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如何变得不那么愚蠢:什么是逻辑谬误

HOW TO BE LESS STUPID - EPISODE 1 - LOGICAL FALLACIES

稻草人谬论
STRAWMAN FALLACY
你告诉你的朋友摄入脂肪是
You tell your friend that eating fats can be part
健康饮食的一部分 然后他震惊之余
of a healthy diet and he gets mad
冲你大喊
and starts yelling at you,
“哦 所以你想让我天天吃麦当劳吗?!
“ Oh, so you want me to eat McDonald ’ s all day? !
你想让我整天吃不饱和脂肪?!
You want me to eat trans fats all day?!
这就是你说的健康?!”
Is that what you call healthy?!”
他认为 他反驳了你的观点 然而
In his mind, he’s somehow rebutting yourargument. However,
他所说的
what he ’ s done is
其实把你的说的话歪曲成了另一个意思
essentially twisted what you said into something that you didn ’ t say,
并且他驳斥了自己的观点
and now he’s attacking his own littleconstructed argument.
你告诉他你正想
You tell him that you were thinking more
解释它的来龙去脉 但是出于某种原因
along the lines of nuts and seeds, but for some reason,
他还是表示生你的气
he continues to be very angry withyou.
转移话题
RED HERRING
你和你的朋友讨论复杂的问题
You and your friend are debating the complex question
例如如何征税
of how taxes should be collected.
你在财政上更保守 而他在财政上偏自由派
You’re more fiscally conservative whilehe’s more fiscally liberal.
到目前为止
And so far,
争论一直很激烈 但是突然他说起唐纳德·特朗普
the argument has been going great but all of a sudden he brings up Donald Trump
和他这一生干过的很多坏事
and all the bad things Trump has done in hislife.
他不停的讲着特朗普 以为
He goes on and on about Trump maybe thinking
某种程度上会强化自己的论点
that he ’ s somehow strengthening his position,
但是他实质上说了一些
but he ’ s essentially introduced something
与此次讨论不相关的事情 并且
that ’ s irrelevant to the debate, and his
他关于特朗普是好人还是坏人的观点
argument of whether Trump is a good guy
完全不能说明
or a bad guy really says nothing overall about
保守派财政的优点
the merits of fiscal conservatism just
就像希拉里到底是一个不可信的女人 还是一个很不错的女人
like whether Hillary is a sketchy lady or a nice
说明不了自由主义财政的优点
lady says nothing about the merits of fiscalliberalism.
人身攻击
AD HOMINEM
你在和朋友
You ’ re debating your friend
讨论一个话题 你提出了一些有根据的观点
about a topic and you bring up some very valid points.
但是他并没有讲这些观点
And instead of addressing those points,
而是开始生气 告诉你你是错的
he gets angry and starts telling you how you ’ re
因为你是个混蛋
wrong because you ’ re an asshole or
或者因为你很丑意味着你的人格
because you ’ re ugly implying that your character
和你的身体属性某种程度上与
or your physical attributes somehow have anything to do
你的观点的可靠性有关系
with the validity of your argument.
诉诸无知
ARGUMENT FROM IGNORANCE
你一个朋友让你解释
A friend of yours asks you to explain
自宇宙起源后的种种细节
in detail everything since the start of the universe.
你告诉他即使我们知道一些
You tell him that even though we know quite a bit,
但是我们并不知道每件事的每一个细节
we don ’ t know every single detail
但是我们正
about everything but we ’ re looking
不断的寻找证据 不断的解决疑惑
for evidence constantly and working on putting the puzzle together.
他嘲笑你道 看 你不会回答但是他会
He laughs in your face. See, you have no answers but he does.
他告诉你 飞面大神用它爱的触手创造了一切
He tells you that the spaghetti monster created everything with his loving tentacles.
你这在听一场无知的观点诉说
You’ve just been served an argument fromignorance.
我们不知道具体的事情
We don ’ t know certain things for sure,
因此一定是飞面大神知道一切
therefore it must be the spaghetti monster.
权威观点
ARGUMENT FROM AUTHORITY
你的朋友告诉你他看到电视上说
Your friend tells you that he saw on TV that
如果他每天吃神奇的草药
if he eats some crazy herb every day, he won ’ t
就不会得癌症
get cancer anymore.
你颇为质疑 询问了更多的证据
And you ’ re kind of skeptical and ask for more evidence,
然后他告诉你
and he tells you that it ’ s
这就是真的 因为电视上说这句话的家伙
true because the guy who said it
是著名的医生 而且他还是博士 不幸的是
on TV is this famous doctor and he also has a PhD. Unfortunately,
仅凭某人是博士
just because someone has a PhD
并不意味着他不会满嘴屁话 同样不幸的是
doesn ’ t mean that they ’ re not full of shit. And also unfortunately,
很多人并不理解这个事
a lot of people don ’ t seem to understand this.

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视频概述

交谈时我们会陷入逻辑错误的陷阱,那么有哪些错误的思维,如何辨别这些逻辑漏洞呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

哲轩

审核员

审核员 HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JG1900XhKs0

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