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如何享受艰难困苦

How to Appreciate Hard Times

本视频由The Great Courses Plus 赞助
This video sponsored by The Great Courses Plus
思想的产物之一——自由(音乐播放)
FREEDOM IN THOUGHT PRODUCTIONS[Music Playing]
苦难对于你来说意味着什么?
What does suffering mean to you?
对于维克托•弗兰克和其他不幸的灵魂来说
For Viktor Frankl and other unfortunate souls,
它意味着被囚禁在纳粹集中营
it meant being imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps.
这些营区充斥着折磨 苦痛与煎熬
These camps were disgusting places full of torture, pain and suffering.
幸存的几率只有二十八分之一
Chances of surviving were at most, 1 in 28.
每当被囚禁者在满是水的汤碗中看到一点豆子时
Prisoners found themselves rejoicing at the sight of a few peas
他们会欣喜不已
in an otherwise watery bowl of soup.
如果说那是他们一天中最快乐的时光
If that’s the happiest part of someone’s day,
那就能充分的说明他们经受着多大的苦难
it says a lot about how much their suffering.
被困者们常常担心和他们分离的家人或朋友的安康
Prisoners often worried about the well-being of their family and friends who had been separated from them.
我们甚至无法想象他们自己经受着怎样的痛苦
It’s hard to even imagine the suffering that the prisoners went through.
在他们经受苦难期间 许多被囚者沉思着
Amidst their suffering, many prisoners contemplated,
也有许多被囚者通过闯进电网的方式企图自杀
and many performed suicide by running into the electric fences.
这些被囚者没有希望
These prisoners ceased to have hope.
他们看不到自己的未来
They saw no future for themselves.
他们觉得自己的生命毫无意义 失去了活下去的意愿
They felt that their lives had become meaningless and they’d lost the will to live.
另一方面
On the other hand,
一些像维克托一样的被囚者 能够在苦难中找寻意义
some prisoners, like Viktor were able to find meaning in their suffering.
在一个人们通常会问“为什么是我?”的世界里
In a world where people will commonly say “Why me?”
不论何时发生不好的事情
whenever something bad happens,
我想知道某些人是如何在对人类来说最黑暗的时期中坚持下来的
I wanted to find out how someone could persevere through one of the darkest periods in humankind,
我想为他们找寻问题的答案
and find an answer to that question for themselves.
第二次世界大战之前
Prior to World War Two,
本质主义是一种绝对的信仰
essentialism was a fairly standard belief.
也就是说我们生来具有特定的本质
This was the idea that we were born with an “essence”.
本质被认为是
An essence can be considered as
人的一部分 或是定义人类的东西
a part of a person, or thing that defines them.
没有了能定义人的品质 人将不再是那个人
Without that defining quality, they would no longer be that thing.
例如 特定的精子和卵子使我成为了自身本质的一部分
For example, the specific sperm and egg that made me are a part of my essence.
如果换做是一个不同的精子和一个不同的卵子
If it were a different sperm or a different egg,
我将不再是现在的我
I would no longer be me.
一些哲学家认为作为本质的一部分 我们的出生有特定原因
Some philosophers believe that as part of our essence we were born with a purpose.
二战中目睹的暴行令人道主义者对此发问
The atrocities witnessed during World War Two really made humanity question this.
不难理解为什么我们要问生命是否有命定的意义
It’s understandable to question whether life really has a predestined meaning
是否人的所有经历都是苦难
if all someone experiences is suffering.
在二战之后
After World War Two,
本质主义的概念变得更加宽泛
the concept of existentialism became much more widespread.
本质主义强调我们的出生没有目的
Existentialism is the idea that we’re born without a purpose,
我们该为我们自己定义
and that we’re left to define our own.
这通常被陈述为“存在高于本质”
This is often stated as “existence precedes essence”.
我们首先出生在一个没有意义的世界
We’re born first into a meaningless world,
然后我们为自己定义存在的意义
and then we define our own meaning.
有些人认为存在主义是一种消极的世界观
Some people think that existentialism is a depressing view of the world,
因为它认为世界没有根本且客观的意义
because it says that the world has no ultimate and objective meaning.
其他人并不同意
Others disagree.
他们将其视为美的和自由的哲学
They may see it as a beautiful and liberating philosophy.
它让人们在世界中寻找潜在的无穷无尽的意义
One that allows them to find a potentially infinite amount of meaning in the world,
给予他们定义自我的自由
and gives them the freedom to define that for themselves.
一天中的每秒 每分 每小时
Every second, every minute, every hour of every day,
他们都可以重新定义自己的意义
they have the ability to define a new meaning for themselves,
定义一个活下去的新理由
a new reason to live.
存在主义是使得维克多·佛兰克
Existentialism was the key philosophy that
在纳粹集中营的那段时期中
allowed Viktor Frankl to find meaning in his suffering
从苦难中寻找意义的关键哲学思想
during his time in concentration camps.
引用他的话
To quote him,
“当我们无法改变环境时——
“When we are no longer able to change a situation –
想象一下一种不可治愈的疾病 例如不能动手术的癌症
just think of an incurable disease such as inoperable cancer-
我们要挑战去改变自己。”
we are challenged to change ourselves.”
存在主义让人们承受并克服困境
Existentialists have the ability to take an adversity and overcome it,
通过给予其意义使他们获得力量
or empower themselves by giving it meaning.
随着环境的改变 他们给自己改变自身意义和态度的自由
As circumstances change, they give themselves the freedom to change their meanings and attitudes.
他们不再向生活询问它的意义
They don’t ask life what its meaning is,
而是不断的被生活提问意义所在
but they are constantly being asked by life.
选择如何去生存就是他们的答案
How they choose to live is their answer.
弗兰克认为人类在寻找一种 没有紧张感的生活
Frankl argues that humans do not seek a tensionless state.
事实上 毫不紧张的状态会导致另一个问题
In fact, a tensionless state can result in another problem
被维克多称为“存在真空”的问题:
that Viktor called the existential vacuum:
对生活的目的和意义的完全缺失
a complete lack of purpose or meaninglessness in life.
维克多认为在这种真空状态中
Viktor argues that it’s within this vacuum that
会出现沮丧 好斗 癖嗜等情况
depression, aggression and addiction can arise.
我相信维克多会赞成
I believe that Viktor would argue that
为了克服这种困境 一定程度的紧张感是需要的
in order to overcome this dilemma, a certain amount of tension is required.
但是这种紧张感对于个人而言必须是能够克服的
But this tension must be worth overcoming for the individual.
因此不是说要避免苦难或高度紧张
So it’s not about avoiding suffering or stress at all costs,
而是在苦难中找寻意义或者找到值得为此遭受苦难的事情
but finding meaning in suffering, or finding something worth suffering for.
我认为这句维克多的话完美的概述了“暂停”的关键
I think this quote by Viktor beautifully summarizes the key take away:
“在突发事件与做出回应之间留有空间
“Between stimulus and response, there is a space.
在这段时间中我们有权力选择我们的回应方式
In that space is our power to choose our response.
我们做出的回应体现了我们的成长和自由”
In our response lies our growth and our freedom.”
想象一下某个人在交通高峰期死了
Think of somenone being cut off in rush hour traffic.
在这个突发事件中 从他死的那一刻到人们采取措施的那一刻 中间留有时间
In between the impulse, them being cut off, and their reaction there is a space.
在这段时间中 他们可以选择他们对该突发事件的应对措施
In this space, they have the ability to choose their reaction to that impulse.
同样 在苦难发生到我们做出回应期间也有一段时间
In the same way, there is a space between our suffering and our reaction to it.
我们可以选择我们的应对措施并且赋予苦难新的意义
We have the ability to choose our reaction and give new meaning to our suffering.
在某种程度上 我们将为自己所遭受的苦难感到值得
In a way, we become worthy of our suffering.
嘿 朋友们!我想用一点时间为我们的赞助商The Great Courser Plus
Hey, guys! I’d like to take a moment to give a big thanks to
对此频道的支持表示衷心的感谢
our sponsors, The Great Courses Plus, for supporting the channel.
The Great Courses Plus提供视频学习的服务
The Great Courses Plus is a video learning service
它教授着一些世界上最好的课程
with teachings from some of the best lectures around the world.
它们有着超过7000课被仔细馆藏起来的课程
They have a huge library of over 7000 carefully curated courses.
我曾经了解到比尔盖茨和乔治都非常喜爱The Great Coueses Plus的课程
I’ve read that Bill Gates and George Lucas both enjoyed The Great Courses Plus.
怎么会不喜爱呢?
And why wouldn’t they?
事先储备好从世界上最伟大的思想中得来的知识
Having curated knowledge from some of the greatest minds in the world
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实际上我看过一门课程叫“存在主义和法兰克福市的学校”
I actually watched a lecture on “Existentialism and the Frankfurt School”
在该课程中提到“现代知识分子的传统:从迪卡尔到德里达”
from the course on “Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida”
Lawrence Cahoone提供了这个视频
by Lawrence Cahoone in preparation for this video.
我一定会使用The Great Courses Plus频道作为学习未来视频的资源
I’ll definitely be using The Great Courses Plus as a source of study for future videos.
如果你想让The Great Courses Plus为你所用
If you’d like to try The Great Courses Plus out for yourself,
你很幸运 因为它提供给所有观众一个月的免费试用期
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总之 感谢观赏
As always, thanks for watching.
下次再见
And I’ll see you soon.
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视频概述

找寻苦难的意义,重新定义苦难,重新定义自己。痛苦是上帝画了妆的幸福。

听录译者

安安

翻译译者

。故人心

审核员

译学馆审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UDz7xZkaoFk

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