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俄罗斯的死亡之湖

How This Lake in Northwest Asia Got Deadlier Than Chernobyl

– I’m Kento Bento.
-我是肯多·本多
– This video is made possible by Brilliant,
-此视频由Brilliant网站制作
a problem-solving website that teaches you to think like a scientist.
一个教你像科学家一样思考的解决问题的网站
Central Russia, 1957.
1957年 俄罗斯中部
Villagers near the Southern Ural mountains were scared; they were terrified.
乌拉尔山脉南部的村民非常恐慌
Men claiming to be from the government had appeared,
不知从哪出现几个自称政府派来的人
ordering people to leave their homes.
命令村民离开自己的家乡
Without warning, they started burying crops, and slaughtering livestock – their livestock.
没有发出任何警告 他们便开始掩埋庄稼 屠杀家畜
The villagers were in shock; they were confused.
村民十分震惊 也十分疑惑
What was going on?
究竟发生了什么?
They were being forced away,
他们被迫离开家园
but they soon realized it wasn’t just their village,
但他们很快发现不仅他们的村庄
it was everyone’s village.
每个村庄都没幸免
And some people looked ill.
有些人似乎还生病了
The only information given was that there had been an outbreak
唯一透露出的消息是这里
of a special disease,
爆发了一种奇怪的疾病
and everyone needed to leave.
并且所有人都必须撤离
But the source of this disease was a mystery.
然而这种疾病的罪魁祸首仍是个谜
Was it the river? The lake?
是河流?湖泊?
Was it the strange lights people saw in the sky not long ago?
还是不久前那道从天而降的闪光?
Nothing was revealed. They felt helpless.
一切无从知晓 村民们感到无助
Looking back at their village, they were horrified at what they saw.
回看自己的家园 村民感到惊骇
Their homes were now on fire. Everything was being incinerated.
他们的家正在着火 所有东西正被烧成灰烬
This happened in 1957,
这件事发生在1957年
but what led to this moment actually started 12 years earlier. Hiroshima,
但事情起因要从12年前的广岛说起
August 6th, 1945, 6000 kilometers away.
1945年8月6日 6000公里以外
The United States detonates a nuclear weapon during the final stage
美国在二战的最终阶段
of World War II.
投放了核武器
Many people died, mostly civilians.
死者无数 其中大部分是平民
Three days later in Nagasaki, it happened again.
3天之后 长崎也被投下核弹
These events remain the only use of nuclear weapons in the history of warfare.
这是世界战争史上唯一使用过核武器的事件
The world became acquainted with the nuclear might of America. Now,
全世界了解了美国核武器的威力
this did not sit well with The Soviet Union.
现在这对苏联来说可不是好消息
After learning about Japan,
听说日本被轰炸的消息后
Joseph Stalin decided that their existing nuclear program
约瑟夫·斯大林认为现有的核计划
was insufficient and needed to be aggressively pursued.
是不足够的 需要更加侵略性地发展
Falling behind the US in the development of nuclear weapons was not an option.
苏联绝对不可以在核武器的发展中落后美国
But they first needed a location;
但首先他们需要一个地方
a secret location, hidden from the rest of the world.
一个全世界都不知道的秘密基地
They selected a remote area near the southern Ural Mountains,
他们在俄罗斯中部 乌拉尔山脉南部
in Central Russia;
选了一个偏僻的地方
about 1,800 kilometers from Moscow.
离莫斯科大约有1800公里
For locational reference,
这个位置
the Ural mountains is widely considered the northern border between Asia and Europe.
乌拉尔山脉通常被视作亚洲和欧洲的北方边界
This is where they decided to build their first-ever plutonium plant, named Mayak.
他们决定在这里建造史无前例的钚工厂——马亚克
From 1945 to 1948, 70,000 gulag inmates from 12 labor camps
从1945年到1948年 从12个劳改所出来的70000名古拉格囚徒
were forced into constructing this nuclear facility.
被强迫去建造这个核设施
Seven military reactors would eventually line
最终七个军用核反应堆将在
the southern shore of Lake Kyzyltash,
Kyzyltash湖的南岸排成一行
note though the lake referenced in the title is not this lake.
注意:这个湖不是标题提及的那个湖
Pre-Cold War tensions were mounting,
冷战前的紧张气氛逐渐上升
so all this was done in a great hurry and in total secrecy.
所以这些都是悄悄地迅速地造成的
After construction, the plant immediately began processing and weaponizing plutonium,
核反应堆建成后 立刻开始将钚制成武器
with their greatest success coming in the form
最后他们成功研制出了
of their first plutonium bomb, named First Lightning,
第一个钚弹“一号闪电”
which was detonated in 1949.
这个钚弹最终在1949年被引爆
But now, along with this secret facility,
但现在 因为这个秘密武器
there was a need for a secret city;
他们需要一个秘密城市
where all the nuclear scientists, workers, and their families, could live.
以供核科学家们 工人们以及他们的家人们居住
And so, the secret city of Chelyabinsk 40 was born,
因此 秘密城市车里雅宾克里-40诞生了
Chelyabinsk being the name of the nearest big city, and 40,
这个名字来自于最近的一座大城市 而40
the last digits of the postal code.
就是邮局地址最后的数字
This place was also colloquially known as City 40.
大家通常称他为第40号城市
Reinforced by barbed wire fences and guarded gates,
这座城市被带倒钩的电线栅栏和有看守的大门保卫着
no one was allowed to enter or leave this city.
没有人可以进出
Residents were forbidden to send letters or to make contact with the outside world.
里面的居民不可以寄信或和外界有任何联系
For decades, this closed city
几十年来 这座封闭的
of 100,000 people did not appear on any of the Soviet maps,
有10万人居住的城市从未出现在任何一张苏联的地图上
and the identities of the inhabitants were erased from the official Soviet records.
里面的人的身份在苏联官方记录中被抹去
Those who had been relocated to City 40,
他们被迁移到第四十城
by order of the Soviet Party, were considered
在苏联政府的通知下 他们的
missing by their relatives back home.
亲友认为他们是失踪了
And mercilessly, if anyone refused to work at Mayak –
更残忍的是 如果有人拒绝在第40城
to live in the secret city –
生活工作
they would be taken to a prison camp and executed.
他们会被关进监狱并且处决掉
After all, by that time they would
毕竟 当时他们
have already been introduced to state secrets.
已经知道了这个国家的秘密
City 40 is actually one of 44 known closed cities in Russia,
第四十城是苏联非常著名的44个秘密城市中的一个
probably the most prominent of them all,
也很可能是最出名的一个
but it’s important to note
但是重要的是
that the Soviet Union did not come up with the idea.
苏联不是第一个想到这样做的国家
The concept of closed cities surrounding secret nuclear facilities was stolen
这个建立一个秘密城市来造核武器的主意是从
from the United States,
美国偷来的
when Stalin’s spies intercepted plans for the Hanford nuclear plant,
斯大林的间谍中途截取到了关于汉福德核能研究中心的情报
which the secret city of Richland, Washington was built around.
秘密城市里奇兰华盛顿就建在附近
Note the Hanford nuclear plant had manufactured the
注意 汉福德原子能研究中心已经
plutonium that was used in the atomic bomb over Nagasaki.
制造了用于长崎原子弹的钚
It wasn’t just the idea
从美国偷来的不仅仅
of closed cities that was taken from the US,
是这个建立秘密城市的想法
but much of the nuclear research and knowledge was gained directly
还有从在曼哈顿计划中工作的
from Soviet spy rings working in the Manhattan Project.
苏联间谍直接获取的核研究和知识
As a result there were massive gaps
这导致苏联物理学家们
in the Soviet physicists’ knowledge about nuclear physics,
的核物理的知识有着巨大差异
which was really, really bad when it came to safety.
这使得安全问题非常非常糟糕
Workers were not protected, environmental concerns were not taken seriously; and,
工人不受保护 环境问题没有被严肃对待
shockingly, people were handling plutonium with their bare hands.
并且令人震惊的是 人们用裸露的双手接触钚
They didn’t know any better.
过去 他们对钚了解不深
Now,a system was set up.
但现在有了完善的系统
Water from the nearby Lake Kyzyltash and Techa
城市旁的Kyzyltash湖和Techa河的水
River was used to cool the nuclear reactors,
被用来冷却核反应堆
to prevent overheating – but there was a problem.
以此来避免过热 但是依然有一个问题
They had implemented an open-cycle cooling system,
他们实施了开环冷却系统
where the water was circulating directly through the reactor core,
系统中的水通过反应堆的核心直接循环
which meant contaminated water was being
这意味着受污染的水
discharged directly back into the lake and river,
将直接排出到湖与河中
the same lake children played in every summer,
孩子们每年夏天在这条湖旁玩耍
and the same river used as drinking water by the locals.
并且当地人把这条河中的水作为饮用水使用
And we’re not just talking
我们不仅仅是在说
about the residents of City 40 here,
第40号城市的居民
but also the numerous villages along the Techa who were dependent
而且也关乎数量众多的Techa河畔的村庄
on the river as a water source:
这条河是他们赖以生存的水资源
40 villages in total, with about 28,000 people.
共计40个村庄 约28000人
But it gets worse.
但情况越来越糟
Mayak had a storage problem.
马亚克在储存方面有一个问题
They didn’t know what to do with their highly-contaminated radioactive waste.
他们不知道如何处置这些高污染的放射性废物
They tried storing them in underground tanks for a while,
他们试着暂时将污染物储存在地下水箱中
but the upkeep was inconvenient for them;
但维修保养非常的不方便
as the tanks needed to be constantly cooled to prevent self-overheating.
因为水箱需要不断地降温防止它本身过热
So what did they do?
那么他们做了什么呢?
They straight dumped the radioactive waste in the various bodies of water around Mayak.
他们直接将放射性废料扔进马亚克附近河的各个部分的水域
This included further contamination of the Techa River, which,
这对Techa河造成了进一步的污染
important to note, connects to the river Ob,
注意 这也关系到鄂毕河
which flows into the Arctic Ocean, but,
它流向北冰洋
not only that, the surrounding lakes became toxic reservoirs.
不仅如此 周围的湖都变成了有毒的水域
We already know about the contamination of Lake Kyzyltash,
我们已经知道了Kyzyltash湖的污染情况
but this lake in particular, Lake Irtyash,
但Irtyash湖还要更严重
over time accumulated so much radioactive waste
随着时间的推移 它积累了许多放射性废料
it became known to the locals as The Plutonium Lake,
它变得被当地人熟知
or The Lake of Death.
被称作“钚湖”或“死亡之湖”
Now here’s the thing.
然而
Neither of these lakes is the lake referenced in the title;
这些湖都不是标题中所说的湖
which means there is a lake more deadly than even the Lake of Death.
也就是说有一条湖比“死亡之湖”更致命
And it’s this one. Lake Karachay.
它叫做Karachay湖
A baby compared to the others, but packing a punch,
它在大小上和其它湖相比如同一个婴儿 但它在放射性方面却是
a radioactive punch. Sure,
重量级的 当然
many of the surrounding lakes became regular dumping grounds
周围的湖很多都成为了定期排放
for highly-contaminated radioactive waste,
高度放射性垃圾的场所
but the dumping that took place at Karachay was next level.
但是发生在Karachay湖的辐射物排放和它们不是一个等级的
The combination of the proximity to Mayak,
和马亚克的临近结合
the fewer lakeside residents, and the more diminutive size of the lake,
拥有更少居民 并且湖的规模更小
made this a convenient and seemingly less risky option for open-air storage.
导致这里成为了一个方便的 似乎没什么风险的的露天仓库
As such, significantly large amounts of solid,
由于这些原因 相当数量的固体
liquid and gaseous radioactive material
液体 和气体辐射材料
was constantly released into Karachay; more so than other lakes.
被不断地释放到Karachay湖中 比其它湖多得多
With all this dumping,
由于这些排放
the people at Mayak ended up neglecting the underground storage tanks from earlier;
马亚克的人们不再忽视先前的地下水箱
which was not cool. No,
产生的热量
literally;
字面上的意思
because the high level of radioactivity meant that the waste was heating itself through decay heat.
因为高等级的辐射意味着这些辐射垃圾可以通过衰变来为自己加热
In other words, pressure was building. Sure,
换句话说 气压在逐步累积 当然
they had a cooling system in place;
它们有一个冷却系统
but it was a pretty crappy cooling system,
但是那是一个糟糕的冷却系统
and it was poorly maintained.
并且几乎没有维修过
It was just a matter of time until – well,
只是时间问题 直到
until this.
这个时候
September 29th, 1957.
1957年9月29日
The cooling system for the storage tanks failed.
地下水箱的冷却系统坏了
A tank containing 80 tons of liquid radioactive waste
装有80吨放射性液体垃圾的水箱
exploded with an estimated force of up to a 100 tons of TNT.
爆炸了 威力相当于100吨的TNT炸药
90 % of radioactive material released was deposited
90%的辐射材料泄漏
within the vicinity of Mayak and City 40,
到了马亚克和40号城中
but the remaining 10 % formed a radioactive
剩下的10%形成了
cloud reaching a height of one kilometer.
高度一千米的辐射云
The next 10 hours saw it drift northeasterly,
接下来的10小时内可以看到它向东北方向漂去
causing widespread contamination over hundreds of kilometers
造成了数百千米范围内的大型污染
This was the Kyshtym Disaster; one of the worst nuclear accidents in history.
这就是Kyshtym灾难 历史上最糟糕的核事故之一
The event was eventually categorized as a Level Six Serious Accident
这次事件最终被归类到六级安全事故
on the International Nuclear Events Scale.
在国际核事件中
Only two incidents in history have been more severe:
历史上只有两个事故比这次事故严重
Chernobyl and Fukushima, at Level Seven. However,
切尔诺贝利和福岛 它们是七级的安全事故 无论如何
in terms of the number
在辐射导致的
of cases of acute radiation sickness,
疾病患者的数量方面
the Kyshtym Disaster was actually four times worse than Chernobyl.
Kyshtym灾难是切尔诺贝利事件的四倍
Due to the secrecy surrounding Mayak,
由于对马亚克周边的保密
the communities in the nearby affected areas were not immediately informed of the accident. Shockingly,
附近的社区没有立即被告知这次事故 更令人震惊的是
it wasn’t until a week later that the evacuation process started;
直到事故发生的一周后疏散才开始进行
and really only for the communities closest to the contamination site.
并且仅仅疏散最靠近污染源的社区
Understandably the affected villagers were frightened by the sudden appearance of soldiers.
被影响到的村庄中的村民被突然出现的士兵惊吓到也是可以理解的
They were ordered to leave their homes.
他们被命令离开他们的故乡
Their crops were buried; their livestock was slaughtered.
他们的庄稼被掩埋 他们的牲畜被屠杀
Shock and confusion rang out as they were being forced away.
他们被强迫离开时充满了震惊和不解
Some villagers showed visible signs of radiation poisoning,
有些村民出现了明显的辐射中毒迹象
but since the Mayak facility wasn’t supposed to exist,
但是由于马亚克设施不能被曝光
the soldiers were not allowed to reveal the truth of the situation –
士兵不能揭露这次事件是
that it was radiological in nature.
辐射泄露的真相
Instead the villagers were told
村民们被告知
that there was an outbreak of a special disease,
有一种未知且神秘的
one that was unknown and mysterious even to them,
特殊疾病突然爆发
and they needed to leave.
所以他们需要撤离
Some suspected it was related to the strange
有的人怀疑和不久前
lights people saw in the sky not long ago,
人们见过的奇怪的空中闪光有关
but they weren’t sure.
但他们并不能确定
After the initial evacuation phase,
初期撤离之后
the abandoned homes and infrastructures had to be destroyed,
被遗弃的家园和设备必须被摧毁
much to the dismay of residents. All-in-all,
居民们很沮丧 总之
at least 23 villages were incinerated. Yes,
至少23个村庄被烧成了灰 是的
some were evacuated after a week,
有一些在一周之后才撤离
but it took up to 11 years for all residents
但是花了11年才让所有
in the wider affected areas to be evacuated.
被辐射影响区域的人们全部撤离
In total, almost half a million people were exposed to radiation,
总计大约有五十万人被暴露在辐射中
there was sickness and death,
许多人都生病或者死亡
and much of the surrounding land was left barren and unusable for,
并且周边土地变得贫瘠 不能耕种 要持续
perhaps, centuries.
大概好几世纪
With Mayak being a secret facility,
由于马亚克是一个秘密设施
the Soviet Union had to deny the catastrophe ever happened.
苏联政府必须否认这次大灾难的发生
Add to that the fear of international condemnation,
害怕国际舆论谴责的增加
which is why most people today tend to be
这就是为什么如今大多数人渐渐
aware of Chernobyl, and Fukushima, as some
知道了切尔诺贝利和福岛事件 这些
of the worst nuclear accidents in history,
历史上危害最大的核事故
even the Three Mile Island Incident;
甚至知道了三里岛事件
but not so much The Kyshtym Disaster, despite being comparable,
但是对Kyshtym灾难却一无所知 尽管这次灾难的危害
if not worse, in many ways. Right,
很多方面比不上那些 好了
but back to the lake.
让我们再谈谈那些湖
Because Lake Karachay wasn’t about to be upstaged by the Kyshtym Disaster.
因为Karachay湖没有隐藏在Kyshtym灾难的背后
This lake accumulated 4.4 exabecquerels of radioactivity over time,
这个湖随着时间累积了4.4艾贝可的辐射强度
which isn’t quite to the level
虽然比不上
of the radioactivity released from Chernobyl,
切尔诺贝利事件的辐射等级
but if we were to break down the caesium-137 from each,
但是如果我们让事件中泄漏的铯-137原子逐渐衰变
which is the radioactive isotope that contributes to land contamination (the rest is too short-lived),
这种辐射同位素可以造成土地污染(剩下的辐射源生命周期很短)
Karachay ends up being significantly worse,
Karachay最终的结果仍十分糟糕
at 3.6 exabecquerels compared to Chernobyl’s 0.085.
辐射强度有3.6艾贝可 切尔诺贝利只有0.085艾贝可
There’s a few ways to interpret this,
要说明这个并不太容易
but you can say Lake Karachay is
但是你可以说Karachay是
arguably the most polluted place on earth.
世界上污染最严重的地方(没有之一)
Really bad – but at least, by the 1960s,
这太糟糕了 但是还好在1960年的时候
the lake was drying up; it was disappearing.
这个湖在逐渐干涸了 逐渐消失
The threat seemed to be lessening with each passing year.
威胁似乎在逐年减少
In 1967, a drought hit the region,
1967年 一场旱灾席卷了这个地区
lowering Lake Karachay’s water-level even further,
水位较低的Karachay湖水位变得更低
to the point where much of the lakebed was exposed.
低到了湖床暴露出来了大部分
This was seemingly good.
这看起来似乎很不错
Except that it wasn’t,
但它并不是一个好的现象
because the previously-submerged toxic sediment was now exposed to the harsh sunlight.
因为先前放置于水下的辐射沉积物暴露在了猛烈的阳光下
It was drying out and forming dust.
湖彻底干了 还形成了沙漠
Deadly radioactive dust.
死亡辐射沙漠
And all that was needed was a strong gust
它所需要的只是一阵强风
of wind and yet another horrifying disaster. Well,
就能形成另一场恐怖的灾难 好吧
they didn’t get a strong gust of wind.
它们没有得到一阵强风
They got something far worse: a violent windstorm, scattering across the region.
它们得到了更加疯狂的东西:一场横穿整个区域的强力风暴
Once again, half a million people were irradiated.
五十万人民再次笼罩在辐射中
The government finally had enough,
政府再也受不了了
they piled 10,000 concrete blocks on top of the lake,
他们在湖上方糊了10000平方米的水泥
preventing sediments from shifting and burying the remaining water under cement.
防止辐射物沉积后移动 并且用水泥掩埋了剩下的水
It wasn’t until 1989 onwards
直到1989年
that the Soviet Government declassified documents relating to the radiological disasters in the Southern Urals,
苏联政府公开了这次发生在乌拉尔南部的核泄漏事件
and the whole world finally found out about Lake Karachay,
全世界知道了Karachay湖
the Mayak nuclear facility, the Techa River,
马亚克核设施 Techa河
and the secret city of Chelyabinsk 40, or City 40. Interestingly,
秘密城市车里雅宾斯科-40 或者说第40号城市的真相 有趣的是
it was later revealed
随后被揭露
that the CIA actually knew about Mayak,
CIA早在1957年就知道了
and some of its major incidents, since 1957,
这次主要事故
and had decided to keep it a secret to not cause concern
他们决定保守这个秘密以防对居住在
among people living near nuclear facilities in the US.
美国核设施周边的人民造成恐慌
Which means, yes,
这意味着 好吧
the CIA actually helped the Soviet Union keep its early nuclear catastrophes a secret. Now,
CIA实际上帮助苏联政府隐瞒了这一早期核事故大灾难 现在
after the Soviet collapse,
随着苏联政府倒台
the Russian government officially recognized their secret cities as legitimate places on the map.
俄罗斯政府正式将他们的秘密城市全部合法化 标记在地图上
City 40 was able to get legal status in 1994,
第40号城市也在1994年获得了合法地位
and was renamed the city of Ozersk,
并且重命名为奥焦尔斯克
though still with barbed wire fences and guarded gates.
尽管仍有着带讽刺意味的电线围墙和被守卫着的大门
It’s still heavily restricted and extremely secretive,
这座城市的生活仍被高度限制并且保持神秘
but if you’re somehow able to get in,
但是如果你想到办法进入这座城市
you’d be treated to picturesque scenery and beautiful lakes.
你将看到如画一般的风景和许多美丽的湖泊
You’d see mothers pushing newborns in prams, children playing in the streets,
你将看到妈妈们推着婴儿车 孩子们在街道上玩耍
local women selling fresh fruit and vegetables;
当地女性卖着新鲜的水果和蔬菜
much of it resembling a suburban American town from the 1950’s,
简直就像1950年美国乡下城镇
but if you look closely, you’d see a different reality.
但是如果你看得够仔细 你会发现与表象不同的现实
The Ozersk residents know the truth;
奥焦尔斯克的住民知道真相
their food is poisoned,
他们的食物是有毒的
their water is contaminated, their children are sick,
他们的水是被污染的 他们的孩子全都生着病
and much of their picturesque surroundings remain no-go zones.
而且他们那风景如画的环境大多都是无人区
The seemingly pristine lakes beg for a swim,
那看起来干净的湖水似乎在请求你去游泳
but standing even lakeside at Lake Karachay
但是仅仅只是站在Karachay湖的岸边
would give you a sufficiently lethal dose of radiation in only an hour.
都能够让你在一小时之内死亡
Imagine if you were to swim in it.
更别说下去游泳了
On average, in Ozersk,
平均来说 在奥焦尔斯克
you can expect to live to the age of 50,
你能够活到50岁
comparable to countries with the lowest life expectancy rates.
和那些拥有最低生活水平的城市差不多
This all could have been avoided,
这些都是被禁止的
of course, if scientists working at Mayak, all those years ago,
当然 如果科学家们在马亚克工作 这么多年过去了
had at least the basic understanding of the physics of nuclear energy,
起码拥有对核物理科学的基础理解
and the processes involved with chain reactions. Unfortunately,
并且这一过程包含链式反应 遗憾的是
Brilliant didn’t exist in 1957,
1957年的时候Brilliant还不存在
so they maybe they have an excuse,
所以他们可能有一个借口
but fast forward 60 years and you don’t –
但是很快60年过去了而你可不能找借口了
because it’s right here.
因为Brilliant出现了
Brilliant is a problem-solving website that
Brilliant是一个教你像科学家那样思考
teaches you to think like a scientist,
并解决问题的网站
through interactive quizzes and courses that are designed to be interesting.
通过交互式的小测验可以为你提供感兴趣的课程
You can see there are many courses you can choose from,
你可以选择很多课程
but if you want to be a nuclear physicist,
但是如果你想成为一名核物理学家
and I mean a good one,
我的意思是一个优秀的
that hopefully won’t cause the next Kyshtym disaster,
但愿不会导致下一个Kyshtym灾难的核物理学家
then Brilliant will help you understand concepts like the difference
那么Brilliant将帮助你理解
between the types of nuclear reaction,
不同的核反应的区别
how a chain reaction can be used to generate electricity,
链式反应是怎么被用于发电的
and if in fact every chain reaction results in an explosion.
事实上每种链式反应都会导致爆炸
We love explaining about Asia and the world around us,
我们喜欢解释亚洲和我们身边的世界
but the best way to learn is obviously by doing it yourself.
但是很明显 最好的学习方式还是自己动手做
And much like our videos, what Brilliant does is
就像我们的视频展示的那样 Brilliant做的正是
it takes a problem, breaks them up into bite-sized concepts,
找到问题 分解问题成小型的概念
presents clear logic in each part,
并在每个部分之间有着清晰的逻辑
and then builds back up to an exciting conclusion.
最后把它们组合成一个令人激动的结论
If you go to brilliant.org/kentobento, you can get started for free,
如果你打开brilliant.org/KentoBento 你就可以免费开始学习
and if you’re one
如果你是前
of the first 200 people to sign up with the link below,
200名登录这个网站的人
you will receive 20% off your premium subscription.
你还能在额外的订阅内容中获得20%的折扣
It’s an incredibly engaging website, we use it!
它是一个非常迷人的网站 让我们来用它吧!
And by giving Brilliant a try,
通过尝试Brilliant
you will also be supporting us here at Kento Bento.
你还能在本多肯多被我们支持

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译制信息
视频概述

俄罗斯的这个湖,只要在旁边站上一小时就会死。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

鸡脚芝士

审核员

审核员 W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQCfOjhguO0

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