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原子习惯-如何让事情变好36.78 倍

How to become 37.78 times better at anything | Atomic Habits summary (by James Clear)

Do you ever feel like you’re just floating through life…
你是否曾觉得自己只是在虚度光阴
but not actually getting closer to the person that you want to be.
而不是确实地朝着自己想要成为的目标前进?
It usually happens around New years,
这种感觉在新年期间较为常见
you imagine all the bad habits you are gonna to break free from,
你想着自己要摆脱的全部坏习惯
and all the good habits you will begin.
和即将开始的全部好习惯
“This time it will be different” you say to yourself.
“这次肯定会不一样的” 你这样对自己说着
This time I AM going to do the things that I say I will.
我自己说要做到的事 这次绝对会做到
Only to end up back where you began shortly after
结果不久之后还是回到原点
and no closer to what you had envisaged.
一点也没接近原本设想的目标
So the question is,
所以问题是
How do you break free from bad habits
你要如何摆脱坏习惯
and make the habits you desire easier and automatic?
然后让你的理想习惯更容易和自然地形成呢?
Atomic Habits by James Clear answers all these questions.
James Clear的《原子习惯》给出了这些问题的答案
We are going to be doing a fast-pathed detailed summary of this book,
我们将快速对此书做一个详细的总结
and dive deep into topics like Habit loops, Dopamine spikes
并且深入探讨诸如习惯循环 多巴胺峰值
Priming your environment Plus heaps more
准备环境 以及很多其他的话题
And make sure to stick around until the end of the video
一定要看到视频最后
where I go through step by step how I’m personally using this book
我会在最后 一步步讨论我个人是怎样利用这本书
to improve my own habits.
来改善自己的习惯的
I hope this summary inspires you to go out and grab a copy of the book for yourself
希望这个总结能让你出门去给自己也买一本
because this book deserves a space on everyone’s bookshelf!
因为这本书值得在每个人的书架上都有一席之地
Let’s jump into it
让我们开始吧
逃离平庸
Imagine a plane taking off and travelling from New York to Los Angeles.
想象一架飞机从纽约飞往洛杉矶
Just before take off you adjust the plane just slightly by 3 degrees or around 80 inches.
在起飞之前把这架飞机仅仅轻转3度或偏个2米左右
If you kept flying in a straight line…
如果保持直飞
You would end up closer to Tijuana in Mexico
你最终会更靠近墨西哥的提华纳
than in your intended destination of Los Angeles.
而不是预定目的地洛杉矶
The same goes for our habits.
我们的习惯也是如此
Tiny changes in our habits
我们习惯的一点小变化
can change the trajectory of our lives in ways that we can’t even notice
就能改变我们的人生轨迹 而这种改变甚至觉察不到
until many years into the future looking back.
直到多年后回首我们才能发现
In both good ways and bad.
这种改变有好也有坏
You are your habits.
习惯造就了你
The Power of Atomic Habits
原子习惯的力量
“A slight change in your daily habits can guide your life
日常习惯的一个小变化可能会让我们的人生
to a very different destination”.
走向一个大不相同的终点
Massive action Vs 1% improvements
大规模行动VS百分之一的提升
Far too often, we convince ourselves that massive success
太多时候我们都说服自己 不论追寻怎样的目标
is only possible through massive action in any goal we are pursuing.
巨大的成功只可能源于强大的行动
We expect ourselves to make some quantum leap or
我们希望自己取得飞跃
momentous improvement that will gain others attention.
或者说 能引人注目的重大进步
However it is the tiny improvements, that aren’t even noticeable at first,
但其实 是那些一开始甚至难以觉察的微小进步
that create incredible change.
为我们带来了极大的改变
Let’s look deeper into the Math
让我们从数学角度深入研究一下
1% better every day for a year will compound to nearly 38 times better.
每天提升1% 一年加起来就能提升几乎38倍
But 1% worse every day over a year will bring you close to zero!
而每天堕落1% 一年之后你的成果会几乎为零
Your habits can compound against you
你的习惯既能以压力或是消极的自我否定等形式
in the form of things like stress or negative self-talk.
给你带来负面影响
Or they can compound for you
也能以知识 生产力 技能 人际关系等形式
in the form of things like knowledge, productivity, skills and relationships.
给你带来正面影响
“Success is the product of daily habits—not once-in a lifetime transformations”
成功是日常习惯的产物——而不是一生一次的转变
The Truth About progress
进步的真相
When you start any endeavour in your life,
在人生中 当你开始努力的时候
here is what we think should happen. Linear progress.
这是我们认为应该发生的 进步呈线性增长
But here is what actually happens.
但实际情况是这样
Notice this section here. In the beginning,
看这个部分 一开始
small changes in our progress are not even noticeable.
我们的这些微小改变甚至很难注意到
James Clear refers to this part of the graph as “the valley of disappointment”
James Clear把图表的这部分称为“失望之谷”
You’ve done so much! Put in so much effort
你做了这么多 付出了这么多努力
and you can barely see any results!
但却几乎看不到任何成果
This is where most people fail and slip back into their old routines.
就是在这个阶段 大多数人失败然后倒退回旧习
The most powerful outcomes of any compounding process are delayed
任何一个累计的过程 其最有力的成果都是延迟的
so patience is required.
所以我们需要耐心
Goals Vs Systems.
目标VS体系
“ FORGET ABOUT GOALS, FOCUS ON SYSTEMS INSTEAD”
忘记目标 专注于体系
A goal is the result you want to accomplish.
目标是你想达到的结果
Systems deal with the processes that lead to results.
体系则与达成这个结果的过程有关
The conventional wisdom suggests that the best way to achieve anything we want in life-
传统智慧认为 要达到我们想要的目标
be it getting into better shape,
不管是拥有一个更好的身材
building a successful business,
建立一个成功的企业
or spending more time with family
或者多陪伴家人
is to set specific, realistic goals.
最好的方法就是设定一个明确的 现实的目标
But if you completely ignored your goals and focused only on your system,
但你如果完全无视目标 只专注于自己的体系
would you still succeed?
你还会成功吗
The Author of this book argues that you would.
这本书的作者认为 你仍然会成功
Here are some problems with only having goals.
要是只有目标 则会出现以下问题
Successful and unsuccessful people share the same goals,
成功和不成功的人目标都是相同的
so therefore the goal can not be what differentiates winners from losers.
所以目标不可能是区分胜者和负者的因素
Achieving a goal only changes your life for that moment in time.
达到一个目标仅仅在当时改变你的人生
Goals can create an either-or conflict.
目标可能会带来一种非此即彼的矛盾
Either you achieve the goal and succeed,
你要么达成目标然后成功
or you don’t and you are a failure.
要么没有达成目标然后失败
Even if you were making progress in the right direction
即使你正往正确的方向进步
When you achieve a goal, what do you do after?
达成目标之后 你又要做什么?
If your goal was running the local marathon,
若你的目标是跑完当地的马拉松
chances are after completing it,
可能在你跑完之后
your motivation will quickly fade
这种动力会很快消失
and you will just slip back into your old routines.
然后你又退回到原来的习惯当中
“Goals are good for setting a direction, but systems are best for making progress”
目标用来确定方向很好 但体系才是取得进步的最佳方式
A SYSTEM OF ATOMIC HABITS
原子习惯体系
The problem with changing your habits is not you.
难以改变自己的习惯 问题不在你自己
The reason why you repeat the same bad habit for so long
你之所以长久以来一直重复同样的陋习
isn’t because you don’t want to change,
不是因为你不想改变
but because you have the wrong system for change.
而是你用来改变的体系出错了
Atomic habits are small routines and behaviors that accumulate
原子习惯就是微小的惯例和行为
to produce incremental positive outcomes over time.
它们随着时间的积累 会产生逐步增长的积极成果
Big breakthroughs tend to get more attention than small improvements.
虽然重大突破往往比微小提升更引人注目
But what really matters are the little daily decisions and actions we take.
但真正重要的其实是我们每天做的小决定和行动
“Just as atoms are the building blocks of molecules,
“就像原子是分子的组成部分
atomic habits are the building blocks of remarkable results”.
原子习惯也是不凡成就的组成部分”
There are 3 layers to behavior change.
行为变化有三个层次
The first layer is changing outcomes.The result.
第一层次是改变结果 即你最后的成果
Losing that weight, writing that book, winning the season.
减重 写书 在赛季中获胜
The outcomes are what you get.
结果就是你得到的东西
The Second layer is changing your process. What you do.
第二层次是改变过程 即你做的事情
The new workout routine, or developing a daily reading habit.
制作一个新的健身计划 或是培养每天阅读的习惯
And the third layer is changing your identity. What you believe.
第三层次是改变身份 即你相信的事情
Your worldviews and how you think about yourself and others.
你的世界观 你对自己和他人的认知
Most people focus on the outcomes
大多数人都专注于结果
but the best way to change your habits
但改变自身习惯的最佳方法
is by focusing on the person you want to become
其实是专注于你想成为什么样的人
instead of the results you want.
而不是你要的结果
The goal isn’t to learn an instrument,
目标不是学会一门乐器
it is to become a musician.
而是成为一个音乐家
The goal isn’t to run a marathon,
目标不是跑完一场马拉松
It is to become a runner.
而是成为一个跑步者
When something you want in your life becomes part of your identity,
一旦你想要的成为了自己身份的一部分
that is when your behaviors will start to naturally change.
这时你的行为自然就会开始改变
When you tell yourself and others “I’m a runner”.
当你告诉自己和他人 “我是个跑步者”
You want to live up to that identity.
你就会想要符合那重身份
Remind yourself
提醒自己
Every Time you do a workout, you are an athlete.
每次健身时 你是个运动员
Every time you write a line of code, you are a coder.
每次写代码时 你是个程序员
Each time you instruct your team, you are a leader.
每次指导团队时 你是个领导者
The Habit Loop
习惯循环
A habit is when something become repeated enough times
习惯就是 当一件事重复的次数足够多
that it becomes automatic.
这件事就会变得自然而然
Ultimately we want our habits to solve problems in our lives
最终 我们都是想要付出最小的努力
with the least amount of effort.
让习惯来解决生活中的问题
A habit is formed and reinforced by means of a continuous feedback loop:
一个习惯的形成和强化是通过持续的反馈循环来实现的
Cue + Craving + Response + Reward.
暗示+渴望+反应+奖励
The key to creating habits that stick
培养一个能长期保持的习惯
is to create feedback loops that are continuously being improved.
关键在于 建立一个能被不断强化的反馈循环
Cue. Phone buzz.
暗示 手机震动
Craving. Want to know who messaged.
渴望 想知道谁发了信息
Response. Pick up phone.
反应 拿起手机
Reward. Solve the problem of who messaged.
奖励 解决了谁发来信息的问题
Cue. Mind goes blank at work.
暗示 工作中走神
Craving. Want to alleviate the frustration.
渴望 想缓解挫败感
Response. Check social media.
反应 查看社交媒体
Reward. Satisfied the need to feel less frustrated
奖励 满足了缓解挫败感的需要
Over time, rewards become associated with cues.
时间一久 这些奖励就会与相应的暗示联系起来
So, in this example, checking social media becomes
因此 在这个例子中 查看社交媒体
tied to your mind going blank at work.
就与工作中走神联系了起来
And then checking Facebook may be the cue to check Instagram,
然后查看Facebook可能就成了查看Ins的暗示
which becomes the cue to check YouTube.
后者又成为查看YouTube的暗示
And before you know it,
在你意识到之前
your mind going blank cue has led to 20 minutes of wasted time.
走神这个暗示已经造成了20分钟的浪费
And the more you repeat these habit loops,
这些习惯循环 你重复的越多
the stronger and more automatic they become.
它们就越被强化 越无需意识
Cues can really be anything.
暗示可以是任何东西
A smell, a sound, a sight,
一种气味 一个声音 一幕场景
a person, a location etc.
一个人 一处地点 等等
Try to think of any cues in your daily life
试着想想日常生活中会开启你的好习惯
that are initiating your good or bad habit loops.
或坏习惯循环的任何暗示
So how can we influence the habit loop to work for us?
那么 我们要如何让习惯循环为我们所用呢?
This book shows us the 4 laws that will guide us to do just that.
这本书展示了能引导我们利用习惯循环的四大法则
Law 1 Make it obvious
法则一 让习惯突出
Most of your current habits are so automatic
你现在的大多数习惯都是下意识的
that you don’t even realize them.
以至于你甚至意识不到这些习惯的存在
You must first become aware of your habits before you can change them.
在改变习惯之前 你必须先意识到自己的习惯
You can achieve that with your Habit Scorecard.
你可以通过制作习惯记分卡来解决这个问题
Write down all your daily behaviors on a habits scorecard,
从醒来那一刻直到睡去 在习惯记分卡上写下
from the moment you wake up until the moment you go to bed.
你的所有日常行为
Your scorecard may look something like this.
你的记分卡可能长这个样子
Based on whether it helps you become the person you aspire to be,
基于该习惯是否能帮你成为渴望成为的人
categorize each habit as positive (+), negative (-), or neutral (=).
将每个习惯归为正面(+)负面(-)或中立(=)
At this stage we aren’t trying to change anything,
在这个阶段 我们并不是要改变什么
but just observe what is actually going on in our daily lives.
而仅仅是观察自己每天究竟做了什么
“Until you make the unconscious conscious,
“若你不能意识到自己的无意识
it will direct your life and you will call it fate.” Carl Yung
你的人生就会被它引导 而你将其称之为命运” 心理学家荣格
Vagueness is a real problem when it comes to habit formation,
当涉及到习惯的形成 目标不够明确是个大问题
and studies have shown that quite often the reason people fail to stick to a habit
研究表明 很多时候人们之所以难以保持一个习惯
is not because of a lack of motivation,
不是因为缺乏动力
but because of a lack of clarity.
而是缺乏明确性
“One day, I will get into shape” is easy to say to yourself
“总有一天我会健身成功的” 这种话说起来很容易
but too vague to get any momentum.
但它太不明确 无法从中获得任何动力
What you need is a time and a place.
你需要的是一个时间和地点
The most common cues—time and location—
最常见的暗示—时间和地点
will help you achieve your goals.
会帮助你达成目标
Clearly state your intention to act using the following formula:
利用下面的公式来明确描述自己的行为意图
I will behavior at time in this location.
我会于某时在某地做某事
Here is a bad example,
以下是负面范例
“I will read more this month”
“我这个月会读更多书”
Here is a good example
以下是正面范例
“I will read a book for 15 minutes daily at 6am in the spare bedroom”.
我会于每天6点在备用卧室读15分钟的书
Another good way to get a habit started is by Habit stacking.
另外一个开启新习惯的好方法是习惯堆积
To stack habits, tie a desired habit to an existing habit
要堆积习惯 可以将一个现存的习惯根据以下公式
according to the following formula:
和你想培养的习惯捆绑起来
“After [current habit], I will [new habit]”.
在[现有习惯]之后 我会[新习惯]
For example,
例如
“After I brush my teeth, I will stretch for 5 minutes”.
“刷完牙后 我会伸展身体5分钟”
You can stack habits together,
你也可以把多个习惯堆积在一起
for example after you finish brushing your teeth, you will meditate for 10 minutes,
例如 你刷完牙后 会冥想10分钟
then plan the rest of your day, before checking social media.
然后制定今日计划 再查看社交媒体
A “chain of habits” is more likely to be sustained if you practice this consistently.
如果你能不断练习 这个习惯链才更可能持续下去
Choosing the correct trigger is essential.
选择正确的触发条件很重要
YOU NEED A TRIGGER CUE.
你需要一个触发暗示
Your trigger should be something that you do automatically without fail during your day,
这个触发条件应当是你每天总是会自动去做的事情
such as waking up, turning off your alarm or brushing your teeth.
比如 醒来 关掉闹钟 或是刷牙这类事情
James Clear tells us in the book that Motivation is highly overrated.
James Clear在本书中说 动力的作用其实被高估了
You can better shape your behavior by designing your environment.
规划好身边的环境能更好地塑造你的行为
We are more influenced by our environment than our willpower or motivation.
因为与意志力或动力相比 我们受到环境的影响更大
It’s hard to stick to positive habits in a negative environment.
要在消极的环境中坚持积极的习惯很难
“Environment is the invisible hand that shapes human behavior.”
“环境是塑造人类行为的无形之手”
Creating a habit requires you to redesign the space around you.
培养一个习惯要求你重新布置周围的环境
1 – make it easier to see the cues for the desired habits and
第一 让触发理想习惯的暗示更容易被看到
2 – avert bad habits by making them invisible.
第二 让坏习惯隐形而以此戒除
If you want to drink more water, make the cues visible and obvious.
你若是想喝更多水 那就让喝水的暗示可见并突出
Place water bottles around the house in places you are likely to see them.
把水瓶放在家里你可能会看到的任何地方
Want to read more? Place the book somewhere you will see it.
想读更多书?那就把书放在你能看到的地方
If you want to get better on the guitar,
你若是想把吉他练得更好
don’t leave it out of sight in a closet.
那就别把它放在衣橱里你看不见的地方
CONTEXT IS THE CUE
环境即暗示
Objects in the environment do not determine our behavior;
环境中的物件并不会决定我们的行为
rather, it is our relationship to them that does.
而是 正是我们与它们的关系决定
Stop seeing your environment as a place simply filled with objects.
不要再把你的环境看作是一个仅仅放满了东西的地方
Imagine it as a place filled with relationships.
把它想象成一个充满了各种关系的地方
The couch in the living room is the place where one person reads an hour a night.
起居室的沙发既可以是每晚阅读一小时的地方
For another, the couch is where they watch Netflix and eat pizza and relax after work.
也可以是下班后用来看视频 吃披萨的放松场所
If your relationship with the couch is a place to relax,
若你跟这个沙发的关系是把它当成放松的场所
then trying to get a work related task done in that environment
那想在这样的环境中完成一项工作相关的任务
may be difficult.
可能会很难
Try to make separate zones in your house for different activities.
试着在你家为不同活动划分独立的区域
The author likes to use the mantra “One space, One use”
本书作者喜欢用“一空间一用”的准则
If you are trying to eliminate a bad habit,
若你想戒掉一个坏习惯
you can only rely on self-control in the short-term.
短期内你只能依赖于自律
Cutting off bad habits at the source is a more reliable solution
直接在源头切断坏习惯才是更可靠的解决方案
and one of the most practical ways to eliminate a bad habit
而戒掉一个坏习惯最实用的方法之一
is to make it invisible.
是让其隐形
Eliminate it from your environment.
将它从你的环境中去除
For example
例如
Put your phone in another room for a few hours
若你难以完成一项工作
if you have trouble getting work done.
那就把手机放其他房间几个小时
Put junk food out of sight or remove it from your house
若你想减重
if you are trying to lose weight.
那就把垃圾食品藏起来或者全部扔掉
Law 2 Making it Attractive
法则二 让习惯有吸引力
When we expect to be rewarded, we take action.
当我们期待奖励的时候 就会付出行动
The more rewarding an action is, the more likely we are to repeat it
一个行为的奖励越高 我们就越可能重复这个行为
until it becomes a habit.
直到这个行为成为一种习惯
Hence, the first step to forming good habits is to make them more attractive.
所以 形成好习惯的第一步就是让习惯更有吸引力
Understanding how dopamine affects your body will help you
理解多巴胺对我们身体的影响会有帮助
DOPAMINE
多巴胺
Our motivation levels are affected by dopamine,
我们的动力水平会被多巴胺影响
a hormone and neurotransmitter.
这是一种荷尔蒙和神经递质
We are more motivated to act when our dopamine levels rise.
当多巴胺水平上升时 我们行动的动力会更高
By measuring dopamine,
通过测量多巴胺水平
scientists can pinpoint the exact moment at which a craving occurs.
科学家可以确定渴望产生的确切时间
It was once assumed that dopamine was just about pleasure,
我们曾经以为多巴胺只与人的愉悦有关
but now we know it’s vital to many neurological functions,
不过现在我们已经了解多巴胺与许多神经功能息息相关
including motivation, memory, learning, punishment as well as voluntary movement.
包括动力 记忆 学习 惩罚 以及有意识的行动
The hormone dopamine is released not only when we experience pleasure
这种多巴胺荷尔蒙不仅在我们感到愉悦的时候释放
but also when we anticipate it.
当我们期待着愉悦时也会释放
“Gambling addicts have a dopamine spike right before they place a bet,
“赌徒的多巴胺水平在他们下赌之前会达到一个峰值
not after they win”.
而不是赢下之后”
Let’s dive deeper into dopamine spikes.
我们再深入研究一下多巴胺峰值
Using social media, eating junk food and taking drugs
使用社交媒体 吃垃圾食品 嗑药
are all associated with high levels of dopamine
都与高水平的多巴胺有联系
and are highly habit forming.
而且有高度的习惯形成性
Think about before going on a vacation.
想想我们在去度假之前
Sometimes the thinking and anticipation of the vacation
有时候 光这些对度假的想象和期待
is better than the actual vacation.
就比实际的体验更让人愉悦了
Seeing the junk food you desire surges dopamine,
看着渴望的垃圾食品会让多巴胺水平上升
not after eating it.
而不是吃下之后
Drug addicts increase dopamine when they see the drugs,
瘾君子看着毒品 其多巴胺水平就会上升
not after taking them.
而不是吸完之后
The craving is what causes us to take action in the first place.
渴望就是一开始让我们采取行动的原因
Making our habits attractive is vital
让习惯有吸引力十分必要
because it is the expectation of a rewarding experience that drives us to act.
因为正是对奖励的期待让我们采取行动
Here, you can use a strategy known as Temptation bundling
到这儿你可以使用一种叫作诱惑捆绑的策略
The temptation bundling process makes a habit more attractive
这个诱惑捆绑的过程通过将我们需要做的事和想要做的事
by combining an action we need to do with one we want to do.
结合起来 让习惯更有吸引力
For example you could bundle watching Netflix (something you want to do)
例如 你可以把看视频(你想做的事)
with working out (something you need to do).
和锻炼(你需要做的事)结合起来
Temptation bundling applies a psychology principle known as Premack’s Principle.
诱惑捆绑应用了一种叫做普雷马克原则的心理原则
Developed by professor David Premack, the Premack principle states,
这个原则由David Premack教授提出
“More probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors.”
认为高频行为会加强低频行为
In other words, even if you’re not looking forward to doing some exercise,
换言之 即使你不想锻炼
you’ll become conditioned to do it
你也会习惯锻炼
because you get to do something else you really enjoy.
因为这样你可以同时做些其他特别喜欢的事
Group Influence
群体影响
We are continually wondering
我们总是想
“What will others think of me?”
“其他人会怎么看我?”
and altering our behavior based on the answer.”
然后以此答案改变自己的行为
We are influenced by the people closest to us, and the groups we belong to.
我们会被身边最亲近的人和所属的群体影响
If you are trying to build a new habit,
若你想建立一个新习惯
one of the best ways to reinforce the habit
加强这个习惯的最佳方法之一
is to find and become part of a culture where that habit is the norm.
就是去寻找以此习惯为常态的群体 然后成为其中一员
If you want to get into better shape, surround yourself with fit people.
若你想拥有更好的身材 那就去好身材的人中间
If you want to read more, join a book club.
若你想读更多书 那就加入一个读书俱乐部
Primal motivators : The source of cravings
原始动机:渴望的来源
In your normal everyday life you wouldn’t say something to yourself like
在正常的日常生活中 你根本不会对自己说这种话
“I want to eat this pizza because I need to consume this food to survive”
“我想吃这块披萨 因为我需要消耗食物来生存”
Surface level cravings are merely manifestations of our deeper underlying motives.
表层渴望仅仅是我们更深层次动机的表现
And these underlying motives guide our behavior.
这些深层动机引导着我们的行为
Here are some examples from the book of underlying motives:
以下是本书所举的一些深层动机的例子:
Conserving energy Obtaining food and water Finding love and reproducing
保存能量 获取食物和水 寻找爱情 繁衍后代
Connecting and bonding with others Winning social acceptance and approval
与他人建立关系 赢得社会的接受与认同
Reducing uncertainty Achieving status and prestige
降低不确定性 获得地位和声望
Your brain did not evolve with a desire
你的大脑并没有进化出
to smoke cigarettes, check Instagram every 5 minutes or to play video games.
抽烟 每5分钟查看一次Ins 或者打电子游戏这些欲望
Online platforms and products do not invent new motivations,
在线平台和产品没有发明出新的动机
but rather appeal to the underlying motives of human nature
而是通过吸引我们本来就有的 人类天性中的深层动机
that we already have to gain our attention.
来获得我们的注意力
“Your habits are modern-day solutions to ancient desires.
你的习惯就是对原始欲望的现代解决方法
New versions of old vices.
过去陋习的新版本
The underlying motives behind human behavior remain the same”
在人类行为之后的深层动机仍然是一样的
People who have the underlying motive of connecting with others
那些深层动机是与他人建立联系的人
may jump onto Facebook,
可能会转向Facebook
others seeking the underlying motive of finding love and reproducing
那些深层动机是寻找爱情和繁殖后代的人
may sign up for Tinder.
可能会注册Tinder
If you want to reduce uncertainty, there’s Google for that.
若你想降低不确定性 可以找谷歌
Seeking social acceptance, there is Instagram.
要寻求社会的接受 有Instagram
Reprogramming your brain to enjoy hard habits
重构你的大脑来享受困难的习惯
“You can make hard habits more attractive
若你能学会将困难的习惯和积极的体验联系起来
if you can learn to associate them with a positive experience.”
就能让这些习惯更有吸引力
By highlighting the benefits of a habit rather than its downsides,
强调一个习惯的好处而非坏处
you can quickly reprogram your mind
你就能快速重构你的大脑
and make it seem more appealing.
让这个习惯看上去更有吸引力
For example,
例如
Fitness = health and wellbeing and not fatigue.
好身材=健康和好状态 而非疲劳
Cleaning the house = an environment conducive to peace of mind and not wasted time.
打扫卫生=有助于心灵平静的环境 而非时间的浪费
Saving money = future financial freedom and not sacrifice.
省钱=未来的财务自由 而非自我牺牲
Make it Unattractive.
让坏习惯失去吸引力
To break a bad habit,
打破一个坏习惯
do the same but highlight the benefits of NOT doing that habit
做法相同 只不过强调的是不做这个坏习惯的好处
to make it as unattractive to keep doing as possible.
尽可能地让继续做这个习惯 变得没有吸引力
Law 3 – Make it Easy
法则三 让习惯简单化
How long does it actually take to form a new habit?
建立一个新习惯实际要花多久?
During habit formation, a behavior becomes increasingly automatic
在习惯形成过程中 一个行为会随着不断被重复
as it is repeated.
而越来越自然
As you repeat an activity,
在你重复一项活动时
your brain changes in order to become more efficient at it.
为了变得更有效率 你的大脑会随之改变
Long before neuroscientists dug into the process of forming habits,
在神经学家还未开始研究习惯形成过程的很久之前
repetition was known as a powerful tool for establishing habits.
人们认为重复是一种建立习惯的有力工具
You activate particular neural circuits associated with habits
你每次重复习惯
every time you repeat them.
都会激活特定的与该习惯有关的神经回路
So framing habit formation in terms of time is flawed.
因此 以时间来制定习惯形成的计划是有缺陷的
It should be framed in terms of the number of repetitions.
而应当以重复的次数来制定这项计划
Reducing Friction : The Law of Least Effort
减少差距:付出最少努力之法则
The more energy required, the less likely it is to happen.
一个习惯需要的能量越多 形成的可能性就越小
It takes almost no energy to get into the habit of
形成一个一天读一本书的一页的习惯
reading one page of a book each day.
几乎不消耗能量
Habits are more likely to occur when they require less energy.
习惯在需要更少能量时 出现的可能性越高
The bigger the obstacle,
阻碍越大
the more friction there is between you and the desired outcome.
你与理想结果之间的差距也就越大
If you need to travel 20 minutes out of your way to go to the gym,
若你去健身房不顺路 去就得花20分钟
chances are you will not.
可能你就不会去了
But if your gym is located on your commute to work,
但如果健身房就在你通勤的路上
you will greatly decrease the friction.
你就能大大减少这种差距
By making your good habits more convenient,
让你的好习惯变得更方便
you’re more likely to stick to them.
你就更可能坚持下去
Your life will be easier if you find ways to reduce friction
若你能找到减少差距的方法 而不是努力解决这种差距
rather than trying to solve it.
你的生活会更容易一点
In order to build better habits,
为了建立更好的习惯
we have to find ways to reduce friction associated with our good habits
我们得找到方法来减少我们与好习惯的差距
and increase friction associated with our bad habits
增大我们与坏习惯的差距
Priming the environment for use
准备适用的环境
By automating or setting up your environment,
通过使周围环境自动化或者布置环境
you can reduce the friction for future action,
你可以减少自己与未来行为的差距
e.g. “I will lay out my workout clothes the night before
比如 “我会在前一天晚上把锻炼的衣服放好
so when I get up, I can get moving in the morning.”
所以等我起床的时候 就能直接行动了”
Or to prepare a healthier breakfast,
又或者 为了准备一顿更健康的早餐
place the pan on the stove, cooking spray on the counter
在前一天晚上就把平底锅放在炉子上
and gather the ingredients the night before.
烹饪喷雾放在流理台上 食材都准备好
Again to reduce any friction.
这些都是为了减少与未来行为的差距
Using the Two-Minute Rule to Stop Procrastinating
利用2分钟法则 停止拖延
Using the “2-minute rule” can help you establish small habits
利用2分钟法则能帮你
that will lead to success in bigger ones.
建立通向巨大成功的微小习惯
Find a simple 2-minute version of your desired habit.
为你的理想习惯找一个2分钟的简单版本
You want to scale down your desired outcome.
你得降低自己的理想目标
Running a marathon becomes putting on your shoes and stretching for 2 minutes.
跑一场马拉松变成穿上跑鞋然后拉伸2分钟
Reading an hour per day becomes reading one page.
每天阅读一小时变成每天阅读一页
You need to get the routine anchored in place and then slowly build up the difficulty.
你得先让这个习惯固定下来 然后慢慢加大难度
After you have mastered the 2-minute habit,
等你掌握了这个2分钟版本的习惯后
you can progress to the next phase;
你就可以前进到下一阶段
To make something more difficult,
要让某件事更困难
think about ways you can create barriers of friction
想想有没有什么能在自己和坏习惯之间
between yourself and the bad habit.
建立起差距作为障碍的方法
Make it as impractical as possible.
让坏习惯尽可能不现实
If you want to watch less TV,
若你想看更少电视
unplug the TV after each use
每次看完后都拔掉插头
and put the remote in an inconvenient location.
然后把遥控器放在不好拿的地方
When you go shopping, leave your credit cards under the seat of your car
若你有随意花钱的坏习惯
if you have a bad habit of spontaneous spending.
购物时把信用卡放在车座下面
Do anything you can to make your Bad habits less likely to occur.
竭尽所能让你的坏习惯发生的可能性更小
Law 4 -Make it satisfying
法则四 让习惯有满足感
The most important rule of behavior change
行为改变最重要的规则
A feeling of pleasure is a message to the brain:
愉悦感会传递给大脑这样一个信息:
“This feels good. Let’s repeat this next time.”
“这感觉很好 下次继续这样做”
When you experience pleasure,
当你感到愉悦
your brain learns that a behavior is worth remembering and repeating.
你的大脑会认为这个行为值得记住和重复
“What is immediately rewarded is repeated.
能即时得到奖励的行为都会被重复
What is immediately punished is avoided”.
会即时受到惩罚的行为都会被避免
The first Three laws increase your chances of doing the habit this time.
前三个法则会提高你这次做出这个习惯的可能性
The last law increases your chances of repeating the habit next time.
最后这个法则则会提高你下次重复这个行为的可能性
The Mismatch between immediate and delayed returns
即时反馈和延迟反馈的不协调
It is common for us to feel good about our immediate results,
当我们做出坏习惯时 很容易对短期结果感觉良好
but bad about our long-term outcomes when we practice bad habits.
但对长期带来的后果却感觉糟糕
It is the opposite with good habits:
对好习惯的感觉则刚好相反
the immediate result is unpleasant,
短期结果虽让人不快
but the ultimate outcome is satisfying.
但最终的成果却让人有满足感
A certain amount of success in just about every field involves
几乎每个领域都有一定的成功
ignoring an immediate reward for a long-term one.
是需要为了长期奖励而无视短期奖励的
It is best to add a little immediate pleasure
对于那些从长远来看会为我们带来回报的习惯
to the habits that will pay off in the long run
能赋予它们一点即时奖励
and a little pain to those that won’t.
而反之赋予它们一点即时痛苦 这样最佳
“The vital thing in getting a habit to stick is to feel successful—
坚持一个习惯的关键在于有成就感
even if it’s in a small way.
即使只是很小的成就
The feeling of success is a signal that your habit paid off
成就感是一种信号 它代表你的习惯带来了回报
and that the work was worth the effort.”
付出的努力是值得的
It is satisfying to make progress,
取得进步会让人有满足感
and you can monitor your progress using visual measures,
你可以利用可视化计量办法来监测自己的进步
such as moving paper clips, hairpins, or marbles.
比如移动回形针 发夹或是玻璃弹珠等等
These “little wins” can go a long way.
这些“小成功”可以大有用处
For example, for each sales call you make today,
举个例子 今天每打出一个销售电话
move a marble from one jar to the complete jar.
你就移动一个玻璃弹珠到另一个代表已完成的瓶子
For Each 25 minutes of writing, move a paperclip
每写作25分钟 移一枚回形针
Visual measurements can take many forms:
可视化计量可以有很多形式:
diet journals, workout logs,
饮食日志 锻炼记录
download progress bars, or even page numbers in a book.
下载进度条 甚至是一本书的页码
Keeping a habit tracker may be the best method to monitor your progress.
坚持写习惯记录可能是监测进步的最好方法
Using a habit tracker is a simple way to determine
对习惯进行记录是一种
whether you did a particular habit.
确定你是否养成了一个特定习惯的简单方法
Tracking becomes a reward in and of itself
而习惯记录本身也会成为一种奖励
Crossing a task off your to-do list
在待办事项清单上划去一个事项
completing an entry in your exercise log
完成锻炼记录上的一个项目
or writing an X on the calendar is satisfying
或是在日历画一个X 都让人有满足感
In spite of your best efforts,
但是 尽管你付出最大努力
it is inevitable that life will interrupt you at some point.
生活有时候仍然不可避免地会中断你的坚持
A bad day at work, a bad performance, or a bad workout
工作不如意 表现得不好 锻炼出问题
can happen to anyone.
任何人都可能遇到这些情况
When you’re having a bad day,
当你不顺心的时候
you don’t realize how valuable it is to just show up.
你都认识不到仅仅行动起来有多可贵
“Lost days hurt you more than successful days help you.”
失败时对你的负面影响比成功时对你的正面影响更大
Don’t break the chain.
不要打断习惯链
Every time you cross a day off your calendar for a given habit
每次在日历上划掉这天的特定习惯
you are creating a chain.
你都在建立一种习惯链
Showing up is so important.
行动起来十分重要
Miss two days or links in a row is the start of a bad habit.
连续错过两天或者两个阶段就是一个坏习惯的开始
Even if you usually do 50 push-ups.
即使你平常要做50个俯卧撑
Just do 10 on that given day.
在那天做10个就可以了
If that means not breaking the chain.
只要 这样会不打断习惯链
Breaking a bad habit: Make it Unsatisfying
戒掉一个坏习惯:让它变得没有满足感
A behavior is less likely to occur when pain is immediate.
一个行为如果会导致即时的痛苦 发生的可能性会更小
Being held accountable by a partner is a good way to keep your desired habits in check.
让一个伙伴来监督你是个保持理想习惯的好方法
We all want to be liked and respected,
我们都想被他人喜欢 尊重
so we would rather just avoid the punishment that we will be held accountable to.
所以我们会选择避免受到这种惩罚
For example – I owe you $10 every time I miss a workout,
比如 每不锻炼一次 我就欠你10块
plus the respect I lose for failing to do what I said I would!
加上我为没做到自己说要做到的事而丢的脸
Your behavior is more likely to be influenced by concrete, and immediate consequences.
因为你的行为更容易被具体和即时的结果影响
The Habit Contract
习惯合同
You can create a habit contract to hold yourself accountable,
你可以制作一个习惯合同来让自己负责
just as governments use laws to hold citizens accountable.
就像政府利用法律来让市民负责一样
You can create a habit contract either verbally or in writing,
你可以制作一个习惯合同 口头或者书面都行
which makes it clear that you will honor a particular habit
它要能明确无误地让你执行这个习惯
and there will be punishments if you do not.
而且 不执行则会受到惩罚
You can then use your accountability partners to enforce this contract.
然后你就可以让自己的监督伙伴来实行这项合同
Ok so it’s one thing to read a book,
好吧 读书是一回事
but another to actually apply it to your life.
但要把读的书应用到生活中又是另一回事了
So I’m going to try and visually represent how I have personally
所以我接下来会试着通过一种可视化的方式来说明
been using this book to build systems around my habits the past few months.
过去几个月我自己是如何用这本书来建立习惯体系的
After you read the book
等你们读了这本书
maybe your approach will be different than mine or much better,
可能你们的方法会跟我的不一样或者更好
or maybe there are some parts I completely missed or could improve upon
也可能我有些地方完全遗漏了或者有可以加以提升的
so do let me know in the comments below.
请一定在下面的留言中让我知道
The Good habits I wanted to develop were
我想培养的好习惯是
more consistent workout and reading routines.
更持续的锻炼和阅读
The Bad habit I wanted to eliminate
而我想戒掉的坏习惯是
was becoming distracted and overconsuming social media.
容易分心和过度使用社交媒体
First I completed the Habit scorecard.
首先 我完成了习惯记分卡
This gave me a good idea of habits I could try to eliminate,
这让我对自己能够试着戒掉的坏习惯有了清楚的了解
but more importantly it gave me an idea of daily habits I was already doing
但更重要的是 这让我看到自己已经在做的
that I could stack my new habits with.
可以用来与新习惯堆积的日常习惯
Ultimately, when you find the habits you want to work on,
最后 当你找到你想努力改善的习惯时
you want to be pushing the desired good habits towards this side of the spectrum,
你要把理想的好习惯推向左边这栏
and bad habits towards this side.
把坏习惯推向右边
For the working out habit,
对于健身这个习惯
The first step was to make the cues more obvious,
第一步是让暗示更加突出
and I had a few tools I could use from the book.
针对这点我从书中学到一些妙招
In this case I used what James Clear calls the implementation strategy.
此处我用的是James Clear称作实行策略的方法
I will workout at 6am in the living room.
即我会于[早上六点]在[起居室][锻炼]
Next I tried as best I could to design my environment
接下来我尽力布置了 有助于新习惯的
conducive to this new habit.
周围的环境
I took my dumbbell set out of the closet, and put them in the living room.
我把哑铃从柜子里拿出来 放在起居室
I also found a few pictures of healthy physiques on the internet
我还在网上找到一些健美身材的图片
and put them in places around the house as cues that would remind me of the habit.
然后把它们放在房中四处作为提醒自己这个习惯的暗示
Next, I moved on to the craving phase.
下一步 到渴望阶段
To increase dopamine and motivation
为了提升多巴胺和动机水平
I bundle the workout with listening to some of my favorite podcasts.
我把锻炼和收听自己最爱的播客捆绑在一起
I also implement reprogramming my brain.
还对自己的大脑进行了暗重构
I tell myself repeatedly
我不断告诉自己
I don’t “have to do a workout”
我不是“必须锻炼”
but “ I get to build strength and a healthier body”
而是“我要有更强的力量 更健康的身体”
That subtle shift in mindset has gone a long way.
这种心境上的小变化带来了很大的帮助
Ideally, joining a gym, or finding a group to have people workout with
理想状态下 去健身房或者找和大家一起锻炼的小组
would be even better to strengthen this habit,
会更有助于强化这个习惯
but unfortunately all gyms are closed where I live,
不幸的是我住处周边的健身房都关了
so I’m kind of on my own,
我只能靠自己
and these two tools will have to suffice for the moment.
所以我暂时只能用这两个方法了
Next, making it easy.
下一步 让习惯简单化
Using the 2 minute rule,
利用2分钟法则
to make sure I don’t end up like most people starting a new habit,
来确保自己最后不会像开始新习惯的多数人一样
that try to do too much too soon.
这些人 过早就想做太多
I want my habit to not feel like a challenge at all.
我希望自己的习惯感觉根本不像一个挑战
My 2 minute rule was putting on my workout clothes and stretching.
所以我的2分钟法则就是穿上健身衣然后拉伸
If that was the only thing I accomplished then that was fine,
如果这就是我完成的唯一一件事 那也没关系
because I showed up.
因为我行动了
But you will quickly find that once you are there,
但很快你就会发现 你一旦开始行动了
you are now motivated to get the workout done.
你就会有动力完成整项锻炼
It is weird but the motivation seems to come after you get the habit started.
很奇怪 但动力似乎在你开始一个习惯后就会出现
My mindset is focused on small 1 percent changes
我心里专注的是 能累积成有意义结果的
compounding into meaningful results
那些百分之一的微小改变
AND that my systems will get me to the results, not vague goals.
我的体系会让我达成结果 而不是模糊的目标
Remembering that my main focus at this point is just making sure I show up
记住 这个阶段的重心仅仅是确保我自己行动起来
and start anchoring this habit in place.
以及开始把这个习惯固定下来
Once you are consistently showing up, you can increase the progression.
一旦你能坚持行动了 你就可以把进度往前推进
To decrease friction, I made the rule
为了减小差距 我定了一个规则
that I’m not allowed to check my phone until the workout was complete.
在锻炼完成之前不允许自己查看手机
If I get distracted by emails or social media,
如果我被邮件或社交媒体分心了
It is one excuse and one step of friction
这就成了我和锻炼完成之间的
between myself and the workout getting completed.
又一个借口和一步差距
Lastly, this was a game changer for me,
最后 也是对我影响很大的因素
priming the environment.
准备环境
When I place my shoes, yoga mat and dumbbells out the night before
当我把运动鞋 瑜伽垫和哑铃在前一晚拿出来放好
I skyrocket my show up and workout percentage.
我就大大提升了自己行动和锻炼的可能性
As soon as I place these items out the night before,
一旦我把这些东西在前一晚拿出来
I feel like the ritual has begun
就感觉好像这项习惯已经开始
and the workout is already complete
锻炼已经完成
because I have zero excuses.
因为我没有借口了
So with those 3 phases of the loop systemized to get me to show up.
现在有了这三个阶段的体系化来让我行动起来
I only had the last phase of the loop left,
我就只剩习惯循环的最后一个阶段待完成了
which was to make sure I keep repeting the habit.
即确保自己坚持重复这个习惯
I use both of these tools somewhat together to close out the loop.
我用的这两个工具一起来完成这个循环
I use a habit tracker, crossing the day off the calendar becomes the reward
我用的是习惯记录的方法 把在日历上划去一天作为奖励
and it forces me to not want to break the chain.
这样能强迫我自己不打断习惯链
I also take a picture of the calories I burnt
我还会拍一张卡路里消耗的照片
and I send the picture to my partner,
发给我的伙伴
and that also increases the satisfaction.
这也提高了我的满足感
Mindset wise, I begin with identity
在心境方面 我是从身份开始的
and I remind myself after each workout
我在每次锻炼后都提醒自己
that “I want to become the kind of person that enjoys fitness and doesn’t miss workouts”
我想变成那种享受健康 从不逃避锻炼的人
I don’t put all my focus on outcomes
我不会把注意力都放在结果上
such as I want to be 10kg lighter by such and such a date.
比如我想在某年某月前减重10kg
I also remind myself that I need to be patient for results
我还会提醒自己 我需要有耐心来等待结果
and that I’m probably still somewhere in this Valley of disappointment
在看到成果之前
before I will see results!
我可能还在失望之谷的某个地方
I went through the same process with the reading habit, with a few minor changes.
在培养阅读习惯时 除了一些小变化 过程大抵相同
So I used the habit stack.
我用的是习惯堆积这个方法
After [making a coffee] I will [read for 90 minutes]
[泡完一杯咖啡]后 我会[阅读90分钟]
So making a coffee was my trigger cue for reading.
所以泡咖啡就成了我阅读的暗示
My one space one use rule was reading on the balcony of my apartment.
我的一空间一用规则则是 在公寓阳台阅读
One of the best parts of my day is a nice cup of coffee in the morning.
我一天中最美好的一部分就是早上享受一杯咖啡
So this was the perfect thing for me to bundle my reading habit with.
所以这是个可与阅读捆绑的完美习惯
Remembering how dopamine raises in anticipation of a reward
我清楚多巴胺水平是 因期待奖励而上升
and not the reward itself.
而不是 因奖励本身而上升
I wanted this dopamine spike for wanting coffee to
所以我希望 这种想喝咖啡导致的
start becoming associated with reading.
多巴胺上升开始变得与阅读挂钩
My 2 minute rule was to read 1 page of The Daily Stoic by Ryan Holiday.
我的2分钟规则是阅读一页Ryan Holiday的《每日斯多葛》
Super simple,
超级简单
Again in the beginning all I was concerned with
同样 在一开始我唯一关心的
was showing up and getting this habit anchored.
是行动起来 将习惯固定下来
Then I slowly built up the habit to around 90 minutes.
然后我会慢慢把时间加到90分钟左右
For the bad habit I was trying to eliminate
对于我想戒掉的坏习惯
To make the habit invisible,
为了让坏习惯隐形
I started by making my phone as boring as I possibly could,
我是从让我的手机变得尽量无趣开始的
which required deleting a lot of apps.
这要求我删除大量应用
I use the reprogramming tool,
这里我用的是重构的方法
to highlight the unattractive side of overconsuming social media.
来突出过度使用社交媒体的无吸引力的一面
Telling myself things like
告诉我自己 譬如
consuming is the easy and lazy option of the masses,
消费是大众的安逸且懒惰的选择
and do I want to be a consumer or a producer?
而我想成为一个消费者还是生产者?
Random scrolling through feeds is for losers.
随便刷刷订阅是屌丝才做的
So you wanna try to paint your bad habit in a light
所以你要从一直做会非常没有魅力这样的角度
that makes it super unattractive to keep doing.
来看待自己的坏习惯
To increase friction, I left my phone in a drawer in another room.
为了加大差距 我把手机放在另一间房的抽屉里
So completely out of sight.
完全看不到的地方
To make it unsatisfying, I have an accountability partner,
为了让习惯没有满足感 我还有一个监督伙伴
I get my partner to enforce this habit.
让这个监督伙伴来促成这个习惯
The punishment is If she sees me using social media during work time,
惩罚就是 如果她看到我在工作期间使用社交媒体
I owe her $10.
我欠她十块钱
So that is how I have been using this fantastic book guys with great results so far,
这就是我目前使用这本书获得良好成果的方法
Go out and grab a copy of this book for yourself if you haven’t already,
如果你还没有这本书 出门给自己买一本吧
you are going to take in the knowledge at a much deeper level,
那样你就能通过James Clear在书中讲述的故事和例子
from all the stories and examples that James Clear gives you in the book
以及我们在这里没有提到的一些高级技术
as well as some advanced techniques, which we didnot cover in this summary
从一个更深入的层次吸收这些知识
that will help you strengthen your habits.
它们都能帮你强化自己的习惯
Good luck in your journey.
愿你在这个习惯旅程中拥有好运
Thank you for watching.
感谢观看
See you in the next video.
下个视频见

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视频概述

虽然知道习惯很重要,但你却经常为了自已的坏习惯苦恼,想要戒除却力不从心吗?或者,你想养成好习惯,却老是半途而废,其实,问题不在你身上,而是你遵循的行为改变系统出了问题。 所谓习惯,就是被规律执行—而且很多时候是不假思索—的行为或惯例。只要你愿意持续多年,起初看似微不足道的改变终将像以复利计算一样利滚利,滚出非比寻常的结果。进一步来说,如果每天都能进步1%,持续一年,最后你会进步37倍;相反地, 若是每天退步1%,持续一年,到头来你会弱化到趋近于0。所以,习惯就是「自我改善」这件事的复利。造就成功的,是日常

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PZ7lDrwYdZc

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