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怎样折出能打破世界纪录的纸飞机 – 译学馆
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怎样折出能打破世界纪录的纸飞机

How This Guy Folds and Flies World Record Paper Airplanes | WIRED

世界上有纸飞机
There are paper airplanes,
和约翰·柯林斯的纸飞机
and then there are John Collins’s paper airplanes.
神奇的回旋飞机
Marvels that return to senders,
会侧飞还会翻筋斗
sideways and somersaulting
飞的像蝙蝠一样的飞机
A plane that seems to fly like a bat,
还有一直飞 一直飞的
and one that soars and soars.
我是纸飞机大师 约翰·柯林斯
I’m John Collins, the paper airplane guy.
纸飞机大师
几十年来 柯林斯一直在追求
For decades, Collins has been perfecting
最科学最美观的纸飞机
the art and science of the paper airplane.
我就是喜欢研究东西是怎么飞起来的
I just love figuring out how things fly.
小时候 我看了很多东西起飞
There’s, you know, a number of things you can watch fly when you’re a kid,
比如昆虫 小鸟还有正常大小的飞机
insects, the birds, to full-size planes,
它们的飞行原理都有些许差别
and they all fly using slightly different mechanisms
这让我痴迷不已
and that was just endlessly fascinating for me.
你可以折一个飞行机器
And the idea that you could fold a flying machine
就用这种最简单的材料 一张纸
from this really modest resource, a piece of paper,
成吨地丢弃的纸
people are throwing it away by the tons.
你可以捡出来废物利用
You could grab a piece and reuse that,
然后就折出一个飞行机器
and make a flying machine out of it.
当我在折纸飞机上已经登峰造极的时候
After going about as far as I could go folding planes,
我觉得我得学其他领域的东西 就是折纸
I decided I need to study this other field, this art called origami.
所以我折了快十年 把可以学的都学了
So I worked on that for about 10 years, learning what was to learn there
然后把这些折纸技巧用来折纸飞机
and then took all those folding techniques back to paper airplanes
我想折出一套性能巨佳的飞机
with an idea toward making, you know, a set of really great high-performance planes
只用纸
if all you had was paper.
就可以折出高性能的飞行器
You could just make some high-performance flying machines.
柯林斯能折出史上最高性能的纸飞机
Collins makes one of the most high-performance paper airplanes.
六年前 他就创下距离最远的世界纪录
Six years ago, he set a new world record for distance
设计并折出这个惊人的远距离滑翔机
by designing and folding this astounding long distance glider.
是由“四分卫”乔·阿约布掷出的
It was thrown by quarterback Joe Ayoob.
解说员: 在那里 在那里 大家都看着它呢
Commentator: There it is, there it is. We are all over that one.
它可以的
That’s gonna do it.
飞起来 飞起来……
Get up there, get up there…
我们打破了最远距离的记录
So we broke the distance record,
之前的记录是207英尺4英寸
the old record was 207 feet 4 inches,
我们的飞了226英尺10英寸
and we threw 226 feet 10 inches.
我们的滑翔机是首架突破200英尺线
We were the first glider to break that 200 foot barrier
突破并得到最远距离记录
to break out and set a distance record.
它是以飞镖弹道飞行模式完成的
It had all been done with ballistic darts,
机翼大概有这么宽
wings about this wide,
我们的机翼真的很宽
Our plane has really wide wings,
之前的纸飞机都是以四十五度角抛出
the old style you’d throw in a 45 degree angle
然后就砸向终点
and it would just crash at the finish line,
就是一个抛物线
just a parabolic arc.
我的纸飞机飞了9秒
My plane takes 9 seconds to do that.
所以我们的飞行方式很不一样
And so it’s a real difference in approach.
如果你看了我们的世界纪录投掷
You know, if you watch the world record throw,
你会发现 纸飞机发射后节节攀升
it gets launched, level climbs on its own,
在最后三分之一的路程时加速飞行
and then really flares and flies for that last third,
所以它是个真正的飞行器
so it’s a real flying machine,
跟任意方向旋转就坠毁的弹道飞镖不同
as opposed to the ballistic dart that could just roll any direction, just kind of crash.
柯林斯到无线工作室试飞他的远距离滑翔器
Collins stops by the WIRED studio to fly the distance glider
以及《世界纪录的纸飞机》中的其他几种飞机
and some of the other planes in his new book, “The World Record Paper Airplane”,
并示范了如何在几分钟内
and to demonstrate how a humble piece of paper
把简单的纸变为令人兴奋的玩具
can become any number of thrilling toys in minutes.
人们总觉得我用的是高科技纸
People always think I have top-secret paper,
我所有的纸飞机都采用
so all my planes are designed
8.5×11 英寸 20磅的普通纸
with just regular old 8.5 by 11, 20-pound paper in mind.
最基本的基本功就是折到位
You know, the basics of the basics, you know, accurate folding.
把边线对齐 一定要严格要求自己
Line up the edges correctly, be really precise about what you’re doing.
还有左右对称也很重要
And then, overall symmetry is super important.
我们来折打破世界纪录的纸飞机
This is gonna be the world record plane,
我用妻子的名字苏珊为它命名
it’s named after my wife, it’s named Suzanne.
先折几个对角线
It starts out with a couple of diagonal folds.
把纸的短边折起来
The short side of the paper up,
我们要把纸的上边沿贴到侧边沿上
we’re gonna take the top of the page and put it against the side of the page.
我们要折两个对角线
We’re gonna make two diagonal folds here.
来我们一起折一下另一边
So let’s practice on the other side, shall we?
先把这个角抓过来
We’re gonna move this corner over,
顶角对齐 然后手上抓的角挪到位
line up the top corner and then swing this guy into position,
再确认一下 另一个角的位置
and as a double check I can see where my other diagonal is ending,
然后顺着压下来
and sweep down that way.
好我们得到整整齐齐的边角了
Now I’ve got nice tight corners.
每一处都是完美锋利的折痕
Everywhere, nice sharp creases.
我们把右边沿 从折痕角这边
We’re going to take the right-hand edge, just from the creased corner
到纸底部折痕角
down to where this crease meets the edge of the page,
朝着对角线折痕折下来压实
and we’re gonna lay it against the diagonal fold.
再把左折角翻折至
We’re gonna take this creased corner and bring it
这边边上的折痕这里
just to the end of this crease right here.
将顶边向下折
Fold the top down,
现在可以看到背面的对角线折痕了
and now you’ll see those diagonal folds on the other side.
这一步是对齐折痕
What you want to do is line up the diagonal folds,
把折下来的折痕和底部折痕对齐
the top layer of the diagonal with the very bottom layer of the diagonal on both sides,
这样就能保证折出的X线在正中心
and that’s how you know you’re hitting the centre of the X dead centre.
接下来顺着两边的折痕折
So let’s follow the crease on both sides,
我觉得往这面折痕折比较简单
what I find to be the easiest way to do it is to follow the creases on this side,
但是如果你能看见背面的折痕
but if you can see them clearly on the other side
你喜欢折另一面那就翻过去折吧
and that works for you, go ahead and use it, flipped over.
我们把小舌折起来压到这两个角上面
We’re going to take this flap right here and fold it up over those two corners,
当我们下一步把飞机对折时
and when we do the next move to fold the plane in half,
整个部件就会固定住
the whole thing will be locked together.
来我们从机头顺下来压到底端中间
So let’s fold from the top all the way down to the centre of this edge,
把纸飞机对折
to fold the plane in half.
你可以把纸张倒过来
You can flip it over,
确保后面的角和机头完美的对折
and make sure the rear corners and the nose are perfect.
不用太担心中间的角
The centre corners, don’t worry so much about.
不要花太多时间对齐这两个角
Don’t spend a lot of time trying to line those guys up.
把后面的角还有机头对的整整齐齐
The rear corners, and make sure you’re hitting the nose cleanly.
高手时间
Now, here’s the pro way to do it.
确保机翼宽一点 这样就可以滑翔得更远
Make sure wings are a little bit wider, makes the plane a more efficient glider.
如果你从这里开始对折 先不压下去
If you start here and don’t make the crease,
你看这里有个小三角形
but see you’ve got a little triangle that you can see here,
由没有折的这段
made up from this raw edge
和底部机身组成的
and the back of the fuselage.
继续把机翼往下移 直到三角形消失
If you keep pulling the wing down just until that triangle disappears,
这个位置折的机翼折痕最好
that is a much better place to make the wing crease,
它会让机尾更宽
it makes the tail much broader
起升特性更好
gives you much better lifting characteristics.
来我们来折另一边
So let’s make the other wing match.
这应该很简单
That should be an easy task.
最重要的是
And the most important thing to remember is that
每次飞行都是测试航
every flight is a test flight.
你现在是个飞行员
You’re now a pilot,
你看着它飞行 接着不断的调试
you’re seeing if this thing flies, you’re making adjustments to it.
你以为自己折不出好的纸飞机
Most people think they can’t fold a good plane,
但是你只要调整一下就折出好飞机
but the reality is they just have to adjust to get a good plane.
首先我们要做的是
So the first thing we do,
机翼是这样下垂的
the wings are drooping like that,
我们要把弄成正二面角
we’re gonna give it what’s called positive dihedral angle
二面角 只是个花哨的术语
Now dihedral angle, that’s just fancy words
它是指机翼连着机身的角度
for the angle the wings are stuck to the body of the plane,
操作方法如下
and what that does,
抓着纸飞机固定住的位置
when you hold on to it where all the layers lock,
提起机翼前缘部分
and just lift the leading edge of the wings,
这样机翼就有上倾的小坡
now you’ve got some upward sweep there.
这一步的目的是
And what that does is put the lifting surface
使升力面高出重心
up over where all the weight is.
这样纸飞机就能飞行时左右摇晃
So the plane is flying along and it gets rocked to one side,
像是钟摆一样
just like a pendulum.
重心在机翼下来回摆动
The weight swings back underneath the wings,
这就叫迫降稳定
and that’s called dead stick stability.
除了正二面角 我们还要做一件事
The other thing we’re gonna do, aside from positive dihedral angle,
把翼尾稍微向上弯曲一点
is give the rear corners just a little upward bend.
不用弯很多 千万不要折
Not a lot, and don’t make a crease.
只要弯一下 你可以随时修正弯曲弧度
Just make a bend, you can always undo the bend,
把它压平 或者继续再弯一点
flatten it out or add a little bit more.
滑翔机飞行时会一直用高度换取速度
And with all gliders, you’re constantly trading height for speed
什么意思呢?
What do I mean by that?
如果重心和上升力在一条线上
So, if the centre of gravity and the centre of lift were perfectly lined up,
纸飞机就会漂亮的直线前行
your plane would fly nice and straight,
阻力会让飞机不断减速
and drag would constantly be slowing it down
最终从空中坠落
until it just fell out of the sky.
失速是因为风速太慢或迎角过大
A stall is caused by too slow an air speed or too high an angle of attack.
迎角是机翼坡度跟风向的夹角
That’s where the wings are tilted up with regard to the direction of air flow.
所以如果你的纸飞机飞的又平又直
So, if you have a plane that’s flying straight and level,
说明它受力平衡
and it’s perfectly balanced,
最终 它会因阻力减速导致坠机
eventually drag will slow it till it falls out of the sky.
滑翔机怎么解决这个问题呢
So how do you fix that with a glider?
如果是动力飞机 只要推油门就行 多简单
With a powered plane, you just hit the gas, right? Super simple.
而滑翔机 你需要
With a glider, what you need to do
把重心放在升力中心的前面一点点
is engineer in the centre of gravity a little bit in front of the centre of lift.
重心就在旋转中心
The centre of gravity is the centre of spin.
只要转一下纸飞机 就能找出来
You can find that on any paper airplane simply by spinning it.
你可以看出这架飞机的重心在哪里
You can see right where the centre of gravity is on that plane,
就在这儿
it’s right here,
你只要看着它转起来
you just watched it spin,
旋转的中心就是重心
the centre of spin is the centre of gravity.
现在升力面在重心后面了
We’ve got all this lifting surface behind the centre of gravity.
现在 飞机起飞了
So now, the plane is going to fly along.
上升力在后面这里
The lift is back here,
这样飞机前行时 机头就向下倾
It pitches the nose downward as the plane’s going forward.
这有什么作用呢 这样可以加速
What does that do? That allows me to gain speed.
当飞行速度放缓时
The plane is being slowed,
我现在把机头朝下加速
now I’m pointing the nose at the ground gaining speed.
这是个好方法 不过
Which is good, but now,
现在纸飞机的速度每秒增加9.8米
I keep gaining speed at 9.8 meters per second
它会砸向地面摔的稀巴烂
it’s gonna crash into the ground really hard.
所以 我在这里加了一些上升舵
So, I bend in some up elevator back here,
风沿着机翼上面吹到机尾
and the air goes down the top of the wing,
撞上弯曲的地方后往上转
hits that bend, gets ticked up,
使机尾下降
which pushes the tail down
机头上升 好了
which lifts the nose and voila!
现在机头再次回到水平面了
Now the nose is level again.
所以要有足够的上升舵
So, enough up elevator,
这样机头会在某个速度飞行时抬起
so at the right speed, the plane noses up
达到水平面的稳定
enough to just achieve horizontal stability.
这就是滑翔机的全部诀窍
That’s the whole trick with any glider.
不断调试升力中心和重心的位置
You’re constantly balancing that centre of gravity, centre of lift,
再加上一点上升舵就能实现完美的飞行
and a little bit of up elevator to get that perfect flight.
柯林斯的纸飞机并非都与距离有关
But not all of Collins’s planes are about distance.
类如他的回旋模型 不需要太多空间而且很好玩
Some, like his boomerang models, are fun in smaller spaces,
多亏了一些有趣的空气动力学
thanks to some interesting aerodynamics.
回旋飞机很厉害
The boomerang plane, this one is great
因为你往哪里扔它都会转圈
because it’ll circle either direction and it loops.
诀窍是
The basic trick with this one
它的重心极其接近升力中心
is that the centre of gravity is very very close to the centre of lift.
所以你只需要给它一点点上升舵
So all you need to do is add just a tiny bit of up elevator here.
还有一个秘诀是我们之前讲过的
And the other thing has to do with something we talked about before,
就是二面角
which is dihedral angle.
好的飞机大多都配备正二面角
Now, most good planes have positive dihedral,
这可以让飞机平稳飞行
which gets the plane to rock back to neutral.
但是回旋飞机 它的机翼是下垂的
But the boomerang plane, the wings are drooping.
如果我把它斜过来 它不会自己矫正
So if I throw it leaned over, it does not self-correct,
它还是斜过来的
it stays leaned over.
你想一下斜过来爬坡是什么样子
Then you have to imagine what a climb is gonna look like leaned over.
它会是这样的圈
It’s gonna look like a circle that way,
或是这样的圈
or a circle that way,
或者翻筋斗 都是一样玩法
or a loop, it’s all the same trick.
第二种回旋飞机
And then Boomerang 2,
这架纸飞机是这么飞的
So this plane is made to fly out,
它会掉头然后正面下飞回来
flip over and fly back upside down.
它会这么飞是因为
It accomplishes that because
这其实是个失败的纸飞机
it’s really a failure of a paper airplane.
我本来想做第一种回旋飞机的起落架
I was trying to do landing gears on the Boomerang 1,
就是这些小家伙
and that’s these guys here.
这让后方多了很多层
And that puts too many layers toward the rear.
所以机尾非常重
So this is extremely tail heavy.
所以机头会奇怪的突然停下
And it does that crazy tip stall out there.
飞出去时 正二面角牵引出去
So flying out, positive dihedral on the way out.
空中飞停后 正二面角牵引回来
After the stall, positive dihedral angle on the way back.
然后又做了一些小调试
And then it’s toying again with all the adjusting.
我把前翼稍微往下压一点
I’m bending the leading edge down a little bit.
所以当它翻过来的时候
So when it’s upside down,
它就会上倾让机头朝上
I’m getting a little scooped up to help the nose come back.
我在这里做了上升舵
And then I’ve got a little bit of up elevator here
可以让它在那里神奇地多停一会儿
to help magnify that crazy tip stall out there.
就是这些正反面的调试
So it’s this dance between what you do at the front and the back
让它可以完美的飞出去飞回来
to get it to fly perfectly both ways.
这是很好玩的蝙蝠飞机
This is a really fun plane called a batplane.
它其实是个设计错误
It was actually a design mistake.
不是我想做的
It’s not what I was going to make,
但是我折好之后试飞时发现它好奇怪
but it ended up doing something really weird when I threw it for the first time.
飞出去的时候机翼好像在抖动
The wings would oscillate when you throw it.
事实上飞机是在不断的失速
So what is actually happening is the plane is going through a rapid series of stalls.
机尾有一点点重 上升舵力又太多
It’s a little bit tail heavy and I’ve got too much up elevator here.
所以它飞一会儿失速一会儿
So it flies and stalls
由于机身很灵活的
and as the body is flexible,
在失速顶点的时候机翼倾角向上
the wings flex upward.
下方压力减小 机翼就恢复原状
At the top of the stall, no more pressure, the wings relax.
所以它就又飞又停
It flies and stalls.
我很想告诉你们我的秘方
I wish I could tell you the secret sauce
怎么才能折出更好的纸飞机
to coming up with a new great paper airplane,
我有几种想法
and I have a couple of approaches
有的是共通的有的没有关联
and sometimes they overlap and sometimes they don’t.
有时候是一种设计理念
Sometimes it’s a design approach,
例如我想做个有起落架的纸飞机
like I want to do a plane that has landing gear,
或者我想做个中空机头的纸飞机
or I want to do a plane that has a tunnel in the nose,
或者在前部有小机翼的纸飞机
or one that has a small wing in front.
运用各种折纸技巧来折出那些装置
And so you bring sort of the origami skills to bear on that.
所以你必须得花些时间
And so you have to put in the time.
这就是为什么我会说
And that’s why I would say, you know,
即使想折或者想比过这么简单的飞机
to learn and compete with a plane even as simple as this,
你也一定要付出时间
you do have to put the time in
去了解材料并且弄清楚它的运作原理
to get to know the material and figure out how it works
当然 当它到达你想要的效果时
Obviously, when it does exactly what you want,
那感觉真的很爽
it’s really kind of a cool feeling
你折了一个非常棒的飞行器
that you’ve made this really great flying machine
材料又用的非常少
out of just minimal materials.
就算飞机没找回来也不要太自责
And it really doesn’t matter if you don’t get it back in some cases.
这就是放纸飞机的乐趣
It’s the joy of that flight.
我心里还住着一个小孩
Yeah, I’m a kid at heart,
他有四五岁
I am a four year old or five year old once again,
每当别人的纸飞机越飞越远
watching their plane just fly outta sight,
他就会特别开心
and you know, having a moment,
[笑声]
[Laughs]
真有意思啊
It’s pretty fun.
[尾声]
[Music]

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译制信息
视频概述

纸飞机大师在线教你折出他破记录的纸飞机

听录译者

搬那度

翻译译者

刘倩Rachel

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BNg4fDJC8A

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