习惯才能变富有 这就是这个课程接下来要讲的
start doing to get rich and that’s what the rest of this course is designed to do
如果你有任何问题 给我发邮件 在gmail.com的实用心理学技巧那里
if you have any questions email me at practical psychology tips at gmail.com
我很愿意去回答你们的问题 感谢
and I would love to answer any questions you have thank you guys so much for
收看 希望你们会喜欢接下来的视频 如果你们喜欢
watching I hope you enjoy the next couple videos if you guys enjoyed that
刚才的视频并且想读我写的书 到亚马逊上搜
video and want to read the book I wrote that it came from search Amazon for
习惯收获 或者点击简介里的链接 这本书短到
Habit Harvester or click the link in the description the book is short enough to
一口气就能读完 但是麻雀虽小 五脏俱全 就像
read in one sitting but is jam-packed with tons of information
你在这个视频里看到的 事实上我还加了一点点额外的
just like you saw in this video in fact I’ve also added a few extra
故事 修改了几处在视频里发现的错误 还有
stories and fixed some of the errors found in this video course there’s also
很多很精彩的插画以帮助学习还能
plenty of amazing illustrations to aid in the learning process and keep the
让这本书读的有趣些 如果你有兴趣 你可以花2.99美元从kindle上买
book fun to read if you’re interested you can buy the Kindle version for $2.99
或者是注册一个月的Kindle unlimited就能免费阅读
or sign up for a month of Kindle unlimited to get it for free which is
这个我个人也在用 而且你能看其他数百万本电子书和
what I personally use and you get access to millions of other ebooks and
上千本有声读本 都包含在你的Kindle unlimited会员里了 当你买了
thousands of audiobooks included in your Kindle unlimited membership when you buy
Kindle版 你都不需要用Kindle去读 你可以下载
the Kindle version you don’t even need a Kindle to read it you can download the
Kindle软件到你的手机里 下载电脑软件 或者直接
Kindle app on your smartphone download the software for PC or even read it on
通过云服务器在亚马逊上读
amazon.com through their cloud server
如果你想看这个系列的其他视频
if you want to watch the rest of the videos in this series
点击这个小东西或者点击简介里的链接 有个列表
click this thingy or check the link in the description for a playlist
非常感谢大家的观看
Thank you guys so much for watching

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视频概述

怎么样才能养成一个好习惯呢?答案就在视频里

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

kun(o_o)

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9rjMXvVQkw

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