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如何建造“岩浆护城河”?

How to Build a Lava Moat (with xkcd)

There are lots of reasons for wanting
有很多想要
a lava moat around your house,
在你的房子周围修建“岩浆护城河”的理由
but not that many How-To videos
但很少会有视频
explaining how to build one.
教你如何建这样的“护城河”
So we’re here to change that.
所以我们制作了这个视频
It’s actually pretty easy to make lava,
其实制作岩浆还蛮容易的
at least in principle.
至少原理上是这样
The ingredients are just rocks and heat.
原料仅需岩石和热量
Lots of heat.
非常多的热量
Most rocks melt at temperatures
大多数岩石的熔点
between 800 and 1200 celsius,
在800-1200摄氏度之间
which is hotter than your oven,
这比烤箱的温度还高
so you’ll need a gas or charcoal powered forge,
所以你需要煤气或木炭为熔炉供给热量
or an electric furnace.
或者用电炉
To reduce energy consumption,
为了减少能量消耗
it’s tempting to choose a kind of rock or even metal or glass
选择岩石 金属或者玻璃也不错
that melts at a lower temperature,
它们的熔点更低
but then it won’t glow as much.
但也因此不再绚丽夺目了
The intensity and color of the glow
光的亮度和颜色
depends on how hot the lava is,
取决于熔岩的温度
and you definitely want a lava moat that glows
而且你肯定想要一个发光的“熔岩护城河”
that nice bright orange-yellow color.
呈现出明亮的橘黄色
For this reason, we recommend only top quality Keweenawan basalt obtained
为此 我们只推荐取自于美国中西部的
from the upper Midwest of the United States.
顶级基韦诺玄武岩
One of the challenges in maintaining a glowing lava
其中一个维持岩浆发热的困难在于
is that it’s literally radiating away its energy
它逐渐以热和光的形式
in the form of heat and light.
辐射能量
This means you can’t simply
这意味着
melt your lava,pour it into your moat, and call it a day.
不能只将熔浆倒进“护城河”就收工
Your lava moat is going to need some kind of
你的“岩浆护城河”还需要
built-in heating apparatus to make up for the losses,
一些内置加热设备来补充所失去的能量
a ceramic crucible with high temperature electric heating coils
一个具有高温电加热线圈的陶瓷坩埚炉
will work just fine.
能起到不错的效果
And you’ll definitely want a good layer of insulation
为了尽量减少热量散失
to keep heat from leaking into the ground,
你还需要一个优质的隔热层防止热量渗透到地下
because you’re going to need a lot of heat!
因为你会需要大量的热量
At the temperatures we’re working with,
在当前操作的温度下
lava radiates roughly 100 kilowatts of heat per square meter.
岩浆大约每平方米散发出100千瓦的热量
That’s equivalent to 1000 100-watt lightbulbs per square meter,
这就相当于每平方米有1000个100瓦的电灯泡
though you can’t fit 1000 100-watt light bulbs
尽管你不可能安放1000个100瓦亮着的灯泡
into a square meter,
到一平方米里面
if that gives you any sense of how intense lava is.
如果这样可以让你体会到岩浆有多强大
Anyway, electricity typically costs around 10 cents per kilowatt hour,
总之 需要花费大约每千瓦时10美分的电费
so each square meter of lava moat is going to cost you around $10 per hour.
所以每平米的“岩浆护城河”每小时要耗费约10美元
This means that a lava moat a meter wide
这意味着 如果要建造一条一米宽
and enclosing an area roughly the size of a football field
绕足球场一周那么大的“岩浆护城河”
will cost $60,000 per day.
每天将花费约60000美元
If you don’t like the idea of being reliant on somebody else to
如果你不想依赖别人帮忙
keep your lava moat home security system operational,
维持你家“熔岩护城河”正常工作的话
you could instead power it with solar panels,
你可以用太阳能板来供电
or build your own power plant.
或建设专属的发电站
Each of these has its pros and cons.
这两个方法各有优劣
Solar power never needs fuel resupply shipments:
太阳能无需再补给燃料
the sun is going to keep burning for a while.
因为太阳暂时还会继续燃烧
However, every square meter of lava moat
然而 每平方米“岩浆护城河”
requires 2000 square meters of solar panels
需要2000平方米的太阳能板
to keep it glowing day and night.
维持它夜以继日地燃烧
We don’t need to explain the security risks of
我们也无需解释
putting your lava moat’s power source
将“岩浆护城河”能量源
outside of the protection of the lava moat.
放在其保护区域外的安全隐患
So if you want a lava moat a meter wide
因此 如果你想要一个一米宽
powered entirely by solar panels inside of the moat,
完全由护城河内部的太阳能板供电的熔岩护城河
the math works out that the moat needs to
计算得出“护城河”需要
surround an array of solar panels 8 kilometers across.
环绕一批直径8千米的太阳能板
Which is clearly absurd.
这显然很荒诞
You can have a wider and yet more reasonable-sized lava moat
你可以有一个更宽且更合理的“熔岩护城河”规模
if you instead build your own commercial scale power plant inside of it.
假如在护城河内建一座商业规模的发电厂的话
Coal and nuclear power plants produce enough energy to heat
煤和核能发电站产生足够的能量来加热
a lava moat 10 meters wide and encircling an area 500 meters across,
宽10米直径500米的“熔岩护城河”
enough space to fit the power plant and your house inside.
其中有足够的空间容纳发电站和你的房子了
The downside is that
不过它的缺点是
(unless you build your moat on top of a coal or uranium deposit)
除非你把“护城河”建在煤或铀矿床上方
you’ll need to bring in outside fuel for the power plant,
否则你需要为发电站引入外部燃料
so your lava moat won’t be entirely off-grid.
但这样你的“护城河”就不能完全自给自足
Perhaps the best off-grid option for powering your lava moat
或许让“熔岩护城河”自给自足最好的方法
is simply to take inspiration from the source of lava itself:
是从它自身形成资源这找到灵感
the earth’s own internal heat.
地球利用自己的内部能量
Assuming you don’t have access to
如果你不能接近
an island in a lava lake in an active volcano,
某座活火山岩浆湖中的岛屿
the next best option is geothermal power.
那么最佳备用方案就是利用地热能
By choosing the right location,
通过选择好合适的地理位置
a good geothermal power plant can heat a modest-sized lava moat
一座给力的地热发电站 可为中型“熔岩护城河”供热
that’s just perfect for protecting a single family home.
正好可保证一个家庭的使用
I suppose you might also want to learn about
我想你可能还想了解一下
precisely how wide your lava moat should be to deter intruders,
”护城河“具体多宽才能阻止入侵者
or how to cool your house once it’s successfully encircled by lava,
或是一旦“护城河”建成后如何给你的房子降温
or how to deal with all the noxious fumes given off by lava.
又或者如何处理熔岩所产生的有害气体
And for that, you need to check out
以上这些 你需要查看
the full lava moat instructions available in the book,“How To” by Randall Munroe,
兰德尔·门罗所写的《怎么做》一书中“岩浆护城河”的全部操作指引
which this video is based on (and supported by).
本视频就是基于这本书制作的(感谢支持!)
“How To” is an absurd and
它是一本荒诞不经
entertaining self-help guide full of ridiculous over-the-top advice
有许多搞笑的专家建议的自助指南
about everything from how to dig a hole
详细地介绍了从怎么挖洞
to how to be on time
到如何做到准时……
to how to ski
到如何滑雪……
to how to catch a drone.
到如何抓蜜蜂……
You can find a how-to guide for how to obtain
你可以在本视频的“怎么做”引导中
a copy of “ How To ” in the video description.
了解到如何获取一本《怎么做》
And a BIG thanks to Randall and “ How To ”
我们十分感谢 兰德尔和他的《怎么做》
for supporting and inspiring this “ How To ” video.
对“怎么做”视频的支持和启发

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视频概述

本视频介绍了如何在房子周围建造一条“岩浆护城河”,讲述了其制作原理,以及如何在其运行中保证能量供应的方法。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

大牛

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8xfzeD0ZK4

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