ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

打造一台暗物质探测器 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

打造一台暗物质探测器

How to build a dark matter detector - Jenna Saffin

在北安大略湖面下2千多米处
More than two kilometers belowthe surface of northern Ontario,
悬着345000公升超纯水
suspended in 345,000 litersof ultra-pure water,
有一个完美的球体
there’s a perfect sphere.
它存有3600公斤
It contains 3600 kilogramsof liquid argon,
冷却至零下180摄氏度的液氩
cooled to -180 degrees Celsius.
为了在黑暗中找到一丝光亮
Scientists continuously monitorthis chamber from above ground,
科学家一直在地面上监控着这个腔体
looking for a glimmerof light in the darkness.
因为就在这里
Because down here,
地表深处 光亮被紧紧地包在一个水盾内
deep beneath the Earth’s surface and cocooned in a watery shield,
光线能够证明
that light would indicate the presence of one
宇宙的最神秘物质的存在:
of the universe’s greatest mysteries:
暗物质
dark matter.
我们能看到的所有物质 行星 恒星 星系
All the matter we can see,planets, stars and galaxies,
并没有产生足够的万有引力
doesn’t create enough gravitational pull
来解释宇宙这个庞大的结构
to explainthe universe’s larger structure.
是暗物质
It’s dark matter,
据估计 它组成了已知宇宙的25%
which is estimated to make up 25 % of the known universe.
但是 除了它的广泛性
But despite its prevalence,
迄今为止 我们还没法直接探测它
so far we haven’t been able to detect it directly.
挑战非同小可
It’s no small challenge.
暗物质被如此命名是因为它并不
Dark matter was so named because it doesn’t interact
与任何一种看的见的或看不见的光线
with any type of light,
相互影响
visible or otherwise,
这就意味着当我们尝试去观察暗物质时
which means our usual observation tools
常见的观测工具并不起作用
simply don’t workwhen trying to observe it.
虽然暗物质在电磁波谱中可能
But while dark matter may not be visible
是看不见的
in the electromagnetic spectrum,
但它仍然是物质
it’s still matter,
所以我们应该能够测量它与其他物质的相互影响
so we should be able to measure its interactions with other matter.
如果现在的物理模型是正确的
And if our current modelof physics is correct,
数以亿计的亚原子暗物质分子
billions of sub-atomicdark matter particles
每一秒都在通过地球
are passing throughthe Earth every second.
除了暗物质的广泛性
Despite the prevalence of dark matter,
据预测 它的相互影响是很少的 很微弱的
its interactions are predicted to be rare and extremely weak.
为检测这些相互作用 暗物质实验必须非常灵敏
To detect these interactions, dark matter experiments need to be incredibly sensitive.
通过如此灵敏的实验 曾经在地球表面出现过的背景辐射
With such sensitive equipment, the ever-present background radiationon Earth’s surface
会在数据里产生很多噪音
would create so much noise in the data
以致于 任何暗物质分子都会被完全覆盖
that any dark matter particleswould be completely overwhelmed.
就好像努力去听针落在
It would be like trying to hear a pin drop
热闹的城市街道上的声音
on a busy city street.
为了解决这个问题 科学家必须向地球深处挖掘
To solve this problem, scientists have had to dig deep into the Earth.
暗物质实验在矿里或山里的
Dark matter experiments are set upin specialized underground labs,
特殊的地下实验室进行
either in mines or inside mountains.
石头组成
The rock that makes up the
地球的外壳 作用就像是一个过滤器
Earth’s crust works like a filter,
吸收辐射 停止破坏性的分子
absorbing radiationand stopping disruptive particles.
悬浮在超纯水中的探测器
The ultra-pure waterin which the detector is suspended
额外添加了用于过滤辐射的防护层
adds an additional layerof radiation filtering.
这种防护确保只有科学家正在寻找的分子
This shielding ensures that onlythe particles scientists are looking for
才能成功找到探测器
can make their way into the detectors.
一旦这些分子到达一个实验的内部容器
Once these particles reachan experiment’s inner vessel,
科学家就有探测到它们的可能
scientists have a chanceof detecting them.
探测器媒介被选中是因为它们很灵敏
The detector media are chosen becausethey’re exquisitely sensitive detectors
可以很方便的净化
that can be purified extremely well.
这可能是一种液态的惰性气体
These could be a liquid noble gas,
锗和硅晶体 一种制冷剂 或 其他物质
germanium and silicon crystals, a refrigerant, or other materials.
当辐射相互作用时 它会留下警告讯号
When radiation interacts,it leaves tell-tale signs,
比如 光线或泡泡
such as light or bubbles,
会被探测器里的传感器获得
which can be picked up by the sensors inside the detector.
探测器媒介
The detector media are held
被放置在一个玻璃或是一个特殊类型的丙烯酸
in a central chamber made of glass
制成的中心腔体
or a special type of acrylic.
腔体在抵挡来自外部水分超强压力的同时
These chambers have to be ableto hold the substance inside
必须能够保存物质但不与之相互作用
without interacting with it while withstanding incredible pressure from the water outside.
内部容器被强有力的
The inner vessel is surroundedby powerful sensors
设计以检测最小光亮的传感器
designed to detect even thetiniest blips of light,
或 一个气泡引起的声振动 所包围
or the sound vibrationscaused by a single bubble.
每一个传感器记录 二十四分之七的数据
Each sensor records data 24/7,
以及一次要经年累月的实验
and experiments run for monthsand years at a time,
每天都能生成兆兆字节的数据
generating terabytes of data every day.
建造暗物质探测器是一项工程学的壮举
Building dark matter detectorsis as much a feat of engineering
因为这也是物理学的壮举
as it is a feat of physics.
那时 一次实验能够开始收集数据
By the time an experimentis ready to start collecting data,
经年或数十年的
years or decades
正在进行中
of work and investment have already gone into it,
花费了数千万美元的工作和投资
to the tune of tensof millions of dollars.
在2017年 并没有暗物质分子被直接检测到
As of 2017, no dark matter particleshave been directly detected.
这并不奇怪
That’s not entirely surprising.
物理学家 预期相互影响少之又少 并且很难被探测
Physicists expect these interactions to be incredibly rare and difficult to detect.
同时 科学家继续开发新科技
In the meantime, scientists continueto develop new technologies
提高探测器灵敏度
and increase detector sensitivity,
找到暗物质的藏身之处指日可待
closing in on where dark matter is hiding.
当他们发现暗物质时
And when they find it,
我们终将能够揭开
we’ll finally be able to bring
宇宙最黑暗秘密
the universe’s darkest secrets into the light.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

暗物质的定义以及相应的物理性质 暗物质探测器的工作原理及意义

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

呵呵呵呵

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxzNo58pE2c

相关推荐