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如何建造木制摩天大楼

How to build a wood skyscraper

This is the Ascent Milwaukee.
这是密尔沃基的Ascent大楼
Part of it.
其中一部分
I have to move my camera back.
我得把相机转回来
This building’s 284 feet high, 25 stories,
这座建筑有25层楼 284英尺高
and if you go to the model rooms,
如果你去参观样板间
it looks like a typical,luxury apartment building
它看起来就像一栋典型的豪华公寓大楼
with prop wine and art.
配有道具酒和艺术品
But above the demonstration bed and view of Milwaukee
但在样板床和密尔沃基的风景之上
is a wood ceiling…
是一个木制天花板
and wood beams…
和木梁
and wood columns.
以及木柱
They’re all structural.
它们都是承重结构
That’s because when I visited…
这是因为我参观时……
Was that a cool zipper sound?
那是很酷的拉链声吗?
Ascent Milwaukee was finishing construction.
Ascent大楼即将完成施工
When I tell someone I’m working on the tallest
当我告诉别人我正在建造
timber building in the world
世界上最高的木结构建筑时
they’re very surprised to hear that it’s in Milwaukee.
听说它在密尔沃基 他们非常惊讶
How does a building with wood slabs
像这样有木板和木梁的高大建筑
and beams like this, actually happen?
究竟是如何实现的呢?
It turns out that changing materials changes the entire construction process.
事实证明 材料的改变会影响整个施工过程
Here’s an elegant demonstration of a bag of concrete and some rebar.
以下是一袋混凝土和一些钢筋的动画演示
A lot of big buildings are built using steel beams and columns
许多大型建筑都是用钢梁和钢柱
and PT concrete slab.
以及PT混凝土板建造的
The PT stands for Post-tension:
PT代表后张力:
basically the steel reinforces the concrete
从根本上说 钢筋加固了混凝土
and tendons are literally pulled on to create tension.
而预应力钢筋实际上会被拉动以产生张力
PT Slabs are strong,
PT板很牢固
relatively easy to build and get,
其建造与获取相对容易
often pretty affordable
通常价格低廉
and maybe most importantly,
也许最重要的是
they’re really familiar both to builders and regulators.
建筑公司和监管机构对它们都很熟悉
But they’re not very pretty
但PT板不太美观
and they can require a lot of energy to make and move around.
而且制造和运输需要消耗大量的能量
Mass Timber uses, well…
而使用重型木结构 嗯……
My name is Ricky McClain.
我是Ricky McClain
I’m a senior technical director with Woodworks.
我是Woodworks的高级技术总监
One of the things that the Woodworks does
Woodworks的工作之一就是
is tracks the number of projects that are actually been done with mass timber.
追踪真正使用重型木结构建成的项目数量
In 2013, there were say 20-25 projects.
2013年 大约有20到25个项目
Whereas now, we’re tracking about 1400 projects in the US.
而现在 我们在美国跟踪约1400个项目
So in terms of overall number of projects done on an annual basis
就每年完成的项目总数而言
it’s still a small percentage
这仍然是很小的比例
but it has been growing significantly.
但已经取得了显著的增长
The common way that I think of it is
通常我会将木板分为
vertical products and horizontal products.
垂直板和水平板
So for columns and beams
所以对柱子和梁而言
it’s most often a product
通常使用一种被称为
called glue laminated timber or gluelam.
胶合层压木材或胶合板的产品
There’s adhesive between each layer pressed together.
每一层之间都通过粘合剂压在一起
Sides are planed, so a nice smooth surface.
侧面会抛光以获得光滑的表面
And so that’s the gluelam.
这就是胶合板
Beam and columns are the exact same.
梁和柱子完全一样
The panels, the horizontal panels
而对水平面板而言
you can kind of think of that as like replacing a slab system.
你可以把它想象成替换一个平板系统
Cross laminated timber(CLT), is one of those panel options
水平面板的选择之一是交叉层压木材(CLT)
where you’re taking again two bys flat,
还是取两层木板平铺
a layer of of adhesive goes down
刷上一层胶粘剂
another layer of two bys flat,
再平铺两层木板
but rotated 90 degrees from that first one.
但与第一层相比 旋转了90度
So you’re creating panels that are 4 to 12 feet wide,
这样就得到了4到12英尺宽
20 to 60 feet long.
20到60英尺长的木板
Mass timber is strong,
重型木结构坚固
environmentally in demand
且满足环保需求
both because wood is a renewable material
因为木材是一种可再生材料
and because sometimes it earns builders
而且它有时能让开发商
environmental credits better
获得更高的环保信用
— or at least different looking than concrete
——至少外观上比混凝土美观
and arguably better against some obstacles,
而且面对某些灾害时表现更好
like earthquakes and fire.
例如地震和火灾
It’s also hard to get
但木材也不易获取
and way less familiar to builders and regulators
建筑公司和监管机构对其也不够熟悉
But these materials are more than lists of pros and cons.
但这些材料不只是清单上列出的优缺点
They can change the process of design, sourcing
它们会改变每个人的设计 采购
and building for everybody
和建造过程
that makes a building a reality.
让建筑真正落地
This started as a real estate project,
最初这只是一个房地产项目
not as mass timber project.
不是重型木结构项目
The driver was aesthetics.
对审美的追求促成了这一转变
At the time, we didn’t know much more than that.
那时我们对重型木结构了解不多
It was just a…
就只是……
”Isn’t it amazing that you can have
“你可以用木头建一个高大的建筑
a tall structure built out of wood
且它结构外露
and the structure is exposed.”
这不是很神奇吗?”
From that one decision,
从这个决定开始
a lot of things about making the building change.
许多与房屋建造相关的事都发生了改变
The whole process is different.
整个过程都不一样了
The insurance is different, the financing.
保险不一样 融资也不一样
And then you start getting into construction
开始施工之后
and the planning of the building is completely different
对建筑的规划也完全不同
because you’re planning so much of the building
因为你需要以数字化的方式
ahead of time digitally,right?
提前规划许多建筑 对吗?
Planning and designing.
规划和设计
The biggest design impact might be the BIM
设计部分受影响最大的可能是BIM
which takes design and places it at the top of the construction process.
它通过设计对施工过程进行管控
BIM is a “Building Information Model”,
BIM是一个“建筑信息模型”
a bible of all the stuff in a building.
是建筑所有相关内容的核心
Imagine a blueprint that’s 3D and super detailed.
可以把它想象成一个3D版超详细的蓝图
We had 60 plus pre-construction meetings.
我们在施工前开了60多次会议
That experience right away tells you that
这种经历很快就告诉你
“Hey, this is unusual.”
“嘿 这次非同一般”
We had to do that because…
我们只能这么做 因为……
whether the mass timber panels were being made in Austria or in Canada
无论重型木结构的木板是奥地利制造
or in the United States, it doesn’t matter.
加拿大还是美国制造 都不重要
They’re being made at the factory.
它们是在工厂里加工的
So if something’s wrong, you’ve got a big problem.
如果哪里出了问题 那就有大麻烦了
It was more intense for us.
我们的压力更大
So you’re basically building what’s called
你基本上是在建造一个所谓的
a digital twin to the real building.
实体建筑的数字化复刻版
And in the case of timber, because so much of it is prefabricated,
就木材来说 因为很多都是预制的
by the end, they had literally modeled the building
到最后 他们实际上已经将建筑模型
down to the last screw.
精确到了最后一颗螺丝
You always want to get it right as the structural engineer
一般来说 作为结构工程师或者设计团队
or as a design team in general,
你总是想把事情做好
but normally if there’s an issue, you can cut it
但通常情况下如果有问题 可以在现场切割
or you can go to the shop or you can pour more concrete.
可以去商店 或者浇筑更多的混凝土
This one, it would’ve been a 5 month delay to the job
而重型木结构项目 要把另一根梁运到现场
to get another beam shipped over site.
可能会延误5个月的工作
So it really was critical,
所以必须保证不出问题
and that’s why we had so many coordination meetings.
这也是我们召开这么多协调会的原因
And because mass timber is so new
因为重型木结构很新颖
you have to spend time persuading regulators to trust it,
你必须花时间说服监管机构信任它
which means…
这意味着……
There’s actually no sound here.
这里实际上没有声音
But this is a mass timber building being set on fire.
这是一个被点燃的重型木结构建筑
For years, the USDA’s Forest Products Lab
多年来 美国农业部在威斯康辛州麦迪逊的
in Madison, Wisconsin
森林产品实验室
has been testing mass timber,
一直在测试重型木结构
like cross-laminated timber,
如交叉层压木材
in a building they constructed just for this purpose.
他们专门为此盖了一栋建筑 在里面进行实验
It performed well.
效果很好
They also test columns,
他们还测试了柱子
where the wood naturally forms a char layer
柱子的木材自然形成了一个炭化层
that protects a column’s stability.
保护了柱子的稳定性
For Ascent, regulators wanted them to test
监管机构希望他们为Ascent大楼
if the columns could hold up to three hours of fire.
测试这些柱子是否能承受三小时的火灾
So they burned those too.
所以他们把柱子也点着了
We did nine columns total
我们一共测试了9个柱子
of three of each species that we tested.
每种类型各3个
We instrumented them with thermocouples.
我们用热电偶对它们进行检测
We lifted the columns out of the furnace
然后把柱子从炉子里抬出来
and then scraped all of the char layer off.
刮去表面的炭化层
It worked: the columns were fire resistance rated
柱子经受住了考验:它们的耐火时间
up to 180 minutes.
达到了180分钟
And we looked at different species,
我们还测试了不同品种的木材
because the different species are a little bit different chemically
因为不同的品种化学性能也会有差异
and might char different.
炭化也可能不同
Char has been studied for hundreds of years.
木炭已经被研究了数百年
In general, people know how wood chars.
一般来说 人们知道木材如何炭化
Concrete and steel can be hurt by fire
混凝土和钢材也会被火灾损坏
but they’re familiar in the United States.
但它们在美国很常见
That’s why, if you look at this video,
正因为此 如果你看这个视频
you can see that this structure
就会发现Ascent大楼的结构
like many mass timber structures,
与许多重型木结构一样
is actually a hybrid.
实际上是混合结构
The parking garage is concrete
停车库是混凝土结构
and two concrete cores helped get the project approved
两个核心筒也是混凝土建造的
more easily than if it were all wood.
这比全木结构更容易通过审批
Once design is over, sourcing begins.
一旦设计完成 采购就开始了
You go from buying concrete at Home Depot
从在家得宝上购买混凝土
to moving wood across the world.
到在世界各地搬运木材
You’re moving these absolutely massive pieces of wood all over the country.
你从全国各地搬运这些极其巨大的木材
And it’s trains, planes, automobiles.
运输方式有火车 飞机和汽车
You know, you’re always trying to figure out what’s the quickest way,
你总是想知道哪种方式
what’s the most effective way, what is the best carbon footprint
最快 最有效 碳排放量最小
you know, all of these items.
你知道的 所有这些都要考虑
Taylor Cabot’s a project manager at Timberlab
Taylor Cabot是Timberlab的项目经理
which helps design and coordinate
该公司协助设计和协调
mass timber projects like Ascent.
像Ascent大楼这样的重型木结构项目
Timber manufacturing is still led by Japan, Germany, and Austria
木材制造业仍由日本 德国和奥地利主导
and Ascent’s timber comes from Austria,
Ascent大楼的木材来自奥地利
which means they had to get every single piece all the way to Milwaukee.
这意味着他们必须把每块木材都运到密尔沃基
Imagine you’re on the Oregon Trail
想象一下 你在俄勒冈的小道上
and you have glass panes for your window
运送一块做窗户用的玻璃板
and you have it in your wagon
你把它放在马车里
with like hay around it.
周围铺着干草
And it’s like if you break that glass pane,
这感觉就像 如果你打碎了那块玻璃
like you are not going to get another one.
就再也找不到另一块了
We are moving things across the entire country.
我们从全国各地搬运材料
It can be replaced,
你可以找到替换材料
but I mean, you’re talking weeks, not days.
但那需要几周时间 而不是几天
These materials then affect the engineering.
这些材料也会对工程造成影响
It’s not like a steel or a concrete building where I,
这不像是钢结构或混凝土建筑
you know, the architect doesn’t care
建筑师并不关心
what kind of steel I pick or what kind of concrete, as long as it works.
我选择哪种钢材或混凝土 只要能用就行
The owner really likes this white Austrian spruce.
业主非常喜欢这种白色的奥地利云杉
So some of the columns at the base, you know, to minimize the overall size
为了最大限度地减少整体尺寸
are a higher grade or they’re a little stronger, stiffer.
底部的柱子等级更高 或者说更粗更硬
But that’s also more expensive.
但也更贵
So as you go up, you sort of use the lower grades
所以越往上 柱子的级别越低
as it becomes more cost-effective.
也就越划算
Traditional construction also isn’t affected
传统建筑也不会受到
by stuff like a boat getting stuck in the Suez Canal.
像船堵在苏伊士运河这种事的影响
Our materials didn’t go through the Suez Canal
我们的材料不经过苏伊士运河
but 2 million containers were then held up in transit as well because
但有200万个集装箱在运输过程中被耽搁了
they were either stuck literally in the canal,
因为它们要么真的被卡在运河里
or waiting to get in the canal.
要么等着进入运河
Finding a container was like gold, you know.
找集装箱就像寻金
I would be like driving around my city
我会驱车在城市里搜寻
and I would like seeing a container, you know, like sitting in a yard,
看到一个集装箱放在院子里
and I was like — should we go grab it?
我就想——我们应该把它抢走吗?
All those design and sourcing changes
所有这些设计和采购的变化
mean building with mass timber is pretty different.
意味着重型木结构的建造方式也截然不同
Our construction workers here, they would go home at the end of the day
我们的建筑工人在结束一天的工作后回家
and their wives would say
他们的妻子会说
“Huh, doesn’t even look like you’re working today.”
“哼 你今天看起来都不像在工作”
“You’re so clean.”
“这么干净”
And they love that because with the timber
工人们喜欢这样 因为使用木材
you’re not working with all this silica dust
就不用和混凝土里的硅灰
from concrete and everything like that.
和所有类似的粉尘打交道了
You’re just working with wood
你只和木材打交道
and you’re really not cutting much, if at all.
即使要切割 也真的没多少工作量
So you’re going home clean.
所以你可以干干净净地回家
Stuff like welding just doesn’t happen in a wood building
像焊接这样的事不会发生在木质建筑中
because it’d be a fire hazard.
因为有火灾隐患
So, screwdrivers become way more important.
因此 螺丝刀变得更加重要
We would have upwards of 64 16 inch screws.
我们有超过64个16英寸的螺丝钉
We were using just cordless battery operated tools.
我们只使用电池供电的无绳工具
We’d only get maybe five or six
每块电池可能只够装5到6个
of those 16 inch screws per battery.
那种16英寸的螺丝
We had a pretty substantial battery changing
安装这些螺丝时
and charging operation on the working deck
我们在工作台面上进行了大量的
as we’re installing these screws.
电池更换和充电操作
So we would have to field install roughly 7000 screws per floor.
我们要在每层地板安装大约7000个螺丝
This is a gluelam column.
这是一个胶合板柱子
Below our topping we have our CLT plank
顶部下面是CLT板
and we have some beams that run into the column.
还有一些横梁落在了柱子上
So one column may have as much as 64
所以每根柱子上 仅仅固定CLT板
just CLT to column screws.
就可能有多达64个螺丝
Because of this, a lot of things change.
正因为如此 许多事情发生了变化
While it might take 10 days to complete a floor with concrete
用混凝土浇灌一个楼板可能需要10天
it could take only 5, using mass timber.
而重型木结构可能只要5天
There’s less skilled labor available.
可用的熟练工人较少
There’s this inherent push
有一种内在的推动力
to fully detail out a building beforehand.
促使我们提前对建筑进行充分的细节设计
And so it really helps reduce labor force on site
所以重型木结构确实能减少现场劳动力
or reduce waste of materials that come out to site as well.
也可以减少运到现场的材料浪费
And it’s this kind of huge shift in the industry where we’re saying,
我们所说的正是这个行业的巨大转变
we don’t need 100 guys to build a building.
我们不需要100个工人来盖一栋大楼
You know, we might need 30.
也许只要30个
Or we don’t need to bring a bunch of materials to site and cut them
或者说我们不需要带一堆材料去现场切割
and create a bunch of waste and send the waste away.
然后制造一堆垃圾 再把垃圾运走
We can do all that work in factories
我们可以在工厂将所有材料切割好
and then send it out
并送到现场
and have it kind of erect in Lincoln Log or a Lego set sort of way.
再以林肯原木或乐高积木的方式搭建起来
And that goes back to the original question:
这就回到了最初的问题:
how does a wood skyscraper happen?
木制摩天大楼是如何产生的?
They’re the product of a total rethinking of the process of construction.
它们是对建筑过程进行全面反思的产物
One of my favorite just anecdotes was that
我最喜欢的一个趣事是
when we framed the first deck of timber
当我们把第一层木头的框架建好后
and we get up there, and I’m like
我们上到了那里 我就想
“What am I sensing?”
“我感觉到了什么?”
And I laid down on the deck because it doesn’t have the concrete top yet.
我躺在木板上 因为当时顶上还没浇混凝土
Right? It’s just raw wood.
只有原木
And I lay down and they look at me and they’re like
我躺在那里 他们看着我 好像在说
“What is wrong with you and what are you doing?”
“你怎么了?你在干什么?”
And I said, “Guys, smell it.”
我说“朋友们 来闻一闻”
“It smells like popsicle sticks.”
“它闻起来像冰棍棒”
And they’re like, “You’re insane!”
他们就说 “你疯了!”
And they get down and they’re like
然后他们也躺了下来 并且说
“Oh, my God, it smells like popsicle sticks.”
“哦上帝啊 闻起来真像冰棍棒”

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译制信息
视频概述

你见过木结构的摩天大楼吗?快来了解一下吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

木子沐

审核员

审核员OYN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2qry7AmdIn8

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