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行之有效的记忆术

How to become a memory master | Idriz Zogaj | TEDxGoteborg

What if I told you that in a month from now,
如果我告诉你 一个月后
you will be able to memorize a pack of cards
你只看一次就能记住一副牌
by just looking at it once?
你相信吗?
And that you will be able to do that
只需要接受一个小训练
in under 5 minutes with a little bit of training.
你就能在五分钟内记住一副牌
What if I told you that
我要告诉你
that is all the knowledge you need to fundamentally understand
记住一副牌只需要了解一些基本知识
how your memory and your brain works?
即大脑和记忆是如何运作的
That knowledge will then help you in your everyday life,
这些知识有益于你的日常生活
when it comes to remembering people’s names,
可以帮你记忆人名
commit important information to memory,
储存重要信息
and then do it as a presentation at work,
然后在工作中提取出来
or if you’re a school child
如果你是一个希望考出优异成绩的学生
who wants to score perfectly on your own exam.
这些知识也能帮到你
What if I told you also,
如果我这样告诉你呢?
that this knowledge implemented in schools,
将这些知识用到学校
would change the way we see the school system,
会改变我们看待学校制度的方式
not only in Sweden but in the whole world?
影响瑞典 乃至全世界
My name is Idriz Zogaj.
我叫Idriz Zogaj
I’m a memory athlete.
我是一个记忆达人
I am not some kind of a superstar,
我不是什么巨星
this is my alter ego.
这只是我的另一面
Before the age of 25,
比起现在
I didn’t know anything of what I know today.
25岁以前我简直一无所知
The interesting thing about the age of 25 is that,
25岁这个年纪很有意思
at the age of 25, that’s when the brain becomes fully mature.
因为这个时候大脑已经完全成熟了
That is, you are a grown-up.
这意味着你是个成年人了
Before that I knew nothing.
在此之前 我什么都不懂
I also finished…
我还完成了……
well, I knew a lot of things, but…
好吧 其实25岁前我还是有一点知识储备的
I also finished my university studies,
我完成了大学学业
and I was thinking, what happens now?
之后我开始思考 现在是什么情况?
What am I going to do with my life?
接下来的人生我要做什么?
I’ve always been very interested in traveling,
我一直对旅游很感兴趣
and getting to know other people, culture, etc.
认识很多人 感受各种文化
And that requires communication.
这些需要沟通能力
So, I was thinking, okay, I like the challenge,
所以我想 好吧 我喜欢挑战
and I like to communicate with people,
我也喜欢和人交流
So, I’m gonna learn a language.
我就去学一门语言吧
A new language.
一门新的语言
Something completely different from what I know now.
学一些和我的母语完全不同的语言
I know the Latin alphabet,
我认识拉丁字母
but I want to learn something that I don’t understand when I look at it,
但我想学一些看不懂的东西
like Arabic, Chinese or Japanese.
如阿拉伯文 中文 或者日文
Even Hindi crossed my mind.
我甚至想到了印地文
So while I was looking at courses I could take at home,
因为厌倦了大学生活
because I am tired of the university life.
所以我在找一些可以在家里上的课
I accidentally came across a book on memory.
我偶然看到一本关于记忆的书
I was thinking that I wanted to learn this new language
我想要学一门新语言
the way children do it, by practicing.
就应该像儿童学话一样反复地练习
Going somewhere and talking to people,
到处走走 和人聊聊
and in that sense learning the language.
通过这样的方式来学习语言
I sort of don’t like grammar,
我不喜欢学语法
so this was my way of cheating away the grammar studies.
所以我要找到一种不用学语法的方法
So, I thought, if I am going to do it that way,
我觉得如果不学语法的话
I will become prepared.
我需要做好心理准备
So I want to put a lot of words and phrases into memory,
因为我要记住大量单词和词组
and then go to that country or that part of the world.
然后再去那个国家或地区
And then, this book of memory was excellent.
这本书关于记忆的书很棒
Why not start to read it and then see what happens?
为什么不读一读呢?
So I ordered the book and started to read
所以我买了那本书 开始读起来
And then realized
我发现
it is apparently all about techniques,
这本书完全是关于记忆技巧的
like thinking in the right way.
比如如何正确思考
It wasn’t that difficult.
这不难
I was very picky with the language I wanted to learn.
对于学什么语言 我是非常挑剔的
So I was like, reading the book, doing some exercises.
所以我一直在看这本书 做练习
And like serveral years went by
几年过去了
and I didn’t find any language to select.
我却还没选好要学的语言
But in the meantime, I was doing these exercises
但我一直坚持做记忆练习
and gradually getting better.
而且渐入佳境
Another interesting thing about this book
还有一件关于这本书的趣事就是
was that at the last chapter, this person talked about
在最后一章 作者提到
that you can compete in memory.
你可以参加记忆比赛
I was thinking, ‘’what, they have competitions in memory?‘’
我想 “什么 竟然还有记忆比赛?”
This guy, Dominic O’Brien,
书的作者名叫Dominic O’Brien
had won the World Memory Championship six times,
赢过六次“世界记忆锦标赛”
so he knew what he was talking about.
所以他绝对是高手
But I was still, like, competing in memory.
但是我依然难以相信世界上还有这种比赛
I was looking at the levels he suggested that you complete.
我看了他提到的参赛标准
Then I realized, hold on,
突然我意识到 等一下
During this training, I’ve actually reached many of these levels.
经过训练 我完全达到这个标准
So I thought, ok,
所以我想 好吧
I will focus a little bit more,
我要更加集中精力训练
and that’s when I started to train the pack of cards,
从那时起 我开始用纸牌做训练
and one of the levels was to do it under five minutes.
比赛中有个项目 规定要在五分钟内记住纸牌
In 2004, I felt ready.
2004年 我感觉准备好了
At the age of 27,
27岁的时候
I went to the…um…
我去参加了
the World Memory Championship in Manchester.
在曼彻斯特举办的“世界记忆锦标赛”
I thought “Why not think big?
我想“为什么不定个大目标呢?”
just go to the World Memory Championships.”
“去参加世界记忆锦标赛吧”
I came 22nd in the world.
然后我获得了全世界第22名
I also became Sweden’s best memory,
我也成为了瑞典最强记忆者
a title I would hold for five consecutive years.
此记录五年更新一次
So when I came back,
回国之后
my friends were looking at me differently.
朋友们都对我刮目相看
They were like,”When did you become such a brain man?”
他们问我:“你什么时候变得这么聪明了?”
“What do you mean?”
“怎么了?”
”Well, come on,
“拜托
you just went to the World Memory Championships and competed”.
你刚刚参加了世界记忆锦标赛”
“Yes. So…?
“对 所以呢?
Yes, but I just read these techniques and adapted them.”
我只是学会了一些记忆技巧 融会贯通而已”
“You did?”
“只是这样?”
“And I don’t feel different,
“我没感觉有什么不同
I mean I’m the same.”
我还是原来的我”
“Yeah, really.”
“对 就是”
“But what do you do at the World Memory Championships?”
“那你在世界记忆锦标赛都做什么了”
“Well we…we compete in memory.”
“我们比谁的记忆力更好”
“Such as..?”
“那你举个例子”
“Well, every competition is 10 disciplines.
“每项比赛有十个小项
It can be numbers.
可能是记一些数字
It can be binary digits
可能是记二进制数字
one zero one one zero zero one one.”
10110011”
“Very funny.”
“挺有意思的”
‘’It can be…It can also be words.‘
“也可能是……也可能是记单词
It can be names and faces, people’s names.
记名字和对应的人 记很多人的名字
It can be historic dates.‘’
也可能是记历史时间表”
Do you know that the world record for memorizing historic dates?
你们知道记忆历史时间表的世界纪录吗?
It’s about the same or even more
记忆量大概等于 甚至多于
than all the dates you learned throughout the school system,
你在学校里学过的所有历史时间表
including high school.
包括高中学的在内
And this guy does it in five minutes.
这个人只花了五分钟就记住了
Imagine that, 12 years compressed into five minutes.
想象一下 12年所学压缩成了五分钟
So ok, I think it’s easy if I show you.
我觉得我演示一下你们会更容易理解
They would take a pack of cards, shuffle it.
他们会拿一副牌 洗一下
Not the one that we had before, it’s shuffled.
牌面有变化 因为洗过了
So they would give it to me,
然后递给我
and then while we are chitchatting, I would start
我在聊天的时候就开始记牌了
and then after a while they ask me,
之后他们问我
“Idriz, when are you going to start?”
“Idriz 你什么时候可以开始?”
‘’Well, actually I’m already done.‘’
“事实上我已经记完了”
“What do you mean?”
“什么意思?”
Now take the cards, the pack, split it anyway you want.
拿着这些牌 随便分
Ok, let’s there.
好的 就这样
So this is Diamonds of 9.
这张是方块9
What comes after Diamonds of 9?
方块9之后是什么呢?
What do you mean?
你是什么意思?
What is the card that comes after Diamonds of 9?
方块9之后是哪张牌呢?
Clubs of 2, right?
梅花2 对吗?
And what comes after Clubs of 2?
那梅花2之后是什么呢?
Hearts of 10.
红心10
And what comes after Hearts of 10?
红心10之后又是什么?
Two Fives.
两张5
That’s good.
很好
It’s one is Diamonds and one is Hearts.
其中一张是方块 一张是红心
I would say that one is Hearts.
我会说这张是红心
Okay
表演结束
“So come on, how do you do this?”
“所以 你是怎么做到的?”
Well it’s just about adapting techniques,
我只是运用了一些技巧
and actually I think it’s easy
事实上 如果我给你看一个练习
if I show you with an exercise.
你也可以很容易地做到
Okay
来试试吧
Look at these two images.
来看这两张图片
Do you see a connection between them?
你找到它们之间的关系了吗?
I’ll give you a hint,
我给你一个提示
there is no connection.
它们没有关系
It’s just two randomly picked pictures.
这只是两张随机选择的图片
But here’s what I want you to do.
但我希望你这样做
I want you to make a fun, vivid and animated story.
我希望你编一个生动有趣的动画故事
Use all your senses, see how it looks like, feels like,
运用你所有的感官 去感知
to connect these two images together.
把这两幅图片联系起来
And do it in 3D,
把它想像成三维立体的画面
even though you don’t have 3D-goggles.
虽然你没有戴3D眼镜
Your brain is amazing, it can do it anyway.
你的大脑很棒 它一定能做到
It’s projected in 3D.
把这幅图想像成3D动画
I’ll give you a few seconds to do this.
给你们几秒钟来试试
Here’s how I would see it.
我是这样来想象故事的
Let’s say at the audience where you’re sitting, you see a big snail.
从你们观众的角度来看 你看到一只大蜗牛
You look next to you and see a big snail.
你在自己身边看到一只大蜗牛
It has a door on it.
蜗牛上有一扇门
You open the door because it says welcome.
你打开门 因为蜗牛说欢迎光临
I mean, you’ve never been inside a snail cell.
我想 你从没在蜗牛壳里面待过
You go in and say
你进去之后说
“Oh it’s slimy in here, why they do that?”
“这里面真滑 他们为什么把这弄的这么滑?”
Look at these two images.
看看这两张图
Ok, can you do the same, make a story?
你能用同样的办法编成一个故事吗?
Let’s take the stairs where I came up.
用我走上来的台阶举例子吧
You see a flamingo building a big brick wall.
你看到一只火烈鸟在建一堵大砖墙
So we have to climb over it.
所以我们得爬过去
It’s no point, but…
这个例子没什么意义 但是
And these three, what do you think?
来看这三个 你们有什么想法?
We all know why elephants —
我们都看得出这个是大象
because it is a big elephant —
因为它很大
you all know why they are strong:
我们都知道大象很强壮
they carry a lot of weight.
因为他们很重
You see a big giraffe up on the screen
你在屏幕上看到了一只庞大的长颈鹿
and the skier is like,
滑雪者说
“I’m going to go skiing”
“呦呼!我要去滑雪了!”
down the giraffe neck.
从长颈鹿的脖子上滑下来
Look up on the roof.
抬头看屋顶
The last one is a bit obvious, right?
最后一组比较明显 对吗?
Because you see a reptile, they like to be in the sun.
因为你看到了一只爬行动物 它喜欢晒太阳
It’s quite common,
这很常见
so you might think this is an obvious one.
所以你也许会觉得这很明显
This one I will remember.
我能记住这个
That’s a dangerous thing,
这种想法很危险
because obvious things we tend to forget.
因为我们往往容易忘记显而易见的事情
I bet I could find people in this room
我敢打赌在这个房间里
that don’t remember what they had for breakfast.
我能找到忘记早餐吃了什么的人
Maybe today was different because you were going to TED,
也许今天不一样 因为你们要来TED
so you had breakfast later or whatever.
所以你的早餐吃的有些迟或者有别的情况
But it’s a common thing you do,
但因为早餐是平常事
so it’s easy to forget, not registered.
所以你很容易就忘了 不会记在心上
So, see the snake with big glasses,
看着这条带着大眼镜的蛇
a nice drink and enjoying the sun on the roof.
伴着一杯美酒 享受着屋顶的阳光
And the drink is not spilling.
酒没有洒出来
So, what did we just do?
我们刚刚在做什么?
Well, we let our brain have fun,
我们是在让大脑找到乐趣
and when we did that we focused on the task.
这样做的时候 我们可以专注任务
When we focus on the task,
当专注任务的时候
we tell our brain that this is important,
我们会暗示大脑 这件事很重要
remember this.
记住它
So, first we enfore the power of remembering.
所以 我们首先要做的就是运用记忆的力量
And so what is the brain?
那么 大脑是什么?
The brain is a biological lump of neurons.
大脑是一个充满神经元的生物团
It contains about 3% of our body weight,
它仅占我们体重的3%
but consumes 20% of our energy intake every day.
却消耗每日摄入能量的20%
It doesn’t matter if you’re sitting in the audience,
这和你是坐在观众席
standing here talking, whatever you are doing.
还是站在这里说话没有关系
It’s about the same level of energy consumption all the time.
大脑消耗的能量一直保持着同样的水平
So, it has a lot of neurons.
我们的大脑有许多神经元
and they like to connect to each other.
它们喜欢相互联结在一起
They can make tens of thousands of connections.
它们可以产生成千上万的联结
This is also why we are all unique.
这也是我们每个人独一无二的原因
I mean, it’s impossible to copy, to make two identical brains.
我是指 复制出完全相同的大脑是不可能的
So, we are all unique.
我们都是独一无二的
And the stronger we make the connections,
大脑神经元之间建立的联结越紧密
the longer we will remember the information.
我们就会把信息记得越久
So, we can make weak connections and we forget them,
反之 我们也会建立弱连接 会忘事
because that’s a natural thing. The brain selects.
这是很自然的事情 是大脑选择的
We always forget, that’s a natural thing.
我们经常遗忘 这是很自然的事
Because the brain…if you have a normal functioning brain,
因为我们的大脑……如果你的大脑功能正常
it sorts out information that is not important.
它会筛选出不重要的信息
But you can tell it what is important and what is not.
但是你可以告诉大脑分辨一件事是否重要
And the stronger the connections you make,
你的大脑联结建立得越强烈
the longer you will remember it.
你的记忆就会持续得越久
And this knowledge, I would say today
有了这样的认知 现在我想说
that…students study too much.
现在的学生为学习付出太多了
The reason why they do,
我认为 他们之所以这样
I could say that it’s because many students today,
是因为现在很多学生
don’t know how to put the information into their brain.
不知道怎样运用大脑来记忆
They study and study and study and it becomes late.
他们不断地学习 一直学到半夜
They go to bed late and wake up tired.
他们晚睡 起床后还是觉得疲惫
Instead of putting the information in their brain
他们不是在用大脑喜欢的方式
in the way the brain likes to have it.
记住这些信息
And then they can rest,
其实他们可以休息
commit time to the hobbies,
他们可以把时间花在爱好上
spend time with their family,
或者把时间用来陪伴家人
and then do a repetition of the information they learnt.
然后才是花时间复习他们学过的知识
But if you don’t know that the information is there,
但是如果不知道信息就在你的大脑里
you don’t trust your brain.
你不相信大脑
If you don’t trust your brain, you study all the time.
如果不相信大脑 你就要不停地学习
So I will prove this to you that
所以 我会向你证明
your brain actually is better than you might think yourself.
你的大脑其实比你认为的更强大
The exercise we did before, I do with five-year-olds.
我们刚刚做的这个练习 我也让五岁孩童做过
But then we use 30 pairs.
但是那时候我们用了30组图片
So don’t feel any pressure.
所以不要觉得有什么压力
OK, look at this image.
看这张图
There’s something missing, right?
有什么东西不见了 对吗?
I bet your brain fills in the gaps.
我敢打赌你的大脑感觉到缺少了什么
So, if I say weight, you say?
所以如果我说重量 你会说?
(Audience) Elephant.
大象
Thank you. And if I say bricks, you say?
谢谢 那如果我说砖块 你会说?
(Audience) Flamingo.
火烈鸟
And if I say the obvious one?
如果我说最明显的那个?
(Audience) Sun.
太阳
Thank you.
谢谢大家
If I say door, you say?
如果我说门 你会说?
(Audience) Snail.
蜗牛
And if I say ski?
如果我说滑雪?
(Audience) Giraffe.
长颈鹿
And if I told you to give them to me
如果我要求你们
in the right order as they came up,
按照出现的顺序告诉我它们的名字
what will you do?
你会做什么?
You will close your eyes, go to the first place,
你会闭上眼睛 想像去到第一个地方
go to the second place, go to the third place,
去第二个地方 第三个地方
the fourth place and the roof is last one.
第四个地方 然后屋顶是最后一个
Give them to me backwards, you just go backwards.
如果要你倒着来告诉我 你只要倒过来就行了
This is what we do at memory competitions.
这就是我们在记忆比赛里所要做的事情
We just put…now you memorized 10 words.
现在你记住了十个单词
That’s one of the events, to memorize words.
比赛有个项目就是记单词
You can go to the competition and perform.
你可以去参加比赛一展拳脚了
The only thing we do is
我们在比赛里唯一要做的
that we do it faster and longer.
就是记得更快 记得更久
I mean, It’s very interesting to note that
我觉得格外有趣的是
the world record for memorizing a pack of cards
这个世界纪录——
by just looking at them once as fast as possible,
迅速记忆仅一眼之缘的一副纸牌
is about the same time it takes Usain Bolt to run 200 meters.
大约相当于博尔特跑200米的时间
Think of that the next time you watch the Olympics.
下次观看奥运会的时候 思考一下这件事
When he starts, you start,
他起跑 你就开始
and see how many cards you remember.
看看你能记住多少张牌
Now I don’t know Usain Bolt,
我不认识博尔特
but I know the world record holder for the cards, Simon Reinhard.
但是我认识记忆纸牌的世界纪录保持者Simon Reinhard
And I know how much he trains.
我知道他进行了大量的训练
I know he doesn’t do anything different from
我知道他做的事情
what we just did before.
与我们刚才做的没什么不同
He just structures the knowledge
他只是先把知识结构化
that he puts them into his brain.
然后记在他的大脑里
He looks at the information once,
他只看了一次 这些信息
and he knows it’s fixed there.
就印在了他的脑海里
So…
所以
It’s all about having fun
这其实就是通过娱乐
and letting the brain make strong connections.
让大脑建立起紧密联结
Then there’s no limits.
记忆是无限制的
I have a friend who comes and helps me
我有一个朋友
to organize the Swedish Memory Championships every year.
每年都来帮我准备瑞典记忆锦标赛
If we would have a scale here over the mat.
假设这是个垫子 我们在垫子上设置一个测量表
Here is a person who has difficulty with memory.
这是一个记性不好的人所处的范围
Here is the normal, you know this normal… form a bell
这是普通人的记忆规律成钟形
here’s where most people would be.
也是大多数人所处的范围
And here is where the geniuses are, the super memories.
这是有超强记忆力的天才的范围
So when she came first in 2009,
2009年 当她第一次来的时候
I contacted the [inaudible]
我联系了一个组织
and told them,
我告诉他们
why don’t we run some tests? Memory tests on this?
为什么我们不做一些记忆力测试呢?
because I like to work with a scientist
因为我喜欢和科学家一起工作
to show them what we could do.
向他们展示我的能力
Because there’s not so much research going on in this area.
因为关于这个领域的研究并不多
The guy who did the research on her,
那个研究她的人
which is actually that guy, the same guy with the paintings,
实际上就是画了前面那些图画的那个人
(non-english) Jacob Stohlman,
他叫Jacob Stohlman
he said like,
他说
“Idrez, we have to redo the scale because she’s over there.
“Idrez 我们必须重新建构测量表 因为她很特别
She’s outside of our scale.”
是个个例”
What she did is like way outside.
她所表现出来的能力在测试范围之外
We have to this…
我们不得不更改
How can you do this?
你怎么能这样做?
But you haven’t studied what we do,
但是你还不知道我们做了什么
because it’s like we would invent a sport today,
因为现在我们好像发明了一项运动
and all of a sudden people are running.
突然之间人们都在奔跑
“Oh, they’re moving so fast.”
“他们跑得这么快”
But we’re not doing anything else.
但我们没做什么事
We’re just doing how the way…the way working with the brain,
我们只是按大脑工作的方式记忆
how the brain likes to work.
研究大脑怎样工作
The techniques are very old.
这些技巧非常古老
I mean…the oldest one comes from the Greeks.
最古老的一个技巧来源于希腊
The ancient Greeks, several thousand years ago.
几千年前的古希腊
So we didn’t invent anything,
所以我们并没有发明什么东西
we just packed it into this,
我们只是整合了这些东西
and it’s the training that has done it.
是训练让我们达到了现在的水平
And you can start your training right here, right now.
你在这就可以开始练习 就现在
The next time you hear something you want to remember,
下次你听到了什么想要记住的东西
make a fun story of it,
编一个有趣的故事
and you will make strong connections.
建立紧密的联结
So happy practicing.
祝大家练习愉快
Thank you.
谢谢大家
(Applause).
[掌声]

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视频概述

记忆力可以被训练,掌握记忆的技巧并不难。通过练习你也可以成为记忆大师。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员ZIYU

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ebJlcZMx3c

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