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教皇是如何炼成的

How to Become Pope

假如你想成为教皇
Let’s say you want to become pope,
在10亿多信徒之中 成为天主教以及牧师的领袖
head of the Catholic Church and shepherd to over 1 billion faithful.
为了这崇高的地位你必须具备以下的条件:
What requirements must you have for this loftyposition:
1)成为天主教徒 2)成年男子
1) Be a catholic and 2) Be a man.
这看起来是一件极为简单的事情
Which seems a little thing
技术上来讲 从常规礼拜天主教徒变成教皇是有可能的
and while it’s technically possible for a regular Sunday Catholic to become pope,
然而从本质上讲 这种事情还没发生过
the last time this happened was essentially never
因为成为教皇不像当总统 你不能直接竞选公职
because becoming pope isn’t like becoming president, you can’t just run for office.
挑选教皇是内部的工作
Selecting the pope is an inside job and
完成这件事的人是红衣主教
the men who do it are the cardinals
理论上讲 他们可以挑选任一天主教徒成为教皇
and while in theory they can select any catholic man to become pope,
但实际上 他们更倾向于提拔他们自己人
in practice they prefer to elevate one of their own.
距上一次非红衣主教教徒成为教皇已有600多年
The last time a non-cardinal become pope was more than 600 years ago
因此 尽管成为红衣主教不是官方要求
so while it isn’t an official requirement,
但它是你必需具备的资质
it’s an unofficial, official requirement.
因此 为了成为教皇
Thus in order to be pope
你首先需要成为红衣主教 要做到这点
you’ll first need to be a cardinal and to do that
你需要开始攀爬通往教皇的天主教晋升通道
you’ll need to start climbing the catholic corporate ladder.*
步骤 1:成为一名牧师
Step 1: Become a Priest.
不像一些教堂
Unlike some churches
可以在线填一份表格就被任命为牧师
where you can fill out a form online and – poof – ordained.
天主教对待成为牧师的人极为认真 你需要非常专业
The Catholic Church treats becoming a priest as a real, you-need-training profession.
因此你将接受很多的教育
So you’re going to require a lot of education:
一般情况下 你需要一个大学的天主教哲学学位
usually a college degree in Catholic Philosophy
并具有神学硕士学位
and then a masters in divinity.
除了你的教育学历 你还必须是:
In addition to your educational qualifications,you must also be:
未婚的男人
A manUnmarried,
且自愿终身不婚 如果你满足这些条件
Willing to remain celibate forever.† If you meet these requirements,
并在教堂工作 你才能成为官方认同的牧师
working with the church, then you can be officially ordained as a priest.
这差不多意味着你可以管理一个天主教堂
Which basically means you get to run a Catholic Church,
或和其他牧师一起工作
or work with another priest who does.
但想要继续前进
But you want onward and to do
你需要接替那个让你成为牧师的人的工作
that you need to take the job of the man who just made you a priest.
步骤 2:成为主教 主教是一个精选出来的群体
Step 2: Become a BishopBishops are a much more select group: while
全世界大约有400,000名天主教牧师
there are about 400,000 catholic priests world wide,
但主教却只有5000名
there are only about 5,000 bishops.
牧师在教堂工作 而主教在大教堂里
While priests get churches, bishops get cathedrals,
监管一些当地的教堂
from which they oversee a number of local churches.
为了晋升你的职位
To advance your career
你必须等到所在地区的主教
you must wait for your bishop in your area
在75岁强制退休或去世以后将主教的位置空出
to be forced into retirement at age 75 or die sooner than that freeing up space for you.
但是你不能只申请
But you can’t just apply,
因为早已经有一张
because there’s already a secret list of potential bishops
每三年更新一次的
that’s updated every three years
基于你所在区域主教认同的
based on who the current bishops in your area think
能更好的取代他们的秘密的主教候选人名单
would make a good replacement for one of theirown.
为了上候选人名单表
To be on that list,
除了成为虔诚的信徒这一要求 你还应该:
in addition to the obvious requirement of being a pious person, you should also:
满35岁且成为牧师至少5年
Be least 35 years old Have been priest for at least five years
拥有神学博士学位(或等同学历)假如你具备所有的条件 你的名字可能在名单上
Have a doctorate in theology (or equivalent)Assuming you’re all these things, your name may,
也可能不在这张秘密的名单上
or may not be on the secret list.
接着当地主教会把这张名单交给你们国家的教皇的使者
The local bishops then give that list to the pope’s ambassador for your country, known
也就是人们熟知的罗马教廷大使
knownas the Apostolic Nuncio.
教廷大使从名单中选择3个牧师
The Nuncio picks three priests from the list,
做一些深入地调查 并与他们交谈
does in-depth research on them, conducts interviews
然后选择其中他认为最棒的那位牧师
and selects the one he thinks is best.
但是这还没有结束
But it’s not over,
因为教廷大使会将他的报告寄去梵蒂冈和主教代表协会
because the Nuncio sends his report to Vatican City and the congress
在那里主教们会评估来自世界各地的候选人
of bishops who work there reviewing potential appointments from around the world.
如果主教代表协会不喜欢三个人中的任一个
If the congress of bishops doesn’t like any of the three candidates,
他们可以告诉教廷大使重新开始:
they can tell the Nuncio to start over:
首先归还这张名单 另外选择三名候选人
returning to the list, picking another three candidates
做更多的调查 更多的采访 然后发送结果
doingmore research, more interviews and sendingoff the results.
当主教协会对教廷大使所选的候选人感到满意
When the congress of bishops is happy with one of the Nuncio’s candidates
那个名字才会给教皇
that name is given to the pope,
而教皇能直接驳回候选人名单 并重新开始整个过程
who can reject the candidate and start the whole process over.
这也就难怪
It shouldn’t be a surprise that
一个主教的位置从空缺到填补有时会花费数月
from a vacancy to a bishop’s replacement can take months
甚至数年的时间
and on occasion, years.
但假设你所在地域的主教正好退休(或死亡)
But assuming that a bishop in your area retired(or died) at the right time
而你在这个表现良好的牧师名单中
and you were on the secret list of good priests and the
然后教廷大使选中你 你也通过了这次的审查
Nuncio picked you and you made it through his interview
并且主教协会认同你
and the congress of bishops approved you
且教皇不否决你 表明了你现在成了主教
and the pope didn’t veto you – poof now you’re now a bishop.
但是你仍然没有达到最高的位置
But you’re still not on top.
最后二步的晋升是…
The penultimate promotion is…
步骤3:成为红衣主教
Step 3: Become a Cardinal.
尽管有着花哨的名字和新颖亮眼的红色服装
Despite the fancy name and snazzy red outfits
然而红衣主教并不是主教的首领
to match cardinals are not the bosses of bishops,
他们仍然是主教
they are bishops,
但拥有额外的头衔且有了额外的责任
just with an additional title and additional responsibilities
最显著的责任就是挑选新教皇
– the most notable of which is electing the newpope.‡
成为红衣主教的唯一方式就是
The only way to become a cardinal is
让现任教皇任命你成为其中一员
to get to current pope to appoint you as one
在5000名主教中 大约只有200名能成为红衣主教
and of the 5,000 bishops, only about 200 are evercardinals.
但是假如你的雄心壮志
But let’s say your ambition doesn’t go unnoticed
没有被教皇忽视并且他让你成了一名红衣主教
by the pope and he makes you a cardinal
那么现在就要等待时机了
– now it’s time to play the waiting game
等待教皇的死亡或退休
for his death or retirement
等到教皇死亡是极有可能的
and with pope’s death is vastly more likely.
当这两种情况之一发生时 80岁以下的红衣主教
When either happens the cardinals under the age
将会被带去梵蒂冈
of 80 are brought to Vatican City where
在那里他们将被隔离起来
they are isolated from the outside world –
很可能被没收手机 平板电脑以及信鸽
presumably by taking away their cell phones and tablets and carrier pigeons.
一旦红衣主教被隔绝 新教皇的挑选也就将开始
Once sequestered, the election of a new popecan begin.
选举的形式从不会相同
These elections are never exactly the same
因为前任教皇会留下挑选替代者的指示
because the ex-pope leaves instructions on how he wants his replacement to be picked,
但一般来说是这样运作的:
but in general it works like this:
红衣主教每天到茜史提尼礼拜堂去投四次票
four times a day the cardinals go to the Sistine Chapel to vote
必须获得2/3的赞同票才能成为教皇
to become pope one of them must get a 2/3rds majority.
从红衣主教中挑选教皇的步骤在很大程度上是不能仓促的
There’s a big dose of mustn’t-be-too-hasty here
因为红衣主教们并非通过举手表决
as the cardinals don’t just raise their hands,
或使用现代的先进的投票系统
or use a modern preferential voting system,
而是在正式的投票开始之前在纸上写下一个名字
but instead write down one name on a piece of paper
站在选举箱前吟唱大段的拉丁文颂词
stand before the alter and say a long latin phrase, before officially casting the ballot.
一旦所有的红衣主教都完成了这项工作
Once all the cardinals have done this,
被数过的选票将被焚毁
the votes are counted and then burned.
这就是电视台要使用
This why TV news stations covering the election
现代超高清视频直播相机对着这个烟囱来报道教皇选举的原因
of the pope use super-modern-hd-livestreaming cameras to look at a chimney.
如果烟是黑色的 就没有选出新教皇
If the smoke is black, no new pope.
这种既需要高胜率的应得选票的门槛 以及缓慢的投票过程
The high victory threshold, and tediously slow voting process,
使得选举一名新教皇 要花费很长的时间
is why it takes so long to elect a new pope.
每天四次投票 一周六天 通常至少需要两周
It’s usually at least two weeks of voting four times a day six days a week
(每周祈祷一天)但是记录的时间要花费三年
with one day a week for prayer ) but the record length is three years.
假设你 最终
Assuming you, eventually,
赢得了你同道红衣主教的支持 在你成为新教皇之前
win the support of your fellow cardinals, you have one final thing
你仍有最后一项任务需要完成:给自己挑选一个新的名字
to do before becoming pope: pick yourselfa new name.
挑选新名字没有什么官方规定
There is no formal rule,
你能给自己取任意你喜欢的名字
you can name yourself anything you like
但是按惯例 要取以前教皇的名字
but it’s tradition to take the name of a previous pope.
当你即将接任这份工作时
Upon your acceptance of the job,
所有的选票将会燃尽 烟囱中冒出白烟
the final ballots are burned clean to make the smoke white
并且昭告天下已经选出新教皇
and announce to the world that a new pope has been selected.
这就是教皇的晋升之路
So that’s the career path:
出生为男性
be born into the right half of the population,
成为天主教徒之一 然后是40万牧师之一
become one of a billion catholics, then one of 400,000 priests,
之后变成5000名主教中的一份子
then one of 5,000 bishops,
接着成为200名红衣主教中的一员 等待现任教皇去世或者退休
then one of 200 cardinals, wait for the current pope to die or retire,
并且使2/3的红衣主教信服你 选举你成为教皇 唯一的教皇
and convince 2/3rds of your fellow cardinals to select you as the one,the only pope.

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你想知道一个教皇是如何炼成的吗?成为教皇究竟需要具备怎样的条件又有怎样的步骤呢?欢迎收看《教皇是如何炼成的》

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审核员 V

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kF8I_r9XT7A

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