未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

科学技巧做好考前准备

How To Cram For Your Exam (Scientific Tips)

This episode is supported by Great Courses Plus
本视频由Great Courses Plus赞助播出
Cramming isn’t the ideal way to study for an exam
考试前死记硬背并不是个好办法
but you’re here
但你既然在看
you’ve come to this video likely with an exam tomorrow
就说明你很可能明天
or in a few hours
或几小时后就要上考场了
so let’s focus on what you can do to optimize your time.
那么我们重点来看怎么充分利用时间
How do you effectively cram for your exam?
你该如何有效地临时准备考试
You might not be able to learn a lot
你可能学不到很多东西
but you can store a bunch of information
但你可以将许多信息
into your short term memory.
储存到短时记忆中
Try using the ancient technique of the Memory Palace.
试试记忆宫殿这种古老的技巧
Dated back as far as 80 B.C.
它可以追溯到公元前80年
this technique involves associating ideas you want to memorize
这个技巧需要你把想要记住的东西
with memorable places like your home.
与熟悉的场所联系起来 比如说你家
One study had medical students create Memory Palaces
一项研究让医学生建立记忆宫殿
to help them remember the actions of insulin
来帮助他们记住胰岛素的作用
in this example
在这种情况下
you might store glycosis in your living room
你可能会把糖酵解放在客厅里
and ketogenesis in the kitchen.
把生酮作用放在厨房
Then you can mentally travel through your house
然后在脑海中走遍整个房子
to recall each room.
回忆每个房间
Those who create memory palaces
那些建造记忆宫殿的人
perform significantly better on tests than those who don’t.
明显比不用的人考得好
And the reasons for this is that
这是因为
our visual and spatial memory is quite strong
我们的视觉和空间记忆十分强大
and connecting information to those already existing memories proves extremely effective.
把要记的东西和那些已经存在的记忆联系起来非常有效
You should also try mnemonic devices wherever possible.
你也要尽可能尝试其他的记忆法
Trying to memorize the Kreb’s Cycle?
想要记住三羧酸循环?
Take the beginning of each product,
取每个产物的首字母
and make a sentence out of it!
然后编出一个句子来!
“Can I keep singing songs for my Oscars?”
Can I Keep Singing Songs For My Oscars?
You can also create things like rhymes or songs
你也可以做些韵脚或者歌曲
This method has been proven in several studies
多项研究已经表明这种方法
as a way of committing information to memory
能将信息储存到记忆中
And the weirder you make them, the better!
而且方法越奇怪 效果越好
Now, does your exam prep include rereading your notes and text book?
那么你备考时会重看一遍笔记和课本吗?
You’re not alone – but you should cut it out!
不止你一个—但你别再这么做了
A study had participants read an educational text.
一项研究让参与者阅读一段教育文本
One group was then instructed to reread the text a second time
然后要求一组人再读一遍
where the other group only read it once.
而另一组人只读一遍
They were then tested through multiple choice,
然后通过多选题
short-answer questions, and text summaries
简答题和文章概括题对他们进行测试
to gauge their ability to retain the information.
来判断他们的记忆能力
The experimenters found no significant differences in performance
实验人员发现两组人员的表现
between the two groups
没有明显差异
suggesting that rereading provides no clear benefit.
这说明重读没有明显作用
And while we know exams are stressful,
我们都知道考试的压力很大
put some energy into de-stressing while studying and during your exam.
但还是要在学习和考试期间试着缓解压力
Stress causes your body to release adrenaline,
压力会使你的身体分泌肾上腺素
increases your heart rate, and can make you sweat.
心跳加速 还会出汗
And about 20 minutes after feeling stressed,
在你感到压力大约20分钟后
your body undergoes a delayed stress response,
你的身体才会做出反应
releasing the hormone cortisol.
分泌皮质醇激素
Cortisol attaches to receptors on the hippocampus,
皮质醇附着在海马体的受体上
which is a seahorse shaped region of your brain
海马体是大脑中一块海马状区域
that is part of the limbic system.
是边缘系统的一部分
And it’s the hippocampus that’s responsible for
正是海马体负责
turning short term memories into long term memories.
将短时记忆转化为长时记忆
But when cortisol binds to the hippocampus,
但当皮质醇与海马体结合后
it impairs retrieval of memory.
它会阻碍记忆的恢复
Therefore if you are stressed
所以如果你有压力的话
you will have a more difficult time recalling information during an exam.
在考场上回忆起来会更加困难
So take some deep breaths!
所以做些深呼吸!
But just “turning off” stress is easier said than done
但“关闭”压力说起来容易做起来难
that’s why you need a study technique that is stress proof.
所以你需要一种可以缓解压力的学习技巧
Scientists recommend testing yourself!
科学家们建议对自己进行测试!
Practice tests are not only a scientifically supported means of improving memory recall,
测试不仅是一种提高记忆的科学手段
they stand up to stressful situations.
它还能在有压力的情况下起作用
Scientists found that when individuals used practice tests
科学家发现 进行过自我测试的人
and were put into a stressful situation
在有压力的情况下
they performed as well on tests as those who didn’t have any stress stimulus.
他们的表现和那些没有压力的人一样好
FMRI studies have also found that practice tests
FMRI研究还发现 测试
increased the hippocampus ability to connect to other regions of the brain
促进了海马体与大脑其他区域神经元的连接
so even though cortisol may impair some pathways,
因此尽管皮质醇可能会阻碍某些神经的传递
studying with practice tests creates new paths
但自我测试可以创造新的神经传递
to route around blockages.
从而另辟蹊径
Feeling distracted?
注意力不集中?
Try a mini workout!
简单锻炼一下!
Studies show that those who’ve worked out for 15 minutes
研究表明 那些锻炼15分钟
and then complete a memory task
然后完成记忆测试的人
complete tasks significantly faster than those that haven’t exercised.
比那些没有锻炼的人完成得快得多
Even a simple walk can make a difference.
即使是简单地走走也有用
But you also need to take a minute and think about
但你也要花一分钟时间想想
the way that is you personally study best!
对你而言最好的学习方法是什么!
Meta-cognition is the analysis of one’s own learning or thinking processes.
元认知是一个人对自身学习或思维过程的认识
Studies have found that students who have poor meta-cognitive skills
研究发现 元认知能力差的学生
meaning they lack awareness of assessing their own strengths and weaknesses
说明他们缺乏认识自身优势和弱点的意识
perform worse on tests.
在测试中表现更差
So look inward on ways you have been effective before
所以想想自己以前行之有效的方法
and implement those strategies.
然后运用它们
If you know that studying solo works best for you
如果你觉得独自学习效果最好
skip out on the cramming session with your classmates
那就不要和同学一起备考了
it is crunch time after all!
毕竟是紧要关头了!
There’s also one other really important distinction to make:
还有非常重要的一点:
are you cramming late into the night because
你是否考前准备到深夜
you know very very little about the topic for your upcoming exam?
因为对要考的内容知之甚少?
Or are you hoping to perfect an already strong base of knowledge…
还是说你要去巩固已经很扎实的知识基础……
If you’ve already studied
如果你已经学过了
GO TO SLEEP!
那就快去睡觉!
There is more than a century’s worth of research
历经一个多世纪的研究表明
concluding that sleep is essential for memory retention.
睡眠对于保持记忆是必不可少的
But if you really only can spare a few minutes to sleep
但如果你真的只有几分钟时间可以睡觉
consider rocking. That’s right.
考虑一下摇摇床吧 没错
a recent study found that participants
最近的一项研究发现
who slept on a bed engineered to gently rock
睡在轻轻摇动的床上的人
were able to fall asleep more quickly,
可以更快地入睡
sleep more deeply, and perform better on memory tests the next morning
睡得更深 在第二天早上的记忆测试中表现的更好
so rockabye baby really works!
所以摇摇床真的很管用!
Of course, if you want to avoid cramming next time and get ahead,
当然 如果下次你不想再临时备考 想要提前准备
or even just learn something completely new,
或者想学一点全新的东西
be sure check out our sponsor The Great Courses Plus,
一定要看一看我们的赞助商The Great Courses Plus
which is a subscription on-demand video learning service with lectures
这是一个视频订阅点播平台
and courses from top professors from around the world!
提供来自全世界顶级教授的演讲和课程!
Looking for more tips to get the most out of your mind?
想要更多关于脑力开发的技巧吗
We would recommend “Optimizing Brain Fitness” taught by Professor Richard Restak
我们向您推荐Richard Restak教授的”优化大脑训练”
which includes 12 lectures, including how to feed your brain
包含12节课 内容包括怎样为大脑提供能量
enhance your working memory and practice for peak performance.
提高记忆力以及练习充分利用大脑
With a library of over 11,000 video lectures about anything that interests you
拥有超过11000个视频课程 总有你感兴趣的
science, math, history, literature
科学 数学 历史 文学
or even how to cook, play chess
甚至教你做饭 下棋
or become a better photographer
如何成为更好的摄影师
it’s an amazing service. The Great Courses Plus is giving our viewers a FREE trial
这是一个很棒的平台 The Great Course Plus还给观看者提供免费体验
You can show your support for AsapSCIENCE by visiting TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/ASAPScience
你可以访问TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/ASAPScience 表达对艾萨科普的支持
Use link in the description below to start your free trail today.
使用下方的链接来开启你的免费体验吧
And subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday
每周四更新更多科普视频 多多订阅哦

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

视频介绍了怎么科学地“临时抱佛脚”!科学突击、快速记忆,你不知道的小秘诀都在这里。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Syllab

审核员
视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AdrnN3A79yc

相关推荐