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自制火箭! – 译学馆
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How To Build A Rocket (From Scratch)

在这期视频中 我来教大家如何用废弃物自制火箭 这些全手工制作的
For this project I’m going to show you how to build a rocket, from scratch. These homemade
“自由”火箭”能飞到1000英尺以上的高空 再弹出一个小降落伞
“Randomizer” rockets, launch over 1,000 feet high, and eject a little parachute to
让火箭安全着地 它们可以反复发射升空
bring them safely back to the ground. They’re re-loadable and re-launch-able. And you might
利用家里常见的东西 你就能制作出火箭
even be able to build one, with things around your house.
在这视频中 你需要准备一瓶气体减压药
For this project you’re going to need a bottle of gas relief pills, and a plastic
一个塑料香槟酒杯 就是在一美元商店里买到的那种
champaign glass, like the kind you’d get at the dollar store.
把药瓶推入酒杯 你看尺寸正好
Pushing the bottle into the glass, you can see they make a perfect fit, and you’ll
在接下来的几分钟里 你会看到合适的尺寸有多么重要
see why that’s important in just a few minutes.
Now plastic champaign glasses usually come in packs of two for a buck, but they don’t
always look like this one.
有一些会有细微的纹理差别 或者另一只上有为了特殊场合所加的装饰物
Some have slightly different textures, or extra decorations for special occasions. But
但只要一点点的创造性发挥 你就能带来无穷变化
with a little ingenuity, you can probably make any variation work.
你现在也许已经猜到了 酒杯用来制作火箭头锥
Now you might have already guessed, this is going to be the nosecone for the rocket. And
我们不需要杯梗和杯座 用钢锯或其他类似的工具把它们切掉
we don’t need the base, so let’s go ahead and chop it off now, with something like a hacksaw.
留下大约半英尺杯梗 然后找张砂纸
Make sure to leave about half an inch at the tip, then find a sheet of sand paper,
在上面仔细打磨留下的杯梗 磨到和杯子的轮廓一致
so you can carefully begin sanding the plastic stub down, until it follows the contour of the glass.
我用的是150目的砂纸 几分钟后
I’m using 150 grit sandpaper, and after a couple of minutes,
你可以看到火箭头锥开始成形 看上去更符合空气动力学原理
you can already see the nosecone starting to take shape, and looking a lot more aerodynamic.
接下来 用400目的砂纸来磨整个杯身 这样更容易上色
Now if you go one step further, and sand the whole thing with 400 grit, it’ll help the paint stick better.
但不管怎样 在给头锥上色前 最好也用砂纸磨一下杯子内壁 靠近杯口的位置
But either way, before you paint the nose cone, it’s a good idea to rough up the inner wall, near the top.
现在磨好杯身 这会为之后火箭组装节省一步
Roughing it up now, will save you a step, when we attach it to the rocket later on.
好了 现在该上色了 我用的是这种黄色喷漆
Alright it’s time for a paint job, and I went with this yellow gloss spray paint,
因为这种喷漆适用于塑料 喷上后15分钟之内就干了
because it’s made for bonding to plastics, and dries in 15 minutes or less.
我建议在户外喷漆 喷的时候 把它放在泡沫棒或其他类似东西上
I recommend going outside and holding it with something like a foam noodle when you spray it,
because this way, you don’t make much of a mess.
头锥干了以后 接下来改造塑料药瓶
Alright with the nose cone drying, let’s move on to modifying the plastic pill bottle next.
你可以在当地的购物中心里找到这些瓶子 大概只需要88美分
You can find these bottles at your local super center, for around 88¢.
慢慢把标签拉起来 只要足够小心 就能够把标签完整撕下来 也不会留下粘粘的残留物
And if you pull the label slowly and carefully enough, you should be able to get it off without leaving any sticky residue behind.
现在我们清空药瓶 如果你没有气体问题 那你就要保证正确处理这些药片
Now we’re only after the empty bottle here, so unless you’re having issues with gas, go ahead and get rid of the pills any way you think is safe.
下一步小心切开药瓶底部 我用的是一把美工刀
Next you’ll need to carefully, cut the bottom of the bottle, and for that I’m using an X-acto knife.
也可以用开箱刀或是剪刀 但不管用什么 我们的目标是尽可能让边缘切得干净平直
A box-cutter, or pair of scissors will work as well. But whatever you use, the goal here is to cut the edge as straight, and cleanly as possible.
瓶颈上凸起的部分也要去掉 我发现搓板是个不错的工具
Now the threads on the bottle neck have to come off as well, and I found a good tool for removing them is a flat metal file.
把药瓶放在平面上不断磨 磨平凸起的部分
Set the bottle on a flat surface and grind away at the threads until they’re flat.
But try to keep the bottom ridge, untouched.
完成后 用砂纸把药瓶内部磨粗糙
And while you’re here, go ahead and sand a rough patch into the inner wall of the bottle,
跟做头锥时一样 再用150目的砂纸磨一下药瓶两侧
like you did for the nose-cone, then use 150 grit to rough up the sides of the bottle as well.
好 接下来搭建制作螺纹锁马达
Alright, let’s move on to building the screw-lock, motor mount, next.
你只需要一个3/4英寸的PVC塑料连接件 在任何五金店里都能找到
You’ll just need a 3/4” PVC coupling, which you should be able to find at any hardware
重点是 要找一个内部有螺纹的
store. And it’s important to get the one that has the threads, on the inside.
用砂纸将套管外面弄粗糙 然后从螺纹顶端切下半英寸
Use your sandpaper to rough up the outside of the casing, then cut 1/2” off the tip, of the threaded end.
This piece will become the “quick connect” adaptor that our sugar motors will screw onto
when we’re getting the rocket ready for launch.
现在 这个”自由”火箭的身体 是用一个塑料高尔夫保护器制成的
Now the body tube of the “Randomizer” rocket, is made with a plastic golf club protector,
you can find at any sporting goods store.
在这期间 你可以在外面随便一家商店中买一卷包装纸
And while you’re out running errands, stop in at the dollar store for a roll of wrapping paper as well
And while you’re out running errands, stop in at the dollar store for a roll of wrapping
包住这些管子 一卷包装纸可以包九个管子
paper tube that’s inside it. And one roll, will give you nine of them.
我们需要做的下一件事 是切割模板 这是由
Alright the next thing we need, is the fin cutting template, which was designed and donated,
我的朋友在设计和捐赠的 我已经在描述中添加了一个链接 因此你可以免费得到它
by my friends at And I’ve put a link in the description to where you can get it for free.
把”尾翼定位装置”模板剪下来 包在高尔夫管子外
Go ahead and cut out the “Fin Location” template as well, and wrap it around the golf
两头卷起 使它们完美地结合在一起
club tube, then tape it so both ends, meet perfectly together.
现在从管子的末端测量20英寸 然后用纸模板的边缘作为
Now measure 20” up from the end of the tube, and use the edge of the paper template as
切割指南 做一个干净的切割
a cutting guide, for making a clean cut.
你的火箭身体管子应该有20英寸长 如果是 那么两端粗糙的内壁
Your body tube should be 20” long, and if it is, then rough up the inner walls, of both
ends, with 40 grit sandpaper.
现在 拿出你准备好的2环氧树脂 因为已经到用它的时候了 用胶合剂使它们粘在一起
Now get your 2-part epoxy ready, because the time has come, to cement it together.
在你制作环氧树脂之前 最好做一次练习 看看所有的东西都会怎么样
Before you epoxy anything, it’s always a good idea to do a practice run, to see how everything’s going to fit.
先把4英寸的棕色管子放到火箭主体内部 接着安装PVC马达支架
So, slide the 4” brown tube inside the rocket body first, followed by the PVC motor mount next.
你可以看到 有点宽
Which you can see, is actually a bit to wide.
But check this out. You can stretch out the bottom of the tube using the tip of the nose
cone, and just like that, your PVC coupling makes a perfect fit.
好了 让我们继续 混合大量的环氧树脂 但记住动作快点 因为
Ok let’s go ahead and mix a generous amount of epoxy, but be prepared to work fast, because
you really only have about 5 minutes before it hardens up.
我先用一根冰棒棍 在棕色纸管外部涂上大量环氧树脂
I tried using a popsicle stick, to apply a copious coating to the outside of the brown
paper tubing first, then added a coating to the outside rim, of the motor mount next.
把纸管插入火箭内部 伸入底部约半英寸
The paper tube goes inside the rocket body, until it’s about 1/2” past the end. And
在它的下方涂一层环氧树脂 接下来你需要推动螺纹PVC连接部分
after adding a coat of epoxy right below it, you’ll need to push the threaded PVC coupling in next.
你可能注意到我用了一个3/4英寸的PVC底托 来辅助马达底座的内部管子的组装
You probably noticed I’m using a 3/4” PVC riser, to guide the motor mount inside
这是一个好工具 因为你需要一个杠杆来
the tube. It’s a good tool to use because you’ll have a lot more leverage, for making
sure your motor goes in straight.
Clean up the epoxy with a paper towel, but before it hardens, it’s really important
这一点很重要 把你做好的火箭筒放到平面上前后滚动
to set your rocket tube on a flat surface, and roll it back and forth.
观察PVC底托 稍稍调整让它保持垂直 因为这样可以让
Watch the PVC riser, and make minor adjustments to keep it straight, because that’ll help
ensure the thrust, is in-line with the center of the rocket.
5分钟后 你可以继续做下一步了 把装降落伞的容器连接到另一端
5 minutes later, you can go ahead and connect the parachute container, to the other end.
现在开始安药瓶 这要花费一点时间
Now to accommodate the mouth of the pill bottle, you’re going to need to spend a bit of time
working this other end over the plastic cone a bit, to stretch it out so it’ll fit.
把两部分组合到一起 仔细检查它们是否匹配 如果尺寸匹配 就继续
Push the parts together to double-check they actually fit, and if they do, then go ahead
加点环氧树脂 把它俩粘到一起
and add some epoxy, and push the two together.
转一下瓶子让它们粘的更结实 然后用纸巾
Give the bottle a little twist, for better adhesion, then go ahead and clean up any overspill,
with a fresh clean paper towel.
在等着着环氧树脂干的时候 让我们开始为瓶子的绘画做准备
With the epoxy starting to set, let’s prep the bottle for painting, and all I’m using
to protect mine, is a piece of paper and some masking tape.
把箭体用喷漆喷成黑色 然后把它放到一边
Spray paint the bottle black, to match the rocket body, then set it in a safe place where
it can sit for about 20 minutes, undisturbed.
好了 漆已经干了 我们继续做火箭的尾翼
Ok, with the paint drying on the bottle, we can get to work, making the rocket fins next.
你需要一张大的中等厚度海报纸 它可以在一元店买到
You’re going to need a large piece of medium weight poster paper from the dollar store,
以及一个科普洛标志板 是我在一个提供地方指示牌的公司花了1.88美元买的
and a black, coroplast sign board, which I found at a local sign supply company, for $1.88.
如果想省点钱 你可以重复利用那些在
If you want to save a couple of bucks, you could always re-use those plastic signs that
seem to be everywhere after a local election.
It’s a good idea to stick your “Fin Cutting” template and the “Shock Cord” templates
onto a piece of poster paper before you cut them out.
做到这 你需要裁下一个
And while you’re here, you may as well cut a strip
of poster paper, 4” wide by 15-1/2” long, because we’ll be needing that later on.
火箭的翼由布告板纸制作 我建议使用的工具有
The rocket fins are made out of the signboard, and for best results, I recommend using a
一个黑色记号笔 一个美工刀和一个旧的钢锯条
black sharpie, an X-acto knife, and an old hacksaw blade.
把模板放到布告板上 边缘与有瓦楞的
Place the template on the sign board, so the leading edge lines up exactly with one of
那条边对齐 不要移动它
the corrugated lines. Then make sure it doesn’t move.
用记号笔仔细描下模板的形状 并且记得
Carefully trace the template with a fine tipped marker, and make sure you get the little notch
there on the side as you do.
你可以把锯条当做“直尺” 用来辅助
Now if you use the back of your hacksaw blade as a “straight-edge”, it’ll help guide
the blade of your knife, and give you the straightest and cleanest cuts possible.
重复做3次后 你得到了4片尾翼 花点时间好好做这部分 以保证质量
Do the same thing 3 more times, so you end up with 4 fins. And take time to do it right, because quality counts.
好了 你已经有了4片尾翼 接下来可以制作其他部分了
Alright, now that you’ve got your 4 basic fins cut, it’s time to add some extra features.
沿着边缘的瓦楞纸波纹 小心地滑动你的刀刃
Carefully cut out the corrugated rib on the leading edge, by sliding your blade along the inside edges.
When it’s removed you should be left with an extra deep channel, at the top of the fin.
现在试着在它的顶部边缘滑动你的指甲 以使前缘起折痕
Now try to crease the leading edge, by sliding your thumbnail up along the top edge of the
plastic. And as you do, you should see the tip bends slightly inward.
其他几个翼片也用相同步骤处理后 你的火箭翼就有了“刀刃”
When you’ve done the same thing to the other side, your rocket fin will have a nice little “knife-edge” point to it.
现在为了让这些翼片看起来更棒 让我们给它贴一些贴纸
Now to make these fins look extra awesome, let’s try adding some stickers, to give them a bit of color.
我把定做的图案印在标签纸上 用清洁防风雨的涂料上色
I printed these custom decals on a sheet of label paper, and sprayed them with a clear, weather resistant coating.
把它们贴在翼片前缘 并在两侧压平 这部分就完成了
And when they’re folded over the leading edge, and pressed down flat on both sides, they’re finished.
你可以看到 如何添加贴纸会让你的火箭外表酷炫 专业
You can see how adding decals will give your fins a really clean and professional look,
as well as keep the edges, sharp and aerodynamic at the same time.
好了 完成了翼片部分后 让我们为火箭的飞行做准备
Ok, with all the fins finished, there are just a couple things left to do to get our rocket ready for flight.
在旧的布告牌上切下一篇宽度与钢锯条相同的部分 然后
Cut off a piece of scrap sign-board, the same width as your hacksaw blade, then pull the
把一次性塑料笔的内胆拉出来 笔管和内胆都切成两段
guts out of a plastic disposable pen, and cut them all, into 1” pieces.
这两段你都会用到 所以先把它们放到一旁 然后把管子拿过来
You’ll need two of each, so set them in a safe place, then bring back the body tube,
because this is the part, where it all comes together.
把你之前做的15-1/2英寸的海报纸卷起来 塞到管子里
Roll up the 15-1/2”, piece of poster paper, you made earlier, and shove it down inside
the tube. Making sure it overlaps slightly, and locks into position, just underneath the rim of the pill bottle.
现在如果你的“尾翼定位模板”还在的话 沿着管体滑动它
Now if you still have your ”Fin Location Template” on the tube, slide it to the bottom
在距离马达底座1英寸处停下 用记号笔在它的头部和底部画一条线
so it’s about an inch above the motor mount, then use your sharpie to mark the top and bottom of each line.
拆下模板 用锯条沿着刚才做好的
Remove the template, and use your hacksaw blade to carefully scratch straight lines
标记 刮出一条直线
into the plastic, in-line with the marks you just made.
在这条直线上刻出两个凹槽 分别在
And while you’re here, it’s a good idea to scratch two more grooves, at 1 inch, and
距离底部1英寸和12英寸处 两个尾翼中间
12 inches from the bottom, exactly in-line with each other, and perfectly centered between 2 fins.
为了好玩 我试着用加热过的螺丝起子 在尾翼连接处插一些小孔
Just for fun, I tried heating up a screw driver, and poked holes into the plastic where the fins connect.
这个做法可以让火箭体和尾翼连接的更结实 不会还没飞行就解体了
This simple modification will bind the rocket body to the fins, making sure they don’t come apart without a fight.
好了 现在该使用热胶枪把所有部件粘在一起了
Alright, the time has come to grab a hot-glue gun, and stick everything together.
Look closely at your fins for the little marking you made when you traced it out, and line
it up exactly, with the bottom of the rocket tube.
在尾翼的标记处到它的尖端都加上热胶 然后
Add a dribble of hot glue, from the marking on the fin, all the way down to the tip. Then
add another bead of glue, along the line you scratched, into the rocket body.
现在 仔细检查管子后面尾翼上的标记 小心地
Now double-check the marking on the fin is at the back of the tube, and carefully press
把尾翼安到对应位置 保持20到30分钟
the base of the fin in place, and hold it securely for 20-30 seconds.
重复这个步骤完成其他3个尾翼 再从后面检查一下它们
Do the same thing with the other 3 fins, then take a look from the back to see if they’re
是否垂直和协调 是的话 我们接着做发射架
straight, and in-line with each other. If they are, then go ahead and attach the launch lugs next.
我先把一英寸的笔管粘在小块纸板上 然后把这两个简易的支架分别
I glued the 1” pen pieces to the sign board scraps first, then glued the improvised lugs,
to the two other markings, scratched into the body tube earlier.
在胶干之前 确保笔管和其他部分在一条直线上
Before your glue hardens, make sure the pen tubes, are perfectly in-line with each other,
simply by looking through one end, and checking the symmetry.
在这一步骤中 你可以粘一些贴纸 我喜欢粘在中心部位 发射支架上部旁边的地方
At this point you can add the body tube stickers, which I like to center, alongside the upper launch-lug.
最后的贴纸粘在火箭底座 尾翼的上部
The last sticker goes around the base of the rocket, just above the fins, and with that,
这部分就完成了 接下来要做的就是制作降落伞和鼻锥体
you’re just about done. All that’s left to do is attach the parachute and the nose-cone.
I got some 1/4”, braided elastic cording, from the craft section of a super store, and
在绳子尾端打一个结 形成一个环
tied a simple knot into the end, so it formed a loop.
你把结系的越紧 它越结实
Now the tighter you can pull the knot, the better it will hold. And to clean it up a
bit, just use a pair of scissors to trim off the excess.
测量并剪下8英寸长的绳子 然后在用来加固的(剪裁好的)海报纸版的中心
Measure and cut the other end at 8”, then go ahead, and lay a bead of hot glue down
滴上热胶 以固定用作减震绳的绳子
the center of one of the, “poster-board reinforced”, shock cord mounts.
The open end of the elastic cord needs to be pressed into the glue so it stretches across two of the squares.
And it’s helpful to lay two more beads of glue along either side of the cording so you
折叠 压住胶水和绳子
can fold the end piece into the center, trapping the cord and glue inside.
再折一次 把它折成一个方块 压紧
Fold it again so you’re left with a single square, then press it together firmly, to finish it off.
这条8英寸的绳子是系在鼻锥体上的 所以在这个方块后面加大量的
This 8” cord, is the one that attaches to the nose-cone. So add a liberal amount of
热胶 然后把这个粗糙的方块用热胶
hot glue to the back of the pad, then press it to the rough patch on the inside wall of
the nose-cone, until the glue cools.
把其他几个减震绳也做相同的处理 但与之前不同的是 这次我们
Do the exact same thing with the other shock-cord mount, but this time, use a 16” piece of
要用16英寸的绳子 并把它粘在塑料药瓶的内壁上
cording, and mount it to the inner wall, of the plastic pill bottle.
最后一步是安装降落伞 我将向你展示如何制作一个降落伞
The very last step is to add one of the parachutes, I showed you how to make in a previous project.
这种“简易降落伞”是用可以在一元店里买到的桌布制作而成的 它不仅可以用作制造“自由”
These “Simple Chutes” are made from dollar-store table covers, and not only work for the “Randomizer”
火箭 也可以用来制造“飞球”
rocket, but can be used to make “Sky Balls” as well.
我制作了8个只用了1美元 我相信你也能做到
I made eight of them for $1, and I’m confident you can as well. So look for how to make “Simple
Chutes”, and “Sky Balls”, in other project videos.
现在 用两个旋转夹把火箭和降落伞连接起来 你需要
Now the parachute attaches to the rocket with two swivel clips, for redundancy. So you’ll
把连接火箭箭体和鼻椎体的绳子上的圈穿到两个夹子的钩子上 然后合上夹子
need to thread the loops from the rocket body, and the nose-cone over the two hooks, then close them up.
连接好绳子以后 再检查一遍 然后折叠降落伞 抓住
With the cords attached, and double-checked, go ahead and fold your parachute up, by grabbing
降落伞的中心 挤出所有的空气
in the center, and pushing all the air out first.
把降落伞折叠起来后 把它卷到绳子上 简单地把
I folded mine in half, then rolled it up to the strings, and held the bundle together
simply by wrapping the lines around the outside of the chute.
在你把降落伞塞到火箭里之前 要用到6到8张火箭用纤维填料物
But before you push the parachute into the rocket, make sure to use about 6-8 pieces
它们的作用是保护降落伞 以免于被火箭发射时突然喷射
of rocket wadding first. This will help protect your parachute, from the blast of hot gases
that shoot out during the ejection charge.
当然 有一个用纸巾和小苏打制作自己的火箭填充物的清洁廉价的方法
And of course there’s a cheap and easy way to make your own rocket wadding with paper towels and baking soda, which I’ll
show you how to do, in a separate project video.
把降落伞紧塞进火箭内 剩下的绳子放到
With your parachute tucked snugly inside, simply collect up any excess cording and push
鼻椎体内 把它轻推到火箭顶端的合适位置
it into the nose-cone. Then gently slide the cone into position, at the top of the rocket.
好了 你已经完成了你的火箭了
With that, you’re finished! You just built your own homemade rocket, from scratch. So,
let’s go see what it can do.
Your “Randomizer” rocket is designed to be powered with the “Screw-Lock Sugar Motors”
然而 一个更安全可靠的方法是使用市售面上销售的
made in a previous project. However, a safer and more reliable method is to use commercially
火箭发动机 如艾斯蒂斯 d12-3或e9-6
available rocket motors, like an Estes D12-3 or an E9-6.
市面上的火箭发动机有些贵 但它们对业余火箭爱好者来说
Commercial rocket motors are a lot more expensive, but they’re probably the better choice for
是更好的选择 特别是初学者
amateur rocketry. Especially if you’re just getting started.
记住你的火箭可以上升到1000英尺高 并且5分钟左右
And remember your rocket will shoot over 1,000 feet high, and can take up to 5 minutes to
就会落回地面 所以你需要合理安排火箭发射的时间和地点
float back to the ground. So make sure to use common sense where, and when you launch,
because any project you try, is at your own risk.
Well now you know how to convert a plastic champaign glass and a handful of other random
materials, into a powerful “Randomizer” rocket.
如果你一次做一大堆火箭的话 你可能会惊讶地发现
And if you try making a whole bunch at the same time, you might be surprised to find out,
they only cost around $5 each.
好了 这个视频就到这里 如果你喜欢这个视频 或许你也会喜欢我的其他一些视频
Well that’s it for now. If you like this project perhaps you’ll like some of my others.
Check them out at